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iiunoib library 

PlOl.ll : 


January 1999 




The Soldiers Almanac 

The Soldiers 

Soldiers from 2nd Bn., 75th Ranger 
Regt., train at Fort Benning, Ga. — 
Greg Calldonna 

a Ml: RICA 'S Army performed critical missions 

^L around the world in support of the national mili- 
/ J tary strategy throughout this past year. At the 
y'^k same time, we continue to prepare for the 21st 
JL. JL. century. Yet, through the course of these commit- 
ments, we have maintained our focus on the Army's most 
precious asset — our soldiers. 

With an eye toward improving quality of life, the Army's 
senior leadership has worked to provide soldiers and their 
families with a degree of predictability, improved barracks 
and quarters, appropriate compensation and benefits that 
recognize their sacrifices and service, and timely access to 
quality medical care. We are also committed to ensuring that 
the Army remains trained and equipped to perform today's 
and tomorrow's missions. 

Tins has been a busy year that has included everything 
from major unit rotations in Bosnia to short-notice deploy- 
ments to Southwest Asia, from constant vigilance along the 
Korean demilitarized zone to humanitarian assistance to 
Honduras. But the one constant has been the quality of the 
Total Army team: the soldiers — active, Guard and Reserve 
— Department of the Army civilians, and their families. We 
truly appreciate your selflessness, dedication, commitment to 
excellence, and willingness to "go the extra mile" for the 
Army and our nation. 

Wis is an exciting time to be part of America's Army, and 
every one of you plays an important role in providing peace 
and security for the nation. We truly are one team, we have 
' we collectively share one future — and it is a 

As you look forward to the challenges of 1999, take a 
moment to use The Soldiers Almanac, not only to reflect on 
all that you accomplished in 1998, but also as a handy 
reference document. 

It is because of all you do on a daily basis, and the superb 
manner in which^Dfi do it, that we say so proudly, "Soldiers 
\)f\()ur Credential 

Jennisj. Kcimer 
General, I nited States Armv 
Chief of Staff 

ouis Caldera 
Secretary of the Armv 

I ■■■ ■ i 

JANUARY 1999 VOLUME 54, NO. 1 

Year in Review 

The Balkans 

Arm}' Values 

Force XXI 6 

Community Support i, 

Operations 10 

Quality of Life 1 

Facts and Figures 

Situation Report 14 

Post Information 1 
Major Commands 

Career Management Fields 2 , 

1999 Calendar r» c 

Major Equipment ^u 

This Is Our Army 
Special Insert 

Uniforms, Badges and Ribbons 
Major Army Units 

Front cover: Spec. Jeremiah Smith, 
Company A, 1st Battalion, 508th 
Infantry, guards a perimeter dur- 
ing pre-ranger training in Italy. 
— SSgt. John Valceanu 


Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: Gen. Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: Maj. Gen. John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Command Information: William R. Drobnick 

Editor in Chief: Lt. Col. Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSgt. John Valceanu 
Photojournalist: Heike Hasenauer 
Assistant Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T. Marsden 

Year in 

HE NATO Stabilization Force 
that had monitored the cease- 
fire in Bosnia-Herzegovina 
since December 1995 was 
replaced in June 1998 by a 
smaller follow-on force. This change 
marked the end of Operation Joint 
Guard and the beginning of Operation 
Joint Forge, to which the United States 
pledged approximately 6,900 military 

The primary mission of the follow- 
on force is to maintain a deterrent 
presence while working to ensure a 
secure environment in which interna- 
tional organizations can re-establish a 
host of civil programs that will help 
peace endure in Bosnia-Herzegovina. 
No timetable has been announced 
regarding the duration of Joint Forge. 
The mission will be assessed periodi- 
cally, and the force size will be 
adjusted as circumstances require. 

In October the Fort Hood, Texas- 
based 1st Cavalry Division assumed 
responsibility for Task Force Eagle — 
the main Army element of U.S. forces 
in Bosnia — from the Germany-based 
1st Armored Div. Following the 
completion of this most recent unit 
rotation the number of U.S. troops in 
Bosnia stood at 6,793. This number 
was down considerably from the nearly 
20,000 American military personnel in 
Bosnia during the 1996 height of 
NATO operations in the war-torn 
former Yugoslav republic. 

Current Army plans call for the 
49th Armd. Div., Texas Army National 
Guard, to assume the Task Force Eagle 

mission in 1999. Additional plans call 
for the possible call-up of 19 Army 
National Guard and Army Reserve 
units — a total of 27 1 soldiers — for 
possible Joint Forge service in Bosnia. 
The units were notified of the possible 
call-up in July, with their projected 
mobilization dates ranging from 
August 1998 to April 1999. By law, 
Guard and Reserve units called up to 
participate in Joint Forge can serve no 
more than 270 days. 

The outbreak of internecine 
fighting in Kosovo this past summer 
focused renewed attention on the other 
international force on watch in the 
Balkans — the United Nations Preven- 
tative Deployment Force in the former 
Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The 
UNPREDEP, which includes some 350 
U.S. troops from the Germany-based 
1st Battalion, 18th Infantry, monitors 
the region's borders with both Bosnia 
and Kosovo. The UNPREDEP re- 
mained on watch as the year came to a 




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Year in 

HE Army refocused on its core 
values in 1998. Following more 
than a year of self-examination 
in the wake of several sexual- 
harassment scandals, the Army 
initiated the Character Development 
XXI concept to integrate leadership 
and human-relations programs. CDXXI 
organized activities and projects under 
three categories: Doctrine and Policy. 
Training and Education, and Commu- 

As cornerstones of each category, 
the Army formally identified its core 
values: loyalty, duty, respect, selfless 
service, honor, integrity, and personal 
courage. Using the easily remembered 
acronym LDRSHIP. the Army inte- 
grated the values into new doctrine, 
training plans and such other programs 
as efficiency reports. 

A revised FM 22-100, "Leader- 
ship," emphasizing the values, was to 
be distributed in early fiscal year 1999. 
In October, the Army added one week 
to basic combat training to provide 54 
hours of teaching on human relations 
and team building. The Army's deputy 
chief of staff for personnel launched an 
education and awareness campaign that 
included a wallet-sized Soldiers Card, 
listing the values on one side and 
the Soldier's Code on the 
other, and a Values 
Tae for 

wear on dog-tag chains. Both the cards 
and tags were issued to every active 
duty, Guard and Reserve soldier. A 
training video, "Living Army Values," 
which discusses the history of Army 
values and current societal and organi- 
zational conditions, was produced for 
use at the unit level. And Army Values 
posters, developed by the Army's chief 
of public affairs, were distributed to 
units worldwide. 

With current and future programs 
like these placing emphasis on values, 
soldiers and Department of the Army 
civilians were expected to know that 
the Army is an organization in which 
people do right, treat others as they 
should be treated, and encourage them 
to be all they can be. 


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Year in 

ORCE XXI — the Army's 
campaign to understand and 
develop those capabilities 
needed to meet the challenges 
of the 2 1 st century while 
fulfilling today's operational demands 
— continued to forge ahead during 

Based on data gathered during a 
series of advanced warfighting experi- 
ments at Fort Hood, Texas, and Fort 
Irwin, Calif., from 1994-97, the Army 
announced in June that it would adopt 
a new division design. The new heavy 
division will have some 3,000 fewer 
soldiers than are found in the current 
1 8,000-strong division, and will field 
one armored and two mechanized 
infantry brigades, each with three 
battalions. Army officials said the new 
design will make Army divisions 
leaner and more mobile, yet more 

The Army Experimentation 
Campaign Plan will continue Force 
XXI's philosophy of organizing the 
force around information and informa- 
tion technologies. The new division 
will make extensive use of digital 
communications technologies to speed 
the exchange of information among all 
operational levels. That information 
exchange will allow the new division 
to cover about three times as much of 
the battlefield as does today's division. 
Army officials said, and the speed of 
communication will allow maneuver 
commanders to move faster and 
concentrate their fires more efficiently. 
The first axis of AECP is to ensure 
that the 4th Infantry Division, the 
Army's designated Force XXI Experi- 
mental Force, will be reorganized and 
dcployablc by 2000. It's sister unit, the 

1st Cavalry Div., is to be similarly 
reorganized and digitized by 2003. The 
parent command for both divisions at 
Fort Hood, Texas, III Corps, is set to 
have digitized command-and-control 
systems by 2004. 

The second axis of AECP is to 
develop a digitized light force, with 
XVIII Airborne Corps at Fort Bragg, 
N.C., as a major player in advanced 
warfighting experiments. Soldiers in 
the corps' 10th Mountain Div. at Fort 
Drum, N.Y., are scheduled to do most 
of the light force experimentation, 
assisted by both the 82nd Abn. Div. at 
Fort Bragg and the 101st Abn. Div. at 
Fort Campbell, Ky. 

Investigations into the value of a 
light, fast and lethal 5,000-soldier 
"strike force" is the third AECP axis, 
with the 2nd Armored Cav. Regiment 
at Fort Polk, La., expected to conduct 
most of the necessary experimentation. 

By bringing together the entire 
combined arms and services team, the 
AECP will facilitate the integration of 
new weapons, doctrine, training and 
personnel policies to define the Army 
of the 21st century. 


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Year in 

HE Army demonstrated its 
unwavering commitment to 
communities around the world 
during 1998, not only through 
its disaster-response efforts, but 
through continuing special programs 
that foster friendship and understand- 
ing between the Army and its civilian 

These included road-building 
projects in Central America and in 
Alaska; drug education, prevention and 
tutoring programs; adopt-a-school 
programs; and community events 
sponsored by soldiers in Better Oppor- 
tunities for Single Soldiers programs 

Disaster Assistance 

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 
along with National Guard and Reserve 
units, responded to dozens of disasters 
in 1998. These included floods, fires, 
ice storms, tornadoes and hurricanes. 

Soldiers from the Army Reserve's 
760th Engineer Company used 
Humvees to move emergency services 
personnel into isolated areas and used 
graders to clear roads after a blizzard 
dumped 20 inches of snow on Marion, 
Va. And the Reserve's Hawaii-based 
41 lth Engr. Battalion deployed 
construction specialists, heavy equip- 
ment operators and surveyors to Guam 
to help provide disaster relief after the 
island was mauled by Typhoon Paka. 

When Hurricane Georges pounded 
and flooded the Gulf Coast in Septem- 
ber, Florida National Guard soldiers, 
who had earlier responded to wildfires 
that scorched more than a half-million 
acres in their state, rescued more than 
200 people around Pcnsacola. 

Guard soldiers, working with 
USACE and Federal Emergency 
Management Agency personnel, 
cleared debris, restored critical public 
services, provided temporary water 
supplies, roofing and housing, and 
assessed damage. 

Their efforts continued for days as 

the hurricane slammed into Missis- 
sippi, Alabama and western Florida. 

In Puerto Rico more than 800 
USACE personnel repaired some 
60,000 damaged roofs, provided 
millions of pounds of ice and millions 
of gallons of water, and contracted for 
the removal of more than 5 million 
tons of storm-related debris. Five 
platoons of USACE' s 249th Engr. Bn. 
deployed to the island with dozens of 
generators to provide emergency 
power for restoration of Puerto Rico's 
water supply and sewage disposal 
systems. National Guard troops were 
also called up to respond to the storm 
in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 

In November soldiers and airmen 
from Joint Task Force-Bravo, in 
Honduras, delivered more than 2.5 
million pounds of supplies to those left 
homeless by Hurricane Mitch. Most of 
the supplies — medicine, building 
materials, food, water and clothing — 
were moved by air during some 425 
missions flown from Soto Cano Air 
Base. JTF-Bravo personnel also moved 
more than 1 ,500 people to safety and 
medically treated some 1,800. 

During the year the National Guard 
also helped reinforce local law en- 
forcement in several states. 

Non-disaster Programs 

In Alaska soldiers from Co. C, 
864th Engr. Bn., at Fort Wainwright, 
with other active-duty and reserve- 
component personnel, began a 
multiyear project to build a 14-mile, 
two-lane highway on Annette Island, 
near Ketchikan, where no road existed. 

Reserve civil affairs units per- 
formed infrastructure assessments in 
Utica, N.Y., as part of an evaluation of 
the city's economic climate. Other civil 
affairs units in North Carolina con- 
ducted facilities assessments to help 
county governments with emergency 

At Fort Hood, Texas, soldiers from 
the 181st Chemical Co., 2nd Chcm. 

Bn., built a brick courtyard at Bonham 
Middle School in Temple. The court- 
yard and other landscaping measures 
remedied a mud problem that started 
five years ago when buses began 
driving on the lawn to pick up and 
discharge students. 

And BOSS representatives across 
the Army are involved in community- 
service initiatives on the local and 
national levels, from helping to sponsor 
Special Olympics to building homes 
through the Habitat for Humanity 

The BOSS committee in Panama 
adopted a school and provides school 
supplies and gifts to needy children at 
Christmastime. Fort Campbell. Ky., 
BOSS members brightened the days of 
nursing home residents in nearby 
Clarksville by playing board games 
with them, singing, dancing and just 
showing them someone cares. 

And at Fort Bliss, Texas, some 
3,700 soldiers, civilian employees and 
their families participated in school 
activities designed to improve educa- 
tional achievement and keep pupils in 
school and out of trouble. 

Many serve as mentors and role 
models in the "About FACE" (Favor- 
able Attitudes Change Everything) 

One partner school, Alta Vista 
Elementary, credited the Fort Bliss 
volunteers with helping to raise pupils' 
reading scores by 18.5 points and math 
scores by 20.3 points over a two-year 





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Year in 



URING any given month in 
1998 an average of 28,000 
active duty. National Guard 
and Reserve soldiers were 
deployed to as many as 83 


Missions Large and Small 

The Total Army deployed thou- 
sands of soldiers to train and provide 
assistance around the world in large- 
scale operations like Operation Joint 
Forge, formerly Operation Joint Guard, 
which had an average of 8,500 soldiers 
deployed in Bosnia, Hungary, Italy and 
Croatia in support of NATO's Stabili- 
zation Force. 

Yet many of the missions under- 
taken by the Army last year were here 
at home. Active, Guard and Reserve 
soldiers all provided counterdrug 
support to local law enforcement 
agencies throughout the nation in the 
form of aerial reconnaissance, intelli- 
gence, counterdrug missions and 
construction projects. 

The Army also fought wildfires 
and provided disaster relief in Florida; 
responded to floods caused by El Nino 
in Alabama, Florida, Georgia and 
California; and provided disaster relief 
in New England after one of the worst 
ice storms in years. Relief operations 
were also conducted in Puerto Rico 
and the Dominican Republic in the 
aftermath of Hurricane Georges, and in 
Honduras in the wake of Hurricane 

Many overseas missions required 
specially trained elements. Teams of 
U.S. military and civilian specialists, 
as part of Joint Task Force-Full 
Accounting, conducted joint investiga- 
tions and operations in Southeast Asia 
to locate and attempt recovery of the 
remains of service members reported 
missing in action during the Vietnam 
War. Another recovery team searched 
the mountainous terrain near Guilin, 
China, for the remains of a B-24 that 

crashed in World War II. Likewise, the 
unique talents of special forces, civil 
affairs, psychological operations and 
explosive ordnance disposal soldiers 
were used to conduct humanitarian 
demining training in Bosnia-Herze- 
govina, Chad, Mozambique, Namibia, 
Rwanda, Zimbabwe, Yemen and Laos. 
And a Forward Surgical Support Team 
and Combat Stress Control Team 
deployed from U.S. Army, Europe, to 
provide medical assistance in the 
aftermath of the terrorist bombing of 
the American Embassy in Nairobi, 

Humanitarian and civic-action 
assistance made up much of the 
overseas support. Active Army units 
from Hawaii and Alaska deployed to 
several Pacific islands to conduct 
engineering projects. Guard and 
Reserve units built schools, medical 
clinics, roads and drinking wells in 
Ecuador, El Salvador and Honduras. 
Reserve civic action teams conducted 
medical and community-relations 
missions in the Federated Slates of 
Micronesia. All the while, the Army 
maintained a presence in support of 
U.S. Support Group, Haiti. 

Joint and Allied Training 

The Army continued to place a 
high priority on joint and allied 
training. The largest participation was 
in Exercise Purple Dragon, which 
spanned an area from Virginia to 
Puerto Rico and involved more than 
30,000 personnel from all branches of 
the armed forces. Other important 
exercises included active. Guard and 
Reserve participation in Exercise Ulchi 
Focus Lens '98 in Korea; and in the 
multinational, multiservice Exercise 
Roving Sands '98 at Fort Bliss, Texas, 
and White Sands Missile Range, N.M. 

Special forces soldiers and support 
troops trained battalion-size units in 
Mali, Senegal. Ghana and Uganda as 
part of the African Crisis Response 
Initiative, a training initiative to work 
with African and non-African states to 
create rapidly deployable units within 
the region to respond to humanitarian 
crises or traditional peacekeeping 
operations there. 

Soldiers from USAREUR's 1st 
Infantry Division remain deployed to 
the former Yugoslav Republic of 
Macedonia for Operation Able Sentry, 
the mission that began in 1993. U.S. 
Army, South, and special forces 
soldiers supported the Military Ob- 
server Mission in the disputed region 
between Ecuador and Peru as part of 
Operation Safe Border, which began in 
March 1995. A small USAREUR 
augmentation force continued support- 
ing Operation Northern Watch, the 
multinational mission lo enforce the 
no-fly zone in Northern Iraq. U.S. 
observer teams, as part of Operation 
Balkan Calm, were constituted in 
August 1998 lo conduct patrols, 
observe and report on the developing 
security situation in the Yugoslav 
province of Kosovo. 

Soldiers from Fori Bliss continued 
lo provide theater ballistic-missile 
defense for Operation Desert Falcon in 
Saudi Arabia, and 1 0th Mountain Div. 
soldiers from Fori Drum, N.Y.. 
continued force-protection missions in 
Saudi Arabia and Kuwait in support of 
Operation Desert Focus. 

And the Army continued lo support 
the 16-year-old Multinational Force 
and Observers in the Sinai wilh troops 
from the Alaska-based 172nd Inf. 
Brigade. The MFO monitors provi- 
sions of the peace treaty between Israel 
and Egypt pertaining to the Sinai and 
supervises the demilitarized zone. 


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Spec. Kap Kim 






Year in 


OLDIERS, families and 
leaders, working together 
through the Army Family 
Action Plan, made a positive 
impact on Army quality of life 
in 1998. 

Soldiers in Bosnia benefited from 
the deployment of nearly 90 morale, 
welfare and recreation specialists from 
U.S. Army, Europe, and 30 from 
CONUS installations. The MWR 
specialists serve six-month tours at 14 
major base camps and nine remote 
locations. They staff MWR facilities 
that provide such leisure services as 
social activities, sports equipment, TVs 
and videos, and reading material. 

An R&R program, begun in 
November 1997, continued to take 
troops to their choice of destinations in 
the United States, or to Frankfurt, 
Germany, for two weeks of leave. In- 
theater pass programs offered soldiers 
in Bosnia three days in Budapest or 
day trips to other parts of Hungary. 

Elsewhere in the Army, 15 theme 
restaurants opened, with 50 more 
scheduled to open over the next three 

And the Army pumped almost $590 
million into new barracks construction 
or renovation. Nearly 12,200 new, 
"one-plus-one" standard barracks 
spaces were added to the Army's 
quarters inventory for junior enlisted 
soldiers, privates through specialists. 
More than 15,000 new spaces are 
targeted for fiscal year 1999. 

The Army furnished the new living 
spaces with about $25 million in new 
furniture in FY 98, a sum that jumps to 
approximately $40 million to furnish 
the new barracks rooms scheduled for 
completion in FY 99. 

Army families also enjoyed 
housing improvements. Some $196.3 

million was appropriated for family 
housing construction projects at 18 
installations in FY 98. Congress has 
appropriated approximately $135.3 
million for construction at 12 installa- 
tions in FY 99. 

And Army families welcomed the 
news that the National Academy of 
Early Childhood Programs accredited 
98 percent of the Army's Child 
Development Centers. 

At the same time, new and im- 
proved health and fitness facilities, 
hospitals and training areas were 
completed throughout the Army. 

Army Community Services offices 
continued to provide family and soldier 
support programs to advise and ease 
soldiers and families through financial 
difficulties, deployment blues and 
drastic changes in life that occur when 
a baby is born. 

Youth and teen services programs, 
chaplaincy programs, officers and 
NCO wives clubs — a host of pro- 
grams and services available to soldiers 
and families all continued their day-to- 
day work to improve quality of life in 
the Army. 

In the training arena, the Army 
extended Basic Combat Training and 
One-Station Unit Training by one week 
to improve soldier skills, emphasize 
values and better institute professional 
pride in future assignments. 

For single soldiers, Better Opportu- 
nities for Single Soldiers (BOSS) 
programs Armywide sent representa- 
tives to an annual BOSS conference in 
Leesburg, Va., to bring to the table new 
ideas and soldier concerns that will be 
addressed in the coming year. 

Quality of life continues to gel 
better through the evolution of all the 
Army's programs that focus on indi- 
viduals — the Army's greatest assets. 


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Active Army 

— — — — — — — — — — — — — — 

Active W:. 

Army Personnel 


DA Civilians 

Active Army Breakout 

•Commissioned officers 67,382 
• Enlisted (E- 1 to E-4) 219,619 

•Warrant officer 11,829 
•USMA cadets 4,223 

•OCS graduates 340 

•ROTC cadets 


Army Women 

• 70,124 women are currently in the 
active Army strength. 
Commissioned Warrant Enlisted 
9,691 784 59,649 

Army Families 

• 62% of all soldiers are married. 

• 6% of all active duty soldiers are 
married to other service members. 

Army Retirees 

OFFICER — 'Average rank: LTC 'Average age: 43 yrs 
ENLISTED — "Average rank: SFC -Average age: 41 yrs 

Number of living Army retirees — approximately 565,000. 

•Average service time: 22 yrs 
•Average service time: 22 yrs 

5 200 

5 150 


of the Force 



Army Budget 

y J>Pj, 



Active Army Ranks 

A Diverse Force 




Li. Colonels 
& Majors 


Captains and 


Army National Guard 

Sergeants Major 

Master Sergeants 
Sergeants First 


Sergeants and 
Stan Sergeants 











National Guard 

Army National Guard Breakout 

• Commissioned officers 31,319 

•Warrant officers 7,988 

Army National Guard Women 

• 35,712 women are currently in the 

Army National Guard. 
Commissioned Warrant Enlisted 
3,030 361 32,321 

National Guard 

•Noncommissioned officers 
•Enlisted soldiers (E-l to E-4) 


Army National Guard Families 

• 75.3% of officers and 51.9% of enlisted 
soldiers are married. 

• Overall, 54.4% of the National Guard 
force is married. 

Army National Guard Ranks 

A Diverse Force 


U arrant 



I.t. Colonels 
& Majors 

Captains and 

Sergeants Major 

Master Sergeants 

Sergeants ~ 
First Class 


Sergeants and — 
Staff Sergeants 











(All data drawn from official sources.; 



Situation Report 

Army Reserve 

— — — — 

Army Reserve 

£ 3.0 

Army Reserve 

Army Reserve Breakout 

•Commissioned officers 40,665 

•Warrant officers 3,017 

'Noncommissioned officers 73,594 
•Enlisted soldiers (E-l to E-4) 87,692 

Army Reserve Women 

Army Reserve Families 

• 24.6% or 50,413 women are currently 

• 84% of officers and 76% of enlisted 

in the Selected Reserve. 

soldiers are married. 

Commissioned Warrant Enlisted 

• Overall, 78% of the Reserve force is 

10,022 335 40,056 


Army Reserve Ranks 

A Diverse Force 





Captains and 


Colonels. - 
Li. Colonels 
& Majors 






First Class 


Sergeants and 
Stall Sergeants 













Active Army 
Installations (USA) 


Anniston Army Depot 


(205) 235-7501 

(DSN 571-1101) 

Fort McClellan 


(205) 848-461 1 (DSN 865) 

Fort McClellan, Ala 

Fort Rucker 


(334) 255-1030 (DSN 558) 

Redstone Arsenal 


(205)876-2151 (DSN 746) 


Fort Greely 
APO AP 96508 
(DSN 317-873-1110) 

Fort Richardson 

(DSN 317-384-1110) 

Fort Wainwright 

(DSN 317-353-1 110) 


Fort Huachuca 


(520)538-7111 (DSN 879) 

Yuma Proving Ground 


(520) 328-3287 

(DSN 899-2020) 


Pine Bluff Arsenal 


(870) 540-3000 (DSN 966) 


Fort Irwin 


(760) 380-41 1 1 (DSN 470) 

Presidio of Monterey 


(408) 242-5000 (DSN 878) 

Sierra Army Depot 

(DSN 855-4910) 


Fort Carson 


(719)526-5811 (DSN 691) 

Rocky Mountain Arsenal 

(DSN 749-2140) 


Fort McNair 


(703) 545-6700 

(DSN 227-0101) 

Walter Reed Army Medical Center 


(202) 782-3501 (DSN 662) 


Fort Benning 


(706) 545-5217 (DSN 835) 

Fort Gordon 


(706) 791-0110 (DSN 780) 

Fort McPherson 


(404) 464-2446 

(DSN 367-1 110) 

Fort Stewart 


(912)767-1411 (DSN 870) 

Hunter Army Airfield 

(DSN 870-1110) 


Fort Shaffer 

(DSN 315-430-0111) 

Pohakuloa Training Area 


(808) 969-2400 

Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 


Schofield Barracks 

(DSN 315-430-0111) 


Rock Island Arsenal 


(309) 782-6001 (DSN 793) 


Fort Leavenworth 


(913)684-4021 (DSN 552) 

Fort Riley 

(DSN 856-1110) 


Fort Campbell 

(DSN 635-1110) 

Fort Knox 

(DSN 464-0111) 

Fort Benning, Ga. 




Fort Polk 

(DSN 863-1110) 

Fort Bragg, N.C. 


Aberdeen Proving Ground 



(DSN 298-1110) 

Fort Detrick 

(DSN 343-1110) 

Fort Meade 


(301)677-6261 (DSN 923) 


Fort Leonard Wood 

(DSN 581-0110) 


Fort Dix 

(DSN 944-1110) 

Fort Monmouth 


(732) 532-9000 

(DSN 992-9110) 

Picatinny Arsenal 


(973) 724-4021 (DSN 880) 


White Sands Missile Range 


(505)678-2121 (DSN 258) 


Fort Drum 


(315)772-6011 (DSN 341) 

Fort Hamilton 

(DSN 232-1110) 

Seneca Army Depot 

(DSN 489-5110) 

U.S. Military Academy 

(DSN 688-1110) 


Fort Bragg 


(910)396-0011 (DSN 236) 


Fort Sill 

(DSN 639-7090) 


Umatilla Army Depot 

(DSN 790-5000) 


Carlisle Barracks 

(DSN 242-4141) 

Letterkenny Army Depot 

(DSN 570-5110) 


Fort Buchanan 


(787) 273-3400 

(DSN 740-1110) 


Fort Jackson 

(DSN 734-1110) 


Corpus Christi Army Depot 


(512) 939-3626 (DSN 861) 

White Sands Missile Range, N.M. 

Fort Sam Houston, Texas 

Fort Bliss 

(DSN 978-0831) 

Fort Hood 


(254) 287-1110 (DSN 737) 

Fort Sam Houston 


(210)221-1211 (DSN 471) 

Red River Army Depot 

(DSN 829-4110) 


Dugway Proving Ground 

(DSN 789-1110) 

Tooele Army Depot 


(801)833-3211 (DSN 790) 


Fort A.P.Hill 


(804) 633-8710 (DSN 578) 

Fort Belvoir 


(703) 545-6700 

(DSN 227-0101) 



Fort Eustis 


(757) 878-1212 (DSN 927) 

Fort Lee 


(804) 765-5001 (DSN 539) 

Fort Monroe 


(757) 727-21 1 1 (DSN 680) 

Fort Myer 


(703) 545-6700 

(DSN 227-0101) 

Fort Story 


(757) 422-7305 (DSN 438) 


Fort Lewis 


(253) 967-1110 (DSN 357) 



80th Area Support Group 

in Chievres 


APO AE 09708 


(DSN 361-1110) 


HQs., USAREUR/7th Army 

at Campbell Barracks, 


Unit 29351 

APO AE 09014 


(DSN 370-1110) 

6th ASG 

at Kelly Barracks, Stuttgart 

CMR 423, 

APO AE 09107 


(DSN 421-1110) 

Fort Monroe, Va. 

26th ASG 

in Heidelberg 

Unit 29237 

APO AE 09102 


(DSN 370-1110) 

Vicenza, Italy 

98th ASG 

in Wurzburg 

Unit 26622 

APO AE 09244 


(DSN 350-1110) 

100th ASG 
in Grafenwohr 
Unit 21830 
APO AE 09114 
(DSN 475-1110) 

104th ASG 

in Hanau 

CMR 470 

APO AE 09165 


(DSN 322-1110) 


22nd ASG 

at Caserma Ederle, Vicenza 

Unit 31 401, Box 80 

APO AE 09630 


(DSN 634-1110) 


10th ASG 

at Torii Station, Okinawa 

Unit 351 15 

APO AP 96376-51 15 


(DSN 315-640-1110) 

HQs., U.S. Army, Japan, and 

17th ASG 

at Camp Zama 

Unit 45006 

APO AP 96343 


(DSN 315-260-1110) 


For telephone information for 
military installations in South 
Korea, call (01 1 ) 822-791 3-1110 
(DSN 723-1110). 

HQs., U.S. Forces, Korea, and 
34th Support Group 
in Yongsan 
Unit 15333 
APO AP 96205 

20th SG 

at Camp Henry in Taegu 

Unit 15494 

APO AP 96218 

23rd SG 

at Camp Humphreys 

in Pyongtaek 

Unit 15228 

APO AP 96271 

501st SG 

in Uijeongbu 

Unit 15303 

APO AP 96258-0076 

Camp Casey 
APO AP 96224 

Camp Garry Owen 
APO AP 96251 

Camp Hovey 
APO AP 96224 

Camp Page 
APO AP 96208 

Camp Red Cloud 
APO AP 96258 

Camp Stanley 
APO AP 96257 

Army National Guard 

and Federally Owned/State- 


Camp Carroll 

Fort Richardson 98505 

(907) 384-6643 




Navajo Depot 
Bellemont 86002 


Camp Robinson 

North Little Rock 721 15 



Camp Roberts 
Paso Robles 83451 
(DSN 949-8210) 

West Point, N.Y. 

Camp San Luis Obispo 
San Luis Obispo 93401 
(805) 594-6501 (DSN 630) 

Los Alamitos AFRC 
Los Alamitos 90720 
(310) 795-2000 (DSN 972) 


Camp George West 
Golden 80401 
(303) 397-3000 


Camp Hartell 
Windsor Locks 06096 
(860) 524-4830 

Camp Roland 
Niantic 06357 


Camp Blanding 

Stark 32901 

Call HQs., Fla. NG, 

(904) 823-0364 (DSN 860) 


Camp Lincoln 
Springfield 62706 
Call HQs., III. NG, 
(217) 761-3569 (DSN 555) 


Camp Atterbury 
Edinburg 46124 


Camp Dodge 

Johnston 50131 

(515) 252-2582 (DSN 946) 


Nickell Hall 
Salina 67402 
(785) 822-3296 


Camp Beauregard 
Pineville 71360 
(318)640-2080, x300 

Camp Villere 
Slidell 70458 
(800) 486-3375 


For all Maine camps, call 
(207) 626-4330. 

Auburn Range 
Auburn 04210 

Fort Irwin, Calif. 

Camp Keyes 
Augusta 04330 

Caswell Range 
Caribou 04736 

Hollis Plaines 
Buxton 04042 


Gunpowder Target Range 
Glen Arm 21057 


Camp Curtis Guild 
Wakefield 01880 

Camp Edwards 
Bourne 01725 
(508) 968-5884 


Camp Grayling 
Grayling 49738 


Camp Ripley 
Little Falls 56345 
(320) 632-7337 


Camp Shelby 
Hattiesburg 39401 

Camp McCain 
Grenada 38901 


Camp Clark 
Nevada 64772 

Fort Crowder 
Neosho 64850 


Fort Wm. H. Harrison 
Helena 59601 
(406) 444-7957 


Camp Ashland 
Ashland 68003 


Stead Training Area 
Reno 89502 


Camp La Bonte 
Concord 03301 


Sea Girt NG Training Center 
Sea Girt 08750 
(732) 974-5950 


Deming Range 
Deming 88030 

' '' .. ! . I 

39 ©ALOHA© 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 



•G 40- 

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Sertrinq America/ Around/ the* 

South Korea 




Active Army Major Maneuver Units 




"Big Red One" 

Infantry m 

Camp Red Cloud, 1 


Note: Locations cited are for unit headquarters. 



Fort Lewis. 






Fort Polk. 


Fort Bragg, 
North Carolina I 
"All American" 





Fort Carson, 


Fort Richardson, 

Army National Guard Divisions and Enhanced Brigades 















., Tro x , 



New York 




NJorth Carolina 

Army Reserve Divisions and Regional Support Commands 








New Jersey 1 








Arlington Hts, 









Fort Baker, 
California H 




Oklahoma City, 

* **» i »p»i* 


Little Rock, 




i Brigade 



















New York 
















N. Little Rock, 





Salt Lake City, 












North Carolina 

Regional m 
Command I 

Fort DeRussy, I 












Los Alamitos, 





San Juan, 
Puerto Rico i 





Fort Lawton, 






Fort Snelling, 





Fort Devens, 

The Official US Army Magazine 

S ^, ^^ r X^^.-a*"/ j f*m*p% | ^ J J 


Center U.S. insignia on both collars 
approximately 5/8 inch up from the collar 
and lapel seam with the center line of the 
insignia parallel to the inside edge of the 
lapel. (Female officers) 

Center unit crests on the shoulder 
loops, an equal distance from the 
inside edge of the rank insignia to the 
outside edge of the button, with the 
base of the unit crest toward the rank 
insignia. (All officers) 

Center rank insignia on the shoulder 
loops 5/8 inch from the outside 
shoulder seam. (All officers) 

Center branch insignia on both 
lapels 1 1/4 inches below the U.S. 
insignia, with the center line of the 
insignia bisecting the U.S. insignia 
and parallel to the inside edge of the 
lapel. (All officers) 

Center the regimental crest 1/2 inch 
above the nameplate or 1/4 inch 
above unit awards and foreign badges 
if worn. (All females) 

Center the nameplate horizontally on 
the right side between 1 and 2 inches 
above the top button. Adjust placement 
of the nameplate to conform to indi- 

viuuai nyuic uincicnuco. \r\u icinaico) 

A 1/2-inch wide band of black mohair, 

polyester or mercerized cotton braid will 
be sewn on each sleeve, with the lower 
edge parallel to and 3 inches above the 
bottom edge of each sleeve. General 
officers wear a band 1 1/2 inches wide. 
(Female officers) 

The sleeve will be 1 inch below 
the bottom of the wrist bone. 
(All soldiers) 

When worn, place identification badges 
parallel to the waistline of the coat. 
Placement of badges may be adjusted to 
conform to individual figure differences. 
(All females) 

The skirt length will not be more than 1 
inch above or 2 inches below the crease 
in the back of the knee. (All females) 

Black oxford shoes or black service 
pumps may be worn. The pumps 
will be plain, with closed toe and 
heel. The heel will be between 1 12 
and 3 inches high. (All females) 

Place the U.S. insignia 5/8 inch 
above the notch on both collars, 
with the center line of the 
insignia bisecting the notch and 
parallel to the inside edge of the 
lapel. (Male officers) 

Center combat leaders 
identification insignia (1 5/8- 
inch green cloth loops)son the 
shoulder loops, underneath 
the unit crests. (All soldiers) 

Place the bottom of the U.S. insignia 
disk approximately 1 inch above the 
notch, centered on the right collar with 
the center line of the insignia parallel to 
the inside edge of the lapel. Place the 
branch insignia disk on the left collar in 
the same position. (Male enlisted) 

The shoulder sleeve insignia 
for former wartime service is 
worn on the right sleeve 
according to the same 
specifications as the shoulder 
sleeve insignia worn on the 
left side. (All soldiers) 

: When combat and special skill badges are worn, center 
them 1/4 inch above the ribbons. When more than one 
badge is worn above the ribbons, badges will be stacked 
1/2 inch apart and may be aligned to the left to present a 
better appearance. (All soldiers) 

Center regimental crest 1/8 inch above the top of 
the pocket flap. Wear the crest 1/4 inch above unit 
awards and foreign badges, if worn. (All males) 

Center ribbons 1/8 inch above the top of the 
pocket flap. Third and subsequent rows may be 
aligned to the left to present a better appearance. 
(All males) 

Center unit awards 1/8 inch above 
the top of the pocket flap. (All males) 

A 3/4-inch wide band of black rnohair, polyester 
or mercerized cotton braid will be sewn on each 
sleeve, with the lower edge parallel to and 3 
inches above the bottom edge of each sleeve. 
General officers wear a band 1 1/2 inches wide. 
(Male officers) 

If authorized for wear, the lower edge of the overseas 
service bar is 1/4 inch above the right-sleeve braid for 
officers and 4 inches above and parallel to the bottom of 
the sleeve for enlisted personnel. Each additional bar is 
1/16 inch above and parallel to the first bar. (All soldiers) 

Center marksmanship badges on the 
pocket flap 1/8 inch below the seam. 
If more than one badge is worn, 
space them 1 inch apart. When 
special skill badges are worn on the 
pocket flap, place them to the right of 
marksmanship badges. (All males) 

Center the nameplate on the flap of 
the right pocket, between the top of 
the button and the top of the pocket. 
(All males) 

Each trouser leg has one 1 1/2-inch black 
mohair, polyester or mercerized cotton 
braid running the length of the leg. 
General officers wear two 1/2-inch wide 
braids sewn 1/2 inch apart. (Male officers) 

Center identification badges between the 
bottom of the pocket flap and the bottom of 
the pocket. If more than one badge is worn 
space them equally from left to right on the 
pocket. (All males) 

Trousers will reach the top of the instep and be cut on 
a diagonal line to roach a point approximately midway 
between the top of the heel and the top of the 
standard shoe in the back. The trousers may have a 
slight break in the front. (All males) 




Center the bottom of the branch insignia disk 
on the left collar approximately 5/8 inch up 
from the notch, with the center line of the 
insignia parallel to the inside edge of the lapel. 
Center the U.S. insignia disk on the right collar 
in the same position. (Female enlisted) 

Center unit crests on the shoulder loops, an 
equal distance from the outside shoulder 
seam and the outside edge of the button, with 
the base of the unit crest pointed toward the 
outside shoulder seam. (All enlisted) 

Center shoulder sleeve insignia on the left 
sleeve 1/2 inch below the top of the shoulder 
seam. When a special skill or marksmanship 
tab is worn, the tab is 1/2 inch below the 
shoulder seam and the insignia is 1/4 inch 
below the tab. Tabs that are an integral part of 
an insignia, such as airborne or mountain, are 
worn directly above the insignia with no space 
between. (All soldiers) 

Center rank insignia between the 
shoulder seam and the elbow on both 
sleeves. (All enlisted) 

When authorized, airborne background 
trimming will be worn beneath any autho- 
rized parachutist or air assault badge. The 
badge will be centered on the background 
trimming. The bottom edge of the trimming 
will be worn 1/4 inch above the ribbons. 
When worn below ribbons on the male 
uniform, the space between the seam of 
the pocket flap and the top of the trimming 
will be 1/8 inch. When worn below ribbons 
on the female uniform, the top of the 
background trimming will be 1/4 inch below 
the bottom ribbon row. (All soldiers) 

Center service stripes on the outside of 
the left sleeve 4 inches from the bottom. 
Place the service stripe at a 45-degree 
angle with the lower end toward the 
inside seam of the sleeve. (All enlisted) 

Center ribbons on the left side with the 
bottom row parallel to the bottom edge 
of the nameplate. Third and subsequent 
rows may be aligned to the left to 
present a better appearance. (All 

Center marksmanship badges with the upper 
portion of the badge 1/4 inch below the 
ribbons. If more than one badge is worn, 
space them 1 inch apart. When special skill 
badges are worn below the ribbons, place 
them to the right of marksmanship badges. 
(All females) 

Personnel authorized to wear an organiza- 
tional beret or airborne insignia on the 
garrison cap may wear black combat boots 
with bloused trousers or slacks when 
authorized by the commander. When 
trousers or slacks are bloused and tucked 
nto the boot, they will not be wrapped 
around the leg to present a "pegged" 
appearance. (All soldiers) 



Marksmanship and 
Identification Badges 



Master Army Aviator 

Order of Precedence 

Left Side 

The Army green uniform Is aphorized for year-round wear, 

TJfls poster serves as a guide and does not include every 

accessory available for wear on the uniform. jFor a more 

detailed discussion of proper wear of the Uniform and 

accessories, consult Army Regulation 670*1 or visit the 

Uniform Policy website at 

Senior Army Aviator 

mgmmm mm 

Medal of Honor 

Master Explosive 
Ordnance Disposal 

Army Aviator 


Silver Star 

Service Cross 

Defense Superior 
Service Medal 

Service Medal 

Legion of Merit 

Service Medal 


fiSja' '*"■■■*■*,* 

Distinguished Flying 

Master Parachutist 

Senior Explosive 
Ordnance Disposal 

Master Aircraft 

Special Forces tab 

^% fi& 

Senior Parachutist 


Soldier's Medal 

Meritorious Service 

Bronze Star Medal 

Air Medal 



Meritorious Service 



Explosive Ordnance 

Senior Aircraft j 


Joint Service 
Achievement Medal 

Army Achievement 

Ranger tab 

Combat Infantry 
First Award 


Combat Jump Device 

Aircraft Crewman 

Army Reserve 


Achievement Medal 

Antarctica Service 

Army of Occupation 

Joint Service 



POW Medal 


National Defense 
Service Medal 




Good Conduct Medal 

Master Diver 

Presidential Service 

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier 


I 1 ill 


Master Flight Surgeon 

Expert Infantry 

Air Assualt 


Armed Forces 
Service Medal 

Armed Forces 
Expeditionary Medal 

Service Medal 

Vietnam Service 

Korean Service 

111 ■ ill 

Southwest Asia 
Service Medal 

First Class Diver 

Vice-Presidential Service 

Drill Sergeant 


Military Outstanding 

Volunteer Service 


Senior Flight Surgeon 

IfUHli M i mm m m 
mmmm m 

NCO Professional 
Development Ribbon 

United Nations 
Service Medal 

Combat Medical 
First Award 



Flight Surgeon 


Multinational Force 

and Observers 


Army Service Ribbon 


Defense Board 


Republic of Vietnam 
Campaign Medal 

Overseas Service 

United Nations Medal 
(See box at left) 

I E9 I 

Kuwait Liberation 

Medal (Kingdom of 

Saudi Arabia) 

Armed Forces 
Reserve Medal 

Army Reserve 

Components Overseas 

Training Ribbon 

NATO Medal 

Kuwait Liberation 

Medal (Government 

of Kuwait) 

Second Class Diver 

Secretary of Defense 

U.S. Army Recruiter (gold) 

mi ^f 

Army National Guard 
Recruiter (master) 

Salvage Diver 

Joint Chiefs of Staff 

U. S. Army Recruiter 

Army National Guard 
Recruiter (senior) 

Expert Field Medical 

Parachutist Rigger 

Driver and Mechanic 

Army Astronaut Device 

Right Side 

Scuba Diver 

Army Staff 

Career Counselor 

Army National Guard 
Recruiter (basic) 


Presidential Unit 

Joint Meritorious Unit 

This display represents United 
Nations ribbons which may be 
worn. Effective Oct. 13, 1995, 
those awarded these medals 
may wear the first medal and 
ribbon for which they qualify. 
They are worn in the same 
position as the United Nations 
Medal. Subsequent awards in 
a different mission will be 
denoted by a bronze service 
star. Not more than one U.N. 
ribbon may be worn. 

United Nations Observer 

Group in India and 


United Nations 

Advanced Mission 

in Cambodia 

United Nations Security 
Forces, Hollandia 

United Nations 
Operation in Somalia 

United Nations 

Transitional Authority 

in Cambodia 

Valorous Unit 



United Nations Mission 

for the Referendum in 

Western Sahara 

United Nations Iraq/ 

Kuwait Observation 


United Nations 

Protection Force 

in Yugoslavia 

United Nations 
Mission in Haiti 

Army Superior 
Unit Award 

Philippine Republic 

Presidential Unit 


Republic of Korea 

Presidential Unit 


Meritorious Unit 


Vietnam Presidential 
Unit Citation 

"M" Device 

Silver Service Star 

Antarctica Disk 

Silver Oak Leaf Cluster 

"V" (Valor) Device Bronze Service Star Bronze Arrowhead Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster 

Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam 

Gallantry Cross Unit Civil Actions Unit 

Citation Citation 

Bronze, Silver, & Gold Bronze Arabic 
(Hourglass Devices) Numeral 




Date Bar 

Good Conduct 
Medal Clasp 

Note: Badges, devices and ribbons are not shown to scale. 


The Official US Army Magazine 

., . . • * ■ .'.' i 





v.Jx § 









Fort Dix, N.J. 

Tucumcari Range 
Tucumcari 88401 


Camp Smith 
Peekskill 10567 


Camp Butner 
Butner 27509 


Camp G.C. Grafton 
Devils Lake 58301 


Camp Perry 

Port Clinton 43452 



Camp Gruber 
Muskogee 74423 


Camp Adair 
Corvallis 97330 
(503) 378-3903 

Camp Rilea 
Astoria 97103 
(503) 378-3996 

Camp Withycombe 
Clackamas 97015 
(503) 557-5200 


For all Puerto Rico camps, 
call (787) 724-1219. 

Camp Santiago 
Salinas 00751 

Fort Allen 
Ponce 00731 


Camp Varnum 
Narragansett 02882 


Clark Hill Trng. Site 
McCormick 29835 
(803) 443-2507 

South Carolina Trng. Ctr. 
Leesburg 29290 
(803) 695-2200 


Camp Rapid 
Rapid City 47704 
(605) 300-6720 


Catoosa Trng. Ctr. 
Fort Oglethorpe 37204 
(706) 935-4897 

John Sevier Range 
Knoxville 37917 
(423) 594-6655 


Camp Bowie 
Brownwood 76801 

Camp Mabry 
Austin 78703 

Camp Maxey 
Parish 75460 

Camp Swift 
Bastrop 78602 


Camp W.G. Williams 
Lehi 84065 


For all Vermont camps, dial 

Camp Johnson 
Burlington 05404 

Camp Ethan Allen 
Jerico 05465 


State Mil. Res. 
Va. Beach 23451 
(804) 344-4252 


Camp 7 Mile Trng. Area 
(509) 458-5432 


Camp Dawson 
Kingwood 26537 
(304) 329-4350 


Camp Guernsey 
Guernesy 82214 
(307) 772-5742 

Army Reserve 


Parks Reserve Forces 
Trng. Area 
Dublin 94568 

Fort Hunter-Liggett 

Jolon 93926 

(408) 386-2505 (DSN 686) 


Ayer 01433 

(505) 846-3307 (DSN 246) 


Fort Dix 


(609) 562-4034 (DSN 944) 


Fort McCoy 


(608) 388-4209 (DSN 280) 

Yongsan, Korea 











U.S. Army Materiel Command 

Commander: Gen. Johnnie E. Wilson 
Headquarters: Alexandria, Va. 
Established: Aug. 1, 1962 
Mission: AMC is the Army's principal 
materiel developer. Its missions in- 
clude the development of weapon 
systems, advanced research on fu- 
ture technologies, and maintenance 
and distribution of spare parts and 
equipment. AMC works closely with 
industry, academe, the other military 
services and other government agen- 
cies to develop, test and acquire ev- 
ery piece of equipment soldiers and 
units need to accomplish their mis- 
sions. AMC has 62 installations in 42 
states and more than a dozen coun- 

People: 62,419 
Civilians: 59,045 
Active duty: 2,951 
Army Reserve: 423 

Commander: Brig. Gen. David W. Foley 
Headquarters: Fort Belvoir, Va. 
Established: Sept. 17, 1971 
Mission: CID investigates felony viola- 
tions of the Uniform Code of Military 
Justice and other criminal provisions of 
the United States Code in which the 
Army has an interest. The agency also 
provides protective services for senior 
Defense Department and Army leaders, 
and supports field commanders and com- 
munities to solve major and violent crimes. 
Responsibilities: As the primary pro- 
vider of criminal investigative support to 
the Army, CID operates a forensic labo- 
ratory, criminal records repository, pro- 
curement fraud unit and counter-narcot- 
ics investigations. It solves crimes, as- 
sesses the potential for crime and pre- 
vents felony crimes against the Army, its 
soldiers, family members and employ- 
ees. CID also provides forces for peace- 
time and battlefield investigations — in- 
cluding logistics security, criminal intelli- 
gence collection, criminal investigations, 
protective services operations and war- 
crimes investigations. 
People: 2,027 
Civilians: 514 
Active duty: 1 ,056 
National Guard: 49 
Army Reserve: 408 

Eighth U.S. Army 

Commander: Lt. Gen. Daniel J. Petrosky 
Headquarters: Yongsan, Korea 
Established: June 10, 1944 
Mission: EUSA, as the U.S. Army Ser- 
vice Component Command, on order 
provides forces to the commander in 
chief of United Nations Command and 
the Republic of Korea/U.S. Combined 
Forces Command. EUSA is the Army 
component of U.S. Forces, Korea. 
Responsibilities: EUSA provides forces 
that conduct combat operations, and 
provides combat support and combat 
service support to assigned, attached 
and other forces. EUSA units are de- 
ployed as far north as the Joint Security 
Area at Panmunjom and as far south as 
the port of Pusan. 
People: 35,504 
Civilians: 8,517 
Active duty: 26,987 








* %_H 


"■jB lb 



U.S. Army Forces Command 

Commander: Gen. Thomas A. Schwartz 
Headquarters: Fort McPherson, Ga. 
Established: Oct. 1, 1993 
Mission: FORSCOM trains, mobilizes, 
deploys and sustains combat-ready 
forces capable of responding rapidly to 
crises worldwide. FORSCOM is the Army 
component of U.S. Atlantic Command. 
Consequently, the FORSCOM com- 
mander functions as commander of the 
Army forces of this unified command 
and plans for and provides military sup- 
port to civil authorities, including re- 
sponse to natural disasters and civil 
emergencies. FORSCOM now has 
forces deployed to support contingency 
operations in more than 24 countries. 
FORSCOM is also supporting counter- 
drug operations within the United States 
through Joint Task Force-Six. 
People: 806,491* 
Civilians: 28,106 
Active duty: 202,831 
National Guard: 362,000* 
Army Reserve: 213,554* 
*Upon mobilization 

U.S. Army Intelligence and Security 


Commander: Maj. Gen. Robert W. 
Noonan Jr. 

Headquarters: Fort Belvoir, Va. 
Established: Jan. 1, 1977 
Mission: INSCOM plans and conducts 
intelligence, security and information op- 
erations for military commanders and 
national decision-makers. 
Subordinate units: INSCOM units sup- 
port Army missions worldwide. Units are 
stationed in Germany, Japan, Korea, 
the United Kingdom and Hawaii. Within 
CONUS, units are stationed at Fort Gor- 
don, Ga.; Fort George G. Meade, Md. 
Charlottesville, Va.; Fort Belvoir, Va. 
Fort Bliss, Texas; San Antonio, Texas 
and Fort Huachuca, Ariz. Headquarters 
includes the Land Information Warfare 
Activity. Army National Guard and Army 
Reserve units also support the INSCOM 
People: 1 1 ,000 
Civilians: 2,000 
Active duty: 9,000 

U.S. Army Military District of 


Commander: Maj. Gen. Robert R. Ivany 
Headquarters: Fort McNair, Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

Established: July 1, 1971 
Mission: MDW has three missions: To 
conduct security and disaster-relief op- 
erations in the National Capital Region; 
to provide base operations support to 
Army and other Defense Department 
organizations in the NCR and in the 
northeast region from Fort Hamilton, 
N.Y.; and to conduct official and public 
events on behalf of the nation's civilian 
and military leadership. 
Subordinate units: 3rd U.S. Infantry 
(The Old Guard); The U.S. Army Band 
(Pershing's Own); Fort Myer Military 
Community (Fort McNair and Fort Myer, 
Va.); Fort Belvoir Garrison (Fort Belvoir 
and Fort A.P. Hill, Va.); 12th Aviation 
Battalion; Joint Personal Property Ship- 
ping Office-Washington Area and MDW 
EngineerCompany; White House Trans- 
portation Agency, Fort Meade, Md.; and 
New York Area Command, Fort 
Hamilton, N.Y. 
People: 5,475 
Civilians: 2,757 
Active duty: 2,718 



U.S. Army Medical Command 

Commander: Lt. Gen. Ronald R. Blanck 
Headquarters: Fort Sam Houston, Texas 
Established: Oct. 2, 1994 
Mission: MEDCOM provides direction 
and planning for the Army Medical De- 
partment in conjunction with the Office 
of the Surgeon General; develops and 
integrates doctrine, training, leader de- 
velopment, organization and materiel 
for Army health services; and allocates 
resources and evaluates delivery of ser- 

Responsibilities: Worldwide command 
and control of virtually all nontactical 
AMEDD elements, including TDA hospi- 
tals and clinics; medical research and 
materiel; soldier-medic training; health 
promotion and preventive medicine; and 
dental and veterinary services. 
People: 53,165 
Civilians: 26,068 
Active duty: 27,097 

U.S. Army Military Traffic 

Management Command 

Commander: Maj. Gen. Mario F. Montero Jr. 
Headquarters: Falls Church, Va. 
Established: Feb. 15, 1965 
Mission: MTMC manages, for the De- 
partment of Defense, the worldwide 
transportation of troops, equipment and 
personal property during peace and war. 
This entails single-port management; 
transportation and traffic management 
services; deployment planning and en- 
gineering; and development of 21st-cen- 
tury technologies. MTMC is also the link 
between DOD shippers and the com- 
mercial surface-transportation industry 
and, as DOD's port manager, MTMC 
maintains a presence in 22 ports world- 
wide. Major subordinate commands in- 
clude Deployment Support Command, 
Fort Eustis, Va; Transportation Engi- 
neering Agency, Newport News, Va.; 
598th Trans. Group, Rotterdam, Neth- 
erlands; and 599th Trans. Grp., Wheeler 
Army Airfield, Hawaii. 
People: 5,548 
Civilians: 2,734 
Active duty: 276 
Army Reserve: 2,538 

U.S. Army Space and Missile 

Defense Command 

Commander: Lt. Gen. John Costello 
Headquarters: Arlington, Va. 
Established: Oct. 1, 1997 
Mission: SMDC is the proponent for 
space and national missile defense, a 
materiel developer and the Army's inte- 
gratorfortheater missile defense. SMDC 
ensures missile defense to protect the 
nation and our deployed forces, and 
facilitates Army access to space assets 
and products. 

Subordinate units: U.S. Army Space 
Command, Colorado Springs, Colo.; 
Force Development and Integration Cen- 
ter, Arlington, Va.; and the Missile De- 
fense and Space Technology Center, 
the Space and Missile Defense Battle 
Lab, and Space and Missile Defense 
Acquisition Center in Huntsville, Ala. 
The latter includes the Army Space Pro- 
gram Office in Fairfax, Va.; the High 
Energy Laser Systems Test Facility at 
White Sands Missile Range, N.M.; the 
U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll/Kwajalein 
Missile Range in the Marshall Islands; 
the Joint Land Attack Cruise Missile 
Defense Elevated Netted Sensors 
Project Office and the Ballistic Missile 
Targets Joint Project Office in Hunts- 

People: 1 ,693 
Civilians: 1,082 
Active duty: 611 



U.S. Army Training and Doctrine 


Commander: Gen. John N. Abrams 
Headquarters: Fort Monroe, Va. 
Established: July 1, 1973 
Mission: TRADOC serves as the archi- 
tect for America's Army of the 21 st cen- 
tury, while preparing soldiers to ensure 
that the Army can fight and win the 
nation's wars today. It does this through: 
Training — Leaders and soldiers are 
trained at 27 service schools at 1 6 instal- 

Doctrine — Sustain a shared vision of 
how the Army operates as a member of 
joint-service, combined-arms and multi- 
national teams. 

Combat developments — Identify re- 
quirements for America's Army with a 
spirit of innovation that will enhance the 
broader Army process that translates 
concepts and requirements to produc- 
tion and acquisition. To assist in these 
efforts, TRADOC integrates the activi- 
ties of 10 battlefield laboratories, which 
develop and experiment with concepts 
in battlefield dynamics. 
People: 66,953 
Civilians: 21,470 
Active duty: 45,483 

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 

Commander: Lt. Gen. Joe N. Ballard 
Headquarters: Washington, D.C. 
Established: June 16, 1775 
Mission: USACE provides engineering, 
construction management and environ- 
mental services in peace and war. 
Responsibilities: The civil-works pro- 
gram includes navigation, flood-dam- 
age reduction, recreation, hydropower, 
environmental regulation and other mis- 
sions. The military program includes con- 
struction of Army and Air Force facilities, 
Base Realignment and Closure activi- 
ties, installation support, military-contin- 
gency support, environmental restora- 
tion, strategic mobility and international 
activities in 35 countries. USACE pro- 
vides real estate acquisition, manage- 
ment and disposal for the Army and Air 
Force, and researches and develops 
advanced technology for mobility/counter 
mobility, force protection and sustain- 
ment engineering. It also supports more 
than 60 federal agencies and responds 
to natural disasters and other emergen- 
cies as the nation's primary engineering 

People: 37,600 
Civilians: 37,000 
Active duty: 600 

U.S. Army, Europe 

Commander: Gen. MontgomeryC. Meigs 
Headquarters: Heidelberg, Germany 
Established: 1945 

Mission: As U.S. European Command's 
primary land component, USAREUR 
monitors armed conflicts and potential 
flash points throughout a 98-nation area. 
The Army's largest forward-deployed 
command, USAREUR maintains a com- 
bat-ready, highly flexible, full-spectrum 

Activities include: Provide immediate 
response in support of NATO, U.S. bilat- 
eral, multinational and unilateral objec- 
tives; support U.S. Army forces in the 
U.S. European Command theater; re- 
ceive and assist in the reception, stag- 
ing, onward movement and integration 
of U.S. forces; establish, operate and 
expand operational lines of communica- 
tion; and support U.S. combatant com- 
manders and joint and combined com- 
manders, and other missions as directed. 
On an average day 10,500 USAREUR 
soldiers are deployed on seven opera- 
tions in its area of responsibility, which 
includes Eastern Europe and much of 

People: 90,600 
Civilians: 11,800 
Active duty: 61,800 
Army Reserve: 900 
Local national: 16,100 




U.S. Army, Pacific 

Commander: l_t. Gen. Edwin P. Smith 
Headquarters: Fort Shatter, Hawaii 
Established: July 1, 1957 
Mission: USARPAC provides trained and 
ready forces in support of military opera- 
tions and peacetime engagements in the 
Asia-Pacific area of operations, to pro- 
vide crisis response and contribute to 
regional stability. USARPAC carries out 
a cooperative-engagement strategy 
known as the Expanded Relations Pro- 
gram with 41 nations within or bordering 
its area of responsibility. These countries 
include the Philippines, Thailand, Viet- 
nam, Japan, Mongolia, Russia, China, 
India, Bangladesh, Australia, New 
Zealand, the Marshall Islands and Papua 
New Guinea. 

Recent deployments: Army forces in 
the Pacific are part of the Multinational 
Force and Observers mission in Sinai 
and Operation Joint Guard, and units in 
the past year have deployed in support of 
disaster-relief operations and other hu- 
manitarian and civic actions throughout 
the Pacific region. On an average day in 
1998, some 2,328 USARPAC soldiers 
and Department of the Army civilians 
were deployed to 24 nations on 34 mis- 
sions, with more than 1 50 serving in other 
than the Asia-Pacific area of operations. 
People: 35,474 
Civilians: 7,542 
Active duty: 19,135 
National Guard: 5,690 
Army Reserve: 3,107 

U.S. Army, South 

Commander: Maj. Gen. Philip R. 
Kensinger Jr. 

Headquarters: Fort Clayton, Panama 
Established: December 1986 
Mission: USARSO acts as the execu- 
tive agency for United States Southern 
Command and provides supportto U.S. 
embassies and military groups through- 
out Central and South America and the 
Caribbean. USARSO is a major "hub" 
for deploying U.S. National Guard and 
Army Reserve forces to participate in 
humanitarian and civic-assistance ex- 
ercises in underdeveloped portions of 
countries in Latin America. It frequently 
supports missions requested by host 
governments through the U.S. Embassy 
to conduct search and rescue missions 
and render disaster assistance. 
Responsibilities: USARSO provides 
for command and control of Army forces 
in the USSOUTHCOM area of opera- 

People: 4,680 
Civilians: 2,286 
Active duty: 2,338 
National Guard: 38 
Army Reserve: 18 

U.S. Army Special Operations 

Commander: Lt. Gen. William P. 
Headquarters: Fort Bragg, N.C. 
Established: Dec. 1, 1989 
Mission: USASOC trains, equips, de- 
ploys and sustains Army special-opera- 
tions forces for worldwide special opera- 
tions supporting regional combatant com- 
manders and country ambassadors. 
From October 1 997 to May 1 998, 21 ,326 
USASOC soldiers deployed to 1 02 coun- 
tries and conducted 3,151 missions in- 
cluding peacekeeping, humanitarian 
assistance, demining and mine aware- 
ness, and foreign internal defense. Army 
SOF includes special forces, rangers, 
civil affairs, psychological operations, 
special operations aviation, and signal 
and support. 

Training: About 10,000 students train 
annually at the U.S. Army John F. 
Kennedy Special Warfare Center and 
School at Fort Bragg, N.C., in special 
forces, civil affairs and psychological 
operations, as well as other important 
SOF skills such as foreign language and 
regional studies. 
People: 25,600 
Civilians: 1,000 
Active duty: 13,500 
National Guard: 3,400 
Army Reserve: 7,700 



Enlisted Career Management Fields 

1 1 Infantry 

12 Combat Engineering 

13 Field Artillery 

14 Air Defense Artillery 

18 Special Forces 

19 Armor 

25 Visual Information 
31 Signal Operations 
33 Electronic Warfare/Intercept 

Systems Maintenance 
35 Electronic Maintenance and 


37 Psychological Operations 

38 Civil Affairs 
46 Public Affairs 

51 General Engineering 

54 Chemical 

55 Ammunition 

63 Mechanical Maintenance 

67 Aircraft Maintenance 

71 Administration 

74 Information Systems Operations 

77 Petroleum and Water 

79 Recruiting and Retention 

81 Topographic Engineering 

88 Transportation 

91 Medical 

92 Supply and Services 

93 Aviation Operations 

95 Military Police 

96 Military Intelligence 

97 Bands 

98 Signals Intelligence/Electronic 
Warfare Operations 


! Warrant Officer Career Branches 

13 Field Artillery 

14 Air Defense Artillery 

15 Aviation 

18 Special Forces 

21 Corps of Engineers 

25 Signal Corps 

31 Military Police 

35 Military Intelligence 

42 Adjutant General 

55 Judge Advocate 
General's Corps 

60 Medical Corps 

64 Veterinary Corps 

67 Medical Service Corps 

88 Transportation Corps 

91 Ordnance 

92 Quartermaster 

Officer Career Branches 

1 1 Infantry 

12 Armor 

13 Field Artillery 

14 Air Defense Artillery 

15 Aviation 

18 Special Forces 

21 Corps of Engineers 

25 Signal Corps 

31 Military Police 

35 Military Intelligence 

38 Civil Affairs 

42 Adjutant General's Corps 

44 Finance Corps 

55 Judge Advocate 
General's Corps 

56 Chaplain 

60-62 Medical Corps 

63 Dental Corps 

64 Veterinary Corps 

65 Army Medical Specialist Corps 


Army Nurse Corps 
Medical Service Corps 

Transportation Corps 
Quartermaster Corps 








Officer Functional Areas 

24 Information Systems 
Information Operations 
Strategic Intelligence 
Military Intelligence 
Psychological Operations and 
Civil Affairs 
Space Operations 
Human Resources Management 
Public Affairs 
USMA Stabilized Faculty 
Foreign Area Officer 
Operations Research/Systems 

Force Development 

Nuclear Research and Operations 
Information Systems Manage- 

Simulations Operations 
Strategic Plans and Policy 

Medical Functional Areas 

70 Health Services 

71 Laboratory Sciences 

72 Preventive Medicine Sciences 

73 Behavioral Sciences 

■ ■■ ■ 1 




Type: Self-propelled howitzer 
Entered Army service: 1963 (1993 for 

M109A6 Paladin) 
Variants in service: M109A2/3/5/6 
Specifications: (M109A6) 

Length: 32 ft 2 in 

Weight: 63,300 lbs 

Main gun: M-284 155mm howitzer 

Crew: 6 


Type: Utility helicopter 

Entered Army service: 1979 

Variants in service: UH-60A/L, EH-60C, 

Specifications: (UH-60A) 

Length overall: 50 ft 

Weight: 20,250 lbs 

Range: 375 mi 

Crew: 3 

3. M-252 MORTAR 

Type: 81mm mortar 
Entered Army service: 1 987 

Caliber: 81mm 

Barrel length: 4 ft 6 in 

Weight: 91 lbs 

Range: 5,600 meters 

Rate of fire: 1 5 rounds/min sustained 

4. C-23SHERPA 

Type: Medium utility transport aircraft 
Entered Army service: 1985 
Variants in service: C-23A/B/B+ 

Length overall: 58 ft 

Weight: 25,600 lbs 

Range: 1,185 mi 

Crew: 3 


Type: Squad automatic weapon 
Entered Army service: 1987 

Caliber: 5.56mm 

Length: 100 cm 

Weight: 16.3 lbs 

Range: 800 meters 

Rate of fire: 750 rounds per minute 




1. Wl-977 HEMTT 

Type: Heavy Expanded Mobility 

Tactical Truck 
Entered Army service: 1 983 
Variants in service: M-977/978/983/984/ 

Specifications: (Basic M-977) 

Length: 33 ft 4.5 in 

Weight: 62,000 lbs 

Range: 300 mi 

Crew: 2 

Type: Heavy-lift cargo helicopter 
Entered Army service: 1962 
Variants in service: CH-47C/D, 

Specifications: (CH-47D) 

Length overall: 51 ft 

Weight: 53,500 lbs 

Range: 245 mi 

Crew: 3 


Type: Short range 

air-defense missile 
Entered Army service: 1981 

Length overall: 60 in 

Weight: 34.5 lbs 

Range: 3 mi 

6, M9 ACE 

Type: Armored earthmover 
Entered Army service: 1986 

Length: 20 ft 6 in 

Weight: 54,000 lbs 

Range: 200 mi 

Crew: 1 

& £-12 HURON 

Type: Utility transport/reconnaissance 

Entered Army service: 1975 
Variants in service: C-12D/F/R, RC- 

Length overall: 43 ft 9 in 

Weight: 15,500 lbs 

Range: 1,280 mi 

Crew: 2-4 

Type: Light utility helicopter 
Entered Army service: 1 959 
Variants in service: UH-1H/1V 

Length overall: 44 ft 6 in 

Weight: 9,500 lbs 

Range: 300 mi 

Crew: 3 


Type: Attack helicopter 
Entered Army service: 1984 
Variants in service: AH-64A/C/D 
Specifications: (AH-64A) 

Length: 49 ft 5 in 

Weight: 17,650 lbs 

Speed: 232 mph 

Range: 380 mi 

Crew: 2 


Type: Scout helicopter 
Entered Army service: 1968 
Variants in service: OH-58A/B/C/D 
Specifications: (OH-58D) 

Length overall: 40 ft 1 1 in 

Weight: 4,500 lbs 

Range: 345 mi 

Crew: 1-2 


Type: Medium/high altitude air-defense 

Entered Army service: 1985 

Length overall: 17 ft 5 in 

Weight: 1,534 lbs 

Range: 50 mi 



1. ft/1270 MLRS 

Type: Multiple Launch Rocket System 
Entered Army service: 1 983 
Specifications: (Launcher) 

Length: 22 ft 10 in 

Weight: 55,536 lbs 

Average speed: 30 mph 

Max speed: 40 mph 

Range: 300 mi 

Crew: 3 


Type: Armored recovery vehicle 
Entered Army service: 1961 
Variants in service: M88A1, M88A2 

Specifications: (M88A2) 

Length: 28 ft 4 in 

Weight: 70 tons 

Range: 280 mi 

Crew: 3 

*» MtQ pistol 

Type: Semiautomatic pistol 
Entered Army service: 1990 

Caliber: 9mm 

Length: 217mm 

Barrel length: 125mm 

Weight: 850 g 

Magazine capacity: 1 5 rounds 

Range: 50 m 


Type: Compact assault rifle 
Entered Army Service: 1997 

Caliber: 5.56mm 

Weight: 5.65 lbs 

Range: 500 m 

Rate of fire: variable, depending on 

rate selected 

Type: Main battle tank 
Entered Army service: 1980 
Variants in service: M1, M1A1, M1A2 

Length: 32 ft 0.5 in 

Weight: 120,000 lbs 

Speed: 45 mph 

Main gun: 120mm 

Crew: 4 

2. BGWI-71 TOW 

Type: Wire-guided anti-tank missile 
Entered Army service: 1970 
Variants in service: TOW 2/2A/2B 
Specifications: (Basic TOW) 

Length overall: 3 ft 10 in 

Weight: 173 lbs 

Range: 2.5 mi 

Crew: 2 


Type: Infantry/cavalry fighting vehicle 
Entered Army service: 1981 
Variants in service: M2A1/A2 IFVs, 

M3A1/A2 CFVs 
Specifications: (M2) 

Length: 21 ft 2 in 

Weight: 50,000 lbs 

Main gun: 25mm chain gun 

Crew: 3 


Type: Special operations helicopter 
Entered Army service: 1981 
Variants in service: AH/MH-6F/G/J 

Length overall: 24 ft 7 in 

Weight: 3,550 lbs 

Range: 340 mi 

Crew: 2 


Type: Medium machine gun 
Entered Army service: 1997 

Caliber: 7.62mm 

Weight: 27.6 lbs 

Range: 1,100 m 

Rate of fire: 200-600 rounds per 


Type: Armored NBC iri ancie 

Entered Army service: 1998 
Variants in service: XM-93, M-93A1 
Specifications: (M-93A1) 

Length Sin 



-I i 




This Is 

OUR response to our "This Is Our Army" request for 
photos was the best ever. Although about the same 
number of photographers (more than 300) submitted 
about the same number of images (about 1,500) as in 
the previous year, the quality of work submitted for 
the 1999 almanac far surpassed that of all previous years. Also, 
virtually all entries submitted this year contained full caption 
information. In years past, we were unable to run many good 
images because we didn't have full background details. 

The hardest thing about having so many great, usable photos is 
deciding which ones to run. To make more room for our readers' 
fine images, we expanded our section from last year's 17 pages to 
20 pages. We still had to leave out a lot of wonderful pictures. This 
year we ran more than 85 of your images, while last year we were 
only able to include 68 photos, and the year before that we could 
only run 34. It's getting better all the time, and you are the reason. 

You — the soldiers, family members and civilians that make up 
the Army — are better suited than anybody else to tell the Army's 

You are the ones who sweat under the brutal California sun 
during summer rotations at the National Training Center. You 
shiver in the cold of winter rotations in the maneuver box in 
Hohenfels, Germany, or slog through the Louisiana mud at the 
Joint Readiness Training Center. 

You're the ones who have to hold down the fort at home while 
your soldier husband or wife spends nine months keeping the 
peace somewhere in the world. You're the ones keeping the 
installations running, managing logistics, providing health care and 
supporting families. Without you, there would be no Army. With- 
out your pictures, no one would be able to see your part of the 
Army story. 

We thank those of you who decided to share your Army story 
with us through photography. If your pictures did not make it into 
this feature, you may yet see them published in the "Sharp Shoot- 
ers" section of a future issue. And there's always next year. 

You've set a standard with your great work this year. We can 
only hope that next year you'll surpass your own standard. The 
Army has a great story to tell, and nobody tells it better than you. 


iThis Is 

4*1 nib lb a 

Our Army 


Retired SFC Allan A. MacDonald, 75, models the 
original horse cavalry uniform he was issued 
in 1 937 (above), the same uniform he's wearing 
in the pre-World War II photo (left). — Yasuko 

Children weave baskets at a Fort McCoy, Wis., Youth 
Services event celebrating the 4th of July and 
Wisconsin's sesquicentennial. — Rob Schuette 



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A young color bearer leads his unit onto the Antietam 
battlefield during a Civil War re-enactment near 
Sharpsburg, Md. — Renee Shawn McElveen 

A UH-60L Black Hawk of the Fort Bragg, N.C.-based Co. B, 2nd Bn., 82nd Avn. Regt., takes off on a night 
mission. — Phillip Lee Brltt 




An AH-64A Apache of the 6th Sqdn., 6th 
Cav., fires 2.75mm rockets at targets on 
A heavily laden Pvt. Linesha Dabney of the 518th Maint. Co., Task Force 1-1 ADA, leads fellow sol- Grafenwohr Training Area's range. — 
diers through the unit motor pool in Southwest Asia. — Spec. Tracy R. Benoit SSgt. Joe L. Linen 

MSgt. Kestner Edens assists PFC Lashawnia Smith as she rappels 
at Camp Zama, Japan. — Spec. Christine S. Adley 

A soldier hoses down heavy equipment following field training at Fort 
McCoy, Wis. — Lou Ann Mittelstaedt 

<-■ j?*m : 

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Transportation Corps soldiers observe the beach landing of a 1 , 200-foot Trident pier dur- 
ing training at Little Creek Amphibious Base, Va. — 1st Lt. Matthew A. Lutz 


Troops of the 82nd Abn. Div. prepare for a live-fire 
exercise at Fort Bragg, N.C. — Spec. Michael A. Miller 






This Is 

ur Army 

f ^F%*-« 


First Lt. Walter Rivera gets a kiss from his 
daughter, Kimberly, while waiting to play 
softball at Fort Eustis, Va. — Roger Conroy 

Sgt. Esly Panduro of the New Jersey Army National Guard's Co. B, 50th Main Sprt. Bn., chains 
down an M113 APC before it is moved to an ocean dump site. — Lt. Col. John Dwyer 



ger School 
tying before teS 
tain Phase in D 
Michelle J. Das/i 


.ts practice knot 
urlng the Moun- 
a, Ga. — Sgt. 

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Confederate troops march onto the battlefield during a September re-enactment 
of the Battle of Antietam near Sharpsburg, Md. — Renee McElveen 

Soldiers of the 652nd Engr. Co. move a Humvee-bearing, five- 
float raft across Alderwood Lake at Fort McCoy, Wis. — Lou 
Ann Mittelstaedt 

CWO 2 Douglas Hammond leads the 82nd Abn. Div. Band at a 
July division change of command on Fort Bragg's Sicily drop 
zone. — SSgt. Mark W. Schulert 

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A CH-47 Chinook sling loads vehicles of HHC, 2nd Bn., Sth Inf., 
during September training at Sehofield Barracks, Hawaii. — 
Sgt. Sam Dell 


This Is 


Soldiers are winched aboard a UH-60 dur- 
ing a simulated rescue near Fort Irwin, 
Calif. — 247th Med. Det. 

SSgt. Alicia Gibson and other Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., sol- 
diers stand in formation while supporting the Special Olym- 
pics. — Michael N. Curtis 



c *l" * 


Soldiers of the 1 st Sig. Bde. learn to work 
in an NBC environment during training 
in Yongsan, Korea. — Sgt. Edward 
Benoit Jr. 

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L * I 

Pvt. Gary D. Hyde of the 7th SFG 
takes a break for a quick game of 
catch on the airstrip at Patuca, Ec- 
uador. — Spec. Aaron R. Reed 

. . - — -"" 


sile during a 'battle" at the National Train- 
ing Center, Fort-lrwin, Calif. — JeffMetlody, 


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Jhis Is 


Spec. Henry Eldridge loads an M1 A1 main 
gun round at Yakima Training Center, 
Wash. — Spec. Tom Findtner 

Maj. Robert L. White Jr. stands ready for a 
ceremony at Camp Eagle Base in Tuzla, 
Bosnia. — 1st Lt. Edwin I. Wilson 


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Army goalie Daryl Chamberlain watches the down-ice action dur- 
ing a West Point game against Air Force. — Spec. Christopher Land 

JROTC cadet Tasha Veit climbs a 
cargo net during Camp Adventure 
training at Fort Dix, N.J. — Carolee 


A directional thickened fuel" explosion catches the attention of troops 
training at Fort McClellan, Ala. — SSgt. Roberta Smith 

-tJ m «i ■ 

ly-based 1 
uilding dur 
iermany. — C 

Spec. Shawn Renaldi of the 31 st ADA Bde. naps during a unit deploy- 
ment to Southwest Asia. — Spec. Tracy ft. Benoit 

Trust and teamwork are the keys to success on the Leadership Reaction 
Course at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. — Sgt. Michael Clauss 


Jhis Is 

Ainib lb* 


An M-240 machine-gun team 
from Co. B, 1st Bn., 5th Inf.. en- 
gages a target during training at 
Fort Lewis, Wash. — Spec. Tom 

Sgt. Jason Olson negotiates a Leadership Reaction Course obstacle 
at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. — PH2 Sean Malinger, USN 

Operating room staff members demonstrate surgery prep during 
Operation Golden Medic '98 at Fort Dix, N.J. — David Moore 


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dozer o 
many. — 
John W. Haefner 

First Lt. Eric Fegeiy 
executes a Prusik 
climb during the Best 
Ranger competition 
at Fort Benning, Ga. 
— CWO 2 Robert 

Spec. Rossa Quesenberry savors a rose she 
received during a unit welcome-home cer- 
emony in Ocala, Fla. — Paul Adams 

Soldiers of the 1 0th Area Sprt. Grp. practice starting IVs during training 
at Torii Station, Okinawa. — Sgt. Brett McMillian 

Sgt. Wilshxr Mendoza entertains school chil- 
dren during a Partners in Education session UH-60L Black Hawk helicopters as seen through the gunsight of a 
in Fayette vi lie. N.C. — Spec. Michael A. Miller Russian BTR-80 APC at Camp Bedrock, Bosnia. — Phillip Lee Britt 


Jhis Is 





Skydivers exit the jump aircraft 
during a tandem leap over Boul- 
der City Airport, Colo. — Danny 

Dancers perform during the Hispanic Heritage Celebration at Fort Irwin, 
Calif. — Sgt. James Core 

Fort Dix, N.J., firefighter Brad Ponto works with a dummy during rescue 
training. — Charles Germain 


CSM John Skinner shares a hug with a Spe- 
cial Olympics participant at Fort Leonard 
Wood, Mo. — Michael N. Curtis 

Soldiers of the 160th Inf. advance 
on an "enemy" position during 
training at Camp San Luis Obispo, 
Calif. — Sgt. Larry D. Waggoner 

First Lt. Eric Fegely of the 1st Inf. Div. jumps 
from a CH-47 Chinook over Germany. — CWO 
2 Robert R. Buck 


Members of the 4th Ranger Trng. Bn. aid each First Lt. Denise L. Hodge demonstrates jump 
other in climbing an obstacle at Fort Benning, technique to foreign jumpers at Soto Cano Air 
Ga. — Pvt. 2 Amy L. Nyland Base, Honduras. — PFC Terrence L. Hayes 


Army 105mm howitzers provide the boom during a performance of the "1812 Overture" on the 
parade field at Fort Monroe, Va. — Wes Anderson 


Jhis Is 



-< > 






Army Chief of Staff Gen. Dennis J. Reimer (upper left))o\ns 1 01 st Abn. Di v. soldiers during a trench-clearing 
exercise at Fort Campbell, Ky. — Marshall Woods 

Spec. Kathy Morgan competes 
in the Phillip A. Connelly com- 
petition. — Sgt. Edward R. 
Benoit Jr. 

German firefighters carry away a UH-60 crew member during joint res- 
cue training in Partenheim, Germany. — SFC Steve Miller 


Balloon crew members prepare to launch 
during the Minnesota Military Expo at Fort 
Snelling. — Maj. William Hoettels 

Abrams crewmen of the 1 1 th ACR salute while 
passing the reviewing stand at a parade in Tor- 
rance. Calif. — Maj. Barry A. Johnson 








'-V " 

Army Corps of Engineers ranger Billy 
Haferkamp helps Payton Gilcrease reel in a 
fish at Whitney Lake, Texas. — Dee Dedman 

Michael Castro displays his first-place rainbow 
trout during the Fort Dix, N.J., fishing derby at 
Laurel Lake. — Charles Germain 

Sgt. Robert Rannie of the 35th S&S Bn. 
emplaces a Claymore mine during training at 
Camp Fuji, Japan. — Sgt. Brett Traver 

Sgt. Paul Guhl prepares to raise the ramp of 
his CH-47 after jumpers have exited over 
Camp Atterbury. Ind. — 1stLt. Jason A. Brady 

M1 09 self-propelled howitzers of the New Jersey Army National Guard's Btry. B, 3rd Bn., 1 1 2th 
FA, fire a volley during a night firing exercise. — Lt. Col. John Dwyer 


This Is 

-Our Army 

Soldiers of the 12th Sprt. Bde. at Fort McCoy, Wis., put their backs into it during the Army Community 
Service's fourth annual Tug-O-War birthday celebration. — Anita Johnson 

A rose left by a visitor graces the Moving 
Wall outside the state capitol in Harrisburg, 
Pa. — Renee Shawn McElveen 

An M1 A1 Abrams of Co. C, 1 st Bn., 35th Armd., sends a round 
downrange while firing Tank Table VIM at Baumholder, Ger- 
many. — SSgt. Todd Oliver 



For good luck, Sgt. Charles A. Mailloux III 
hangs a coin on a hollow log on Miyajima Is- 
land, Japan. — Spec. Christine S. Adley 

1 * 

Would-be combat divers tread water without 
the use of their hands during training at Fort 
Bragg, N.C. — SFC T. Anthony Bell 


Members of a Civil War re-enactment group demonstrate their period weapons during an Armed 
Forces Day open house at Fort McCoy, Wis. — Rob Schuette 


4 *tf 

A UH-60L Black Hawk of the NTC Avn. Co. 
slingloads a Humvee during training at Fort 
Irwin, Calif. — Spec. Christopher DeHart 

SFC Lawrence Adams "encourages" Pvt. 
Matthew Gengler at the Ottawa, Kan., recruit- 
ing station. — Sharlene Reeder-Jorgensen 

A member of the 250th Fwd. Surgical Team 
rappels from a 37-foot tower during training 
at Fort Lewis, Wash. — Sgt. Rick E. Black 

Darryl Keiffer braves the rappelling tower 
during a youth camp sponsored by the Loui- 
siana National Guard. — Capt. John M. Wells 

Jhis Is 

4^1 nib ibM 



Amada Espinoza dons clown makeup 
during a practice session for the Fort 
Dix, N.J., Chapel Youth Organization's 
clown ministry. — Carolee Nisbet 

I 1/ 


SSgt. Stephanie R. Young hoists a sig- 
nal flag aboard the Army vessel El 
Caney as it approaches the Panama 
Canal. — Spec. Aaron R. Reed 




Spec. Joseph Butler (left) and Pvt. Matt Blakemore of the 41st 
Sig. Bn. at work near Yongsan, Korea. — Sgt. Edward Benoit Jr. 

Sgt. Stacy Robinson does a cell count 
in the laboratory at Brooke Army Medi- 
cal Center, Texas. — Spec. Jan M. 



Cpl. Scott Case of the 13th MP Co. tosses a grenade into a bunker during training at Grafenwohr, Germany. — Cpl. Scott Kelley 

Soldiers from the Joint Intelligence Center, Pacific, pull together 
during training at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii. — Sgt. Michael Clauss 


Pvt. Johnny Steve loads 25mm rounds into his Bradley s main gun before 
engaging targets at Fort Lewis, Wash. — Spec. Tom Findtner 

H The United States 

The Musical Ambassadors of the Army 


: <*. 


'on. DC 

iig Schedule 

Spring: Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, 

Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, 
New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, and 
portions of Maryland and Pennsylvania. 
Summer: Indiana, Michigan, NewYork, 
Ohio and Pennsylvania. 
Fall: Arkansas, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, New Mexico, 
Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, 
and portions of Alabama, 
North Carolina, Virginia 
and West Virginia. 

. : . 

— Schedules are subject to change — 

For more information about the 
Musical Ambassadors of the 
Army, visit our worldwide website 

> > The U.S. Arm 

is the Army's official aerial demonstration t 

Since 1959 the men and women of the team have come to be recognized as thl 
Army's goodwill ambassadors. The Golden Knights have performed more than 7,500 
aerial demonstrations in all 50 states and 46 countries. They have produced 129 

national and 23 world champions in 35 years of performance and competition. 

Apply for "Knighthood" 

THE USAPT is now accepting applications; soldiers who want to become members must meet the following 

1. Be a volunteer. 

2. Be a qualified military parachutist (or agree to attend airborne training). 

3. Meet requirements for a class "C" international parachuting license or equivalent. 

4. Be on active duty with three or more years of service remaining upon assignment. 

5. Be eligible for reenlistment. 

6. Understand and comply with Army policy on drug use. 

If you would like to become one of the Army's goodwill ambassadors, apply by June 30 to USAPT, 
Attn: Administration Section, P.O. Box 70126, Fort Bragg, NC 28307-0126. 

For more information about the Golden Knights and their performance dates, 
check their website at 

y : ; 













February 1999 

for Peace 

in C entral A sia 

The New 
Face of Basic 

A Hero Remembered 

_* / T. 


. + 

February 1999 Volume 54, No. 2 

The Official 

U.S. Army Magazine 

Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: Gen. Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: Maj. Gen. John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Information Strategy: William R. Drobnick 

Soldiers Staff 

Editor in Chief: Lt. Col. Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSgt. John Valceanu 
Photojournalism Heike Hasenauer 
Associate Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T. Marsden 

Soldiers (ISSN 0093-8440) is published monthly under super- 
vision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide the Total 
Army with information on people, policies, operations, technical 
developments, trends and ideas of and about the Department of 
the Army. The views and opinions expressed are not necessarily 
those of the Department of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest 
to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is autho- 
rized to Editor, Soldiers, 9325 Gunston Road, Suite S108, 
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581 Phone DSN 656-4486 or com- 
mercial (703) 806-4486. Or send e-mail to soldiers® ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for 
"by permission" and copyright items), material may be reprinted 
provided credit is given to Soldiers and the author ■ All 
photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited 
■ Military distribution: From the U.S. Army Distribution Opera- 
tions Facility, 1655 Woodson Road, St. Louis, MO 631 14-6181 . 
in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 050007 
subscription requirements submitted by commanders. ■ The 
Secretary of the Army has determined that the publication of this 
periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business 
as required by law of the department. ■ Use of funds for printing 
this publication was approved by the Secretary of the Army on 
Sept. 2. 1986, in accordance with the provisions of Army Regu- 
lation 25-30. Library of Congress call number: U1.A827. ■ 
Periodicals postage paid at Fort Belvoir, VA, and additional 
mailing offices. ■ Individual domestic subscriptions are available 
al S24 per year through the Supenntendenl of Documents, P.O. 
Box 371954, Pittsburgh. PA 1 5250-7954 For credit card orders 
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Troops of the New York-based 
1 0th Mountain Division joined 
soldiers from Turkey, Russia and 
five former Soviet republics for a 
unique multinational exercise. 

ID The New Face of Basic 

Today's world requires tougher, 
smarter soldiers. To help produce 
them, the Army is expanding 
basic to nine weeks and adding a 
range of new training topics. 

cb Jumping Into Germany 

Texas Army National Guard 
paratroopers joined Marine 
Reserve, Air Force and German 
army counterparts for a 1 0-day 
exercise in Bavaria. 



A Hero Remembered 

A new name for Fort Leaven- 
worth' s post theater helps honor 
a black cavalryman's selfless 
heroism during the Spanish- 
American War. 

Mayhem in the Mud 

Bad roads, rough terrain and a 
sea of mud were among the 
obstacles facing tactical vehicle 
drivers at Fort Riley. 

The Dragon's Fire 

Excellence in M-47 antitank 
missile training won three young 
Fort Lewis soldiers the opportu- 
nity to Fire the real thing. 

7^ /^' 


The Stuff Movies Are Made Of 

Alaska Army National Guard 
aircrews battle some of the world's 
most challenging weather and 
terrain to come to the aid of those 
in need. 


9 Around the Services 

10 Feedback 

1 2 What's New 

26 Postmarks 

32 Environmental Front 

34 Focus on People 

36 Sharp Shooters 




A Lethal Combination 

A pitched "battle" in Hohenfels, 
Germany, proved the effective- 
ness of the Army's infantry- 
armor team. 

Front cover: PFC 

Adam Bottcher of Co. 
B, 2nd Bn., 87th Inf., 
prepares to engage 
"enemy" troops 
during recent training 
in Uzbekistan. — 
Photo by SSgt. John 

_ _J 

J r" 

Ipjjjjjjjj-U JUJ J Vimy JJJ fejJifjJ Am 


,* , 




\ . 

(Main photo) Second Lt. Silas Gold 
holds the American flag as 1 0th Moun- 
tain Div. troops and soldiers from the 
former Soviet Union await the start of 
the CENTRAZBAT '98 closing cer- 


■/ ■ 

emony. [Inset) A Kyrgyz OPFOR soldier 
awaits the next "battle." 

i ' <Bo1hby SSgt. John Valceanu) <■ 


.' / 


BJ5~ -.'• : •* • '■■_ 

Troops of the 10th Mountain 

Division joined soldiers from 

Turkey, Russia and five former 

Soviet republics for a unique 

multinational exercise. 





. i 






m ,. 


February 1999 

\ - 

(Above) Sgt. David Robertson (right) 
shows Spec. Tracy Williams how to 
position himself while searching a sus- 
pected "smuggler." (Right) PFC Robert 
Crowley stands ready to support his 
soldiers as an Uzbek officer looks on. 

Story and Photos by SSgt. John Valceanu 

GENGHIS Khan thundered over 
these hills on his way to building 
an empire. Marco Polo came 
through here on his way to 
China. And now Pvt. 2 Edward 
Reilly and Pvt. 2 Michael Rish were 
here, crouched with their machine gun 
behind an earthen berm in the foothills 
of the Himalayas, in Kyrgyzstan. 
Squinting against the late afternoon 
sun, they looked across a zone of 
separation where their allies, the 
Russians, were trying to separate 
"belligerent" factions. 

Reilly and Rish, infantrymen in 
Company C, 2nd Battalion, 87th 
Infantry Regiment, were two of the 
approximately 160 soldiers from the 
10th Mountain Division who traveled 
to Central Asia in September to 
represent the United States in a multi- 
national peacekeeping exercise. 
Dubbed CENTRAZBAT '98, the 
operation brought together the United 
States and its NATO ally Turkey with 
Russia and five former Soviet repub- 
lics. Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan hosted 

parts of the exercise on their soil. The 
other three participants were 
Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan. 
"This is history being made," said 
Co. C 1st Sgt. Michael Pickett. "If 
you'd told me 10 years ago that we 
were going to have an exercise in what 
used to be the Soviet Union, I'd have 
told you you were crazy." 


Pickett and other Cold War 
soldiers, on both sides, found them- 
selves training alongside former 
adversaries during CENTRAZBAT 
'98. The exercise had two phases. 
During the first phase, in Uzbekistan, 
the soldiers practiced situational 
training exercises in an area near the 
town of Chirchik. 

The training allowed soldiers to 
share techniques and experiences such 

as manning United Nations 
checkpoints, searching 
personnel and vehicles, con- 
ducting patrols, and dealing with 
angry mobs demanding food. They 
also got a chance to shoot each other's 
weapons on the training area's ranges. 

"In this age of multinational 
peacekeeping ops, where you must 
work closely with soldiers from other 
countries, this kind of training is very, 

Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan each 
hosted parts of CENTRAZBAT '98, 
which also drew troops from three 
other former Soviet republics — 
Azerbaijan, Georgia and Kazakhstan. 

Soldier- Interpreters Return to Roots 

FIVE U.S. soldiers born in the Soviet 
Union found CENTRAZBAT '98 to be the 
perfect opportunity to speak their mother 
tongue. First Lt. Nikolay Korsunsky, 1st Lt. 
ArthurVoskov, Spec. StanislavShenderov, 
Spec. Seva Kabischer and Spec. Olga 
Roemer put their Russian-language skills 
to use by serving as interpreters during the 

Korsunsky is a combat support equip- 
ment platoon leader in the Army Reserve's 
922nd Engineer Company, 420th Engr. 
Brigade, in Paris, Texas. The 34-year-old 
Reservist was born and raised in Mos- 
cow. He immigrated to the United States 
in 1982, at the age of 18. 

Korsunsky said he envisioned return- 
ing to the Soviet Union when he joined the 

Spec. Seva Kabischer (left) translates for Co. C 1st Sgt. Michael Pickett as he 
explains the workings of an M-4 carbine to an Uzbek officer. 

Army, but he thought it would be under 
different circumstances. 

"I wanted to come back in uniform, but 
I never expected it to be nice and peaceful 
like this," he said. "It feels weird being 
back, weird, weird, weird. I haven't smelled 
roofing tar in a long time. It's a smell I'll 
always remember and associate with my 
childhood. When I woke up my first morn- 
ing here and smelled the roofing tar, all 
these memories came flooding back to 

The other Russian-born lieutenant 
didn't have as many memories of his 
homeland. Voskov and his parents left 
the Soviet Union when he was only five. 
Now serving as an intelligence officer in 
the Reserve's Co. C, 383rd Military Intel- 
ligence Battalion, Voskov said he kept his 
linguistic skills alive by speaking Russian 
at home. 

"My parents were refugees from com- 
munism. I was always taught that the 
Soviet Union was our enemy, and now the 
Russians are training with us to maintain 
world peace. That's an interesting shift in 
mentality," he said. "I feel a sense of 
disbelief when I think about it. I never 
thought this would happen within our life- 

In contrast with Korsunsky and 
Voskov, Shenderov and his family emi- 
grated after the demise of communism. A 
chemical specialist, Shenderov was born 

(continued on page 6) 

: ebruary 1999 

very valuable," Pickett said. "Know- 
ing how other armies do business is 
a big help when you actually have to 
go into a real-world situation with 

In the second phase, soldiers 
moved to Kyrgyzstan, where they set 
up operations in a training area near 
the city of Osh. The troops were 
formed into two multinational 
battalions. During two days of field 
training, the two units worked to 
separate belligerents and enforce a 
zone of separation. 

"We train for these types of 

(Above) Riot-control techniques were 
among the skills the 10th Mtn. Div. 
troops practiced in Uzbekistan. 

(Left) Sgt. Rick Lowers of Co. C intro- 
duces two Kyrgyz soldiers to the M-4 

(continued from page 5) 

and raised in the Ural city of Sverdlovsk. 
He now serves with the 101st Airborne 
Division's 63rd Chemical Co. He said it 
wasn't that much of a surprise that the 
United States and former Soviet republics 
were training together. And he thinks it's 
a great idea. 

"Coming together for an exercise like 
this is a really good thing, because it 
reduces tensions and makes for a more 
peaceful world," he said. "We're not here 
to learn how to fight, but to keep the 
peace. What could be better than that?" 

Kabischer echoed Shenderov's sen- 
timents about the importance of training 
together for peace. An infantryman as- 
signed to the 82nd Abn. Div.'s Headquar- 

ters and Headquarters Co., 1 st Bn., 505th 
Inf., Kabischer was born and raised in 
Moscow. He said he felt a mixture of 
emotions upon returning to the former 
Soviet Union. 

"I can't help feeling sorry that such a 
huge country fell apart," Kabischer said. 
"And this is a very financially strenuous 
time for all the countries that were once 
part of the Soviet Union. But having free- 
dom is worth it. It's definitely worth it." 

Unlike the other four native-speakers, 
this was Roemer's second time partici- 
pating in the Central Asian peacekeeping 
exercise. The interrogator, assigned to 
the Reserve's Co. C, 323rd Mil. Intel. Bn., 
participated in CENTRAZBAT '97. 

Roemer, a native of the Russian city 

of Kalinigrad, escaped through Finland 
on a tourist visa before the fall of commu- 
nism. She said her decision to join the 
Army had a lot to do with her background. 

"I joined from a sense of adventure, 
but it was more of a political statement 
than anything else," she said. "Last year I 
was very nervous about setting foot on 
what used to be communist soil. That's 
what living under communism does to 
you. It makes you paranoid. 

"This year I'm not as nervous. I'm 
learning to trust more. For me, that's the 
most important thing about this exercise 
— building mutual trust," Roemer said. 
"The people here want to learn as much 
as they can about our way of life." — SSgt. 
John Valceanu 


operations back in the States, but I've 
never gotten to see stuff like this 
before." said Pvt. 2 Dickey Young, a 
Co. B rifleman. "It's different when 
you're actually working with people 
from other countries, getting to fire 
their weapons and living in the same 
area with them." 

Young said he was also surprised by 

the careful planning and preparation the 
host nations put into CENTRAZBAT 

"The tanks firing rounds, the 
grenade simulators, the role players: 
All that was real high-class training," 
Young said. "You could tell they 
wanted to show us their best stuff, and 
they did. They must have put in a lot of 

work to make the exercise this good." 

Co. B platoon leader 1st Lt. 
Patrick Young also noted the quality 
of training prepared by the host 

"I was very impressed by how 
professionally the classes were 
conducted. They went to great lengths 
to show concrete examples and allow 

Special Forces 
in Central Asia 

CENTRAZBAT '98 may have taken place 
during the latter part of September, but 
work in Central Asia began long before for 
a special forces split-team. Seven sol- 
diers from Company A, 3rd Battalion, 
10th Special Forces Group, from Fort 
Carson, Colo., began working with sol- 
diers from Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and 
Kazakhstan in February 1998. They re- 
turned for two weeks in April, and they 
spent the six weeks leading to the exer- 
cise engaged in intensive training. 

During these periods, the SF soldiers 
showed the Central Asian troops U.S. 
and NATO methods of conducting check- 
point operations, humanitarian assistance, 
dealing with dislocated civilians and me- 
dia, and running refugee camps and dis- 
tribution points. 

"Peacekeeping operations are very 
new to the armies from this part of the 
world. But a lot of the tactics they've 
learned as part of their warfighting train- 
ing, such as searching vehicles and per- 
sonnel, can be applied to peacekeeping," 
said MSgt. Daniel McDonald, the team 
sergeant. "The biggest challenge is to 
tone down their warfighting techniques so 
that they're forceful but tactful." 

SSgt. Chris Robinson, a team com- 
munications sergeant, said he was 
pleased with how fast the Central Asian 
soldiers were able to adapt to the new 

"They're very smart, and they picked 
up all this stuff very easily," he said. "They'd 
studied these techniques before, read 
about them and looked at pictures. But 
working with us was their first chance to 
see it done for real." 

Robinson said the main challenge he 
faced as an instructor was that of credibil- 
ity. Many of the Central Asian officers had 
a hard time believing that noncommis- 
sioned officers could be subject-matter 

ebruary 1999 

experts. Armies from the former Soviet 
Union do not depend on an NCO corps in 
the same way the U.S. Army does. 

"I had to give classes on leadership 
roles in our Army. Most of their younger 
officers liked the classes, but a lot of the 
older officers didn't want to hear it," 
Robinson said. "Their officers are re- 
sponsible for all the training in theirarmies. 
It was very difficult for some of them to 
understand how an enlisted man can be 
trained to do some of the procedures for 
which our NCOs are routinely respon- 

SSgt. Morgan Gandy, a team medi- 
cal sergeant, said he had similar experi- 

"I've seen a lieutenant colonel here 
direct operations all the way down to the 
squad level. Actually, I've seen a major 
train and direct recruits in basic training," 
Gandy said. "They'll ask for our advice 
and they'll listen to our input. But they're 

well trained and have their own way of 
doing things. They're not changing their 
doctrine anytime soon, and we're not here 
to try to get them to change it." 

Gandy said that working with the Cen- 
tral Asian soldiers was very fulfilling. 

"It was very rewarding for me to know 
they understood what we trained them on 
and to see them perform the tasks," Gandy 
said. "They were very highly motivated at 
everything they did. It was really a plea- 
sure to work with them." 

SFC Larry Miller, the assistant team 
operations sergeant, said he also en- 
joyed the experience of working with the 
Central Asians. 

"There's no telling if a Central Asian 
peacekeeping battalion will ever be used 
in the future, or how long this kind of 
training will last, but I think we all learned 
a lot from it," Miller said. "This is now a part 
of history, and I feel really good about 
being a part of it." — SSgt. John Valceanu 

SFC Larry Miller, a 1 0th SFG communications sergeant, advises a Russian radio 
operator on United Nations radio procedures. 


ogether like this back 
then, it might have 
saved a lot of lives 

Sgt. Frank Elliot of Co. C coaches an Uzbek soldier firing an M-16 for the first 
time. Uzbek range officers directed that helmets not be worn on the range. 

for hands-on training, and all the visual 
aids made up for anything that got lost 
in the translation," he said. 

And, like Pickett, Young said he 
never would have predicted training 
with Russians and the former Soviet 
republics for a common goal of peace. 

"The most surprising thing for me 
came at the end of our first formation. 
Wc were standing at attention, directly 
facing the Russians. When we were 
released, groups of Russian soldiers 
came over smiling and trying to 
communicate," Young said. "We 
exchanged gifts and had our pictures 
taken together." 

"I grew up listening to my dad's 
stories about fears of Russian invasion 
and about the nuclear bomb shelters," 
he said. "The best part is that now I'll 
be able to go back and show him a 
picture of me with my arm around a 
Russian soldier." 

For Spec. Clifton Mitchem, of Co. 
C, the best part of the deployment was 
not the exercise itself, but getting to 
experience an exotic place and the 
people who live there. 

"This is an experience I wouldn't 
trade for anything in the world," he 
said. "I really enjoyed trying out all the 
native foods and drinks, and getting to 

An Uzbek flag bearer 
stands proudly during the 
closing ceremony for the 
first phase of CENTRAZ- 
BAT '98. 

see the countryside. The rural areas are 
very beautiful, with their mountainous 
backdrops. And all the soldiers I've 
met from other countries have been just 

Spec. Tigane Gaines, of Co. C, was 
also moved by his experiences in 
Central Asia. 

"It took me till the closing cer- 
emony to realize the importance of 
seeing Russian soldiers happily sitting 
next to American soldiers," he said. 
"Twenty-five years ago we were 
enemies - the two world powerhouses. 
If we'd gotten together like this back 
then, it might have saved a lot of lives 
and money." □ 


I Around the Services 

Compiled by SSgt. John Valceanu 

Air Force NCOs support each 
other during Top Dollar '98. 

Air Force Teams Attack 
Ranger Course 

Camp James E. Rudder, Fla. - 

Eighty-four Air Force members 
from around the world competed 
in Top Dollar '98, a four-day com- 
petition held from Nov. 6 through 
10, to find the best comptroller 
and contracting team in the Air 

One of the toughest events 
of the competition was the ob- 
stacle course, designed to train 

The quarter-mile ranger lit- 
ter obstacle course sent five 
people to the camp clinic and two 
others to the Eglin Air Force Base, 
Fla., hospital for exhaustion and 

Each team carried one team- 
mate on a standard Army litter, 
and two 40-pound rucksacks. 
Along the way, the teams dealt 
with such obstacles as barbed 
wire, high walls and deep 

As Top Dollar teams navi- 
gated the course, Army rangers 
screamed, cheered, yelled and 
cajoled the airmen. "Don't stop 
on my hill!" one ranger yelled as 
a team stopped going down a 
large, sandy hill obstacle. "Don't 
leave your shirt on my obstacle!" 
said another ranger as an airman 
ripped his shirt on the barbed 
wire above him. 

For many of the competitors, 
the obstacle course was a new 
kind of challenge. MSgt. 
Antionette Yonas of Air Mobility 

Command, said she didn't know 
what to expect. 

"Before we went out there, I 
just didn't have the feel of it," 
Yonas said. "It was exhausting. 
You really have to dig in your 


Though the Air Education 
and Training Command came 
out in first place on the obstacle 
course, Air Force Space Com- 
mand from Peterson Air Force 
Base, Colo. , was the overall com- 
petition winner. — SSgt. Jason 
Tudor, Air Force Print News 

JTF-Bravo Provides Aid 
After Hurricane 

Soto Cano Air Base, Hondu- 
ras— In November, soldiers and 
airmen from Joint Task Force- 
Bravo, based here, delivered 
more than 2.5 million pounds of 
supplies to Hondurans left home- 
less by Hurricane Mitch. 

The supplies, most of them 
ferried by air from Soto Cano AB 
to areas not accessible by land, 
included medicine, building ma- 
terials, food, water, clothing, bed- 
ding and diapers. 

JTF-Bravo personnel moved 

U.S. joint efforts provide food 
and other relief supplies to vic- 
tims of Hurricane Mitch. 

more than 1 ,500 people to safety 
and treated more than 1 ,800, and 
aircrews had logged more than 
820 hours on some 425 missions. 
— Army Public Affairs 

Naval Research Institute 
Tests DNA Vaccine 

Rockville, Md. — The Naval Re- 
search Institute here has suc- 
cessfully tested a DNA vaccine 
that could potentially be used to 

battle such infectious diseases 
as malaria, AIDS, dengue fever 
and tuberculosis. The vaccine 
may also be effective against 
such highly fatal diseases as 
Ebola, and against cancer and 
biological-warfare agents. 

The research team immu- 
nized 20 healthy volunteers with 
malaria DNA vaccine. The ma- 
jority developed potent "killer" T- 

cells, which defend the body 
against the disease. 

"We used malaria as a model 
system to test this exciting new 
technology, because it is the most 
important infectious disease 
threat to our operating forces," 
said Navy Capt. (Dr.) Stephen 
Hoffman, director of the malaria 
program at the Naval Research 
Institute. "The significance of this 
demonstration, however, is in the 
proof of principle that allows us 
to advance toward a new era of 

Malaria is currently one of 
the biggest threats facing sol- 
diers during deployments. The 
mosquito-borne disease felled 
more combatants than bullets 
did during the Vietnam War, and 
in Somalia it was one of the top 
causes of troop 

service members 
deployed to ma- 
larial areas take ei- 
ther mefloquine or 
doxycycline. The 
drugs don't always 
work, however, 
and researchers 
are discovering 
more and more 
strains of the dis- 

ease. — Douglas J. Gillert, Ameri- 
can Forces Press Service 

Fort Benning Walks Away 
With JMAC Trophy 

Fort Benning, Ga. — Candi- 
dates from Fort Benning's Of- 
ficer Candidate School plowed 
past their Navy and Air Force 
counterparts during the Joint 
Military Athletic Competition Oct. 
1 7 at Stewart-Watson Field here. 

Aftercompleting eight events 
— including a three-mile run, 
stretcher carry and tug-o-war — 
Fort Benning OCS Class 501 -98 
had scored 21 points. The sec- 
ond-place Navy candidates 
scored 1 5 points. More than 600 
competitors from the three ser- 
vices came out for the event, 
which is held twice a year. 

This was the second JMAC 
competition 3rd Battalion, 11th 
Infantry Regiment, soldiers have 
participated in and the second 
time Fort Benning walked away 
with the competition's trophy. 

Though members of the Fort 
Benning team were proud of their 
victory, officer candidate Kevin 
Burke said that winning wasn't 
the main purpose of the compe- 

"The main thing is that we 
gave 100 percent," he said. 
"Working together with the other 
services will also help us later on 
in our careers during joint mili- 
tary operations."— Sgt. Michelle 
J. Davis, Fort Benning Public 
Affairs Office 

An Army OCS candidate does push-ups un- 
der the watchful eye of an Air Force OCS can- 
didate during the Fort Benning event. 

February 1999 



New Look 

WITH the first glance at the 
cover, you will notice a new, 
more contemporary look to 
Soldiers. Beginning now and 
tor the next few months we 
will be changing the way we 
present some of the news and 
information features in the 
magazine. We do this to make 
the material easier for you to 
read and use. We hope you 
like the changes, and we en- 
courage you to let us know 
what you think. Send us an e- 
mail or drop a note in the mail. 

You will also notice a 
change on the back cover. 
This month we introduce a 
new series, "A Heritage of 
Heroes," to follow the popu- 
lar "Traditions" series that 
pan throughout last year. With 
the new series, we hope to 
remind you not only of the 
exceptional valor of one indi- 
vidual, but of the sacrifice and 
service of the leaders, the 
individual soldiers, and the 
people in the units who have 
given so much to all of us 
through this nation's history. 

We look forward to con- 
tinuing to bring you Army news 
and information in the coming 
year. Let us know what's go- 
ing on in your part ofthe Army. 

PT Test Aid 

I'D been trying to max the PT 
test for some years with no suc- 
cess, but after reading "Training 
for the APFT" in the February 
1 998 issue of Soldiers and train- 
ing hard for two months using 
the push-up and sit-up tips the 
article suggested, I finally maxed 
the test! Thanks for the help! 

Spec. Derrick Williams 
East Point, Ga. 

We Also Serve 

YOUR July story of OSUT at 
Fort Knox, Ky., describes the 
training of tank crewman in de- 
tail, but what about the recon- 
naissance scout elements? As a 
cavalry scout for the 3rd Battal- 
ion, 8th Cavalry, I know scouts 
are part of the fact-finding task 
force of the Army. We work with 
the infantry, engineers, chemi- 
cal corps and the aviation ele- 
ments, to name a few, in getting 
the required data about the en- 
emy. We can call for air support, 
mortars, tank rounds, field artil- 
lery and even naval guns to take 
out targets. We are a highly 
motivated and a highly skilled 
force. I plan to be a cavalry scout 
for the rest of my 20-plus years 
in the Army, and will be proud of 
it. Scouts out! 

Spec. Raymond Whitener 
Fort Hood, Texas 

Website Update 

THE website address given in 
the August issue for the Army 
Correspondence Course Pro- 
gram doesn't seem to work. 
Could you let me know if this site 
is working or if there is another 
site I could use? 

Spec. Rachelle Caldwell 
Fort Campbell, Ky. 

Army Correspondence Course 
managers advise that the web 
address has been changed to 

Sniper Unmasked 

COULD you identify the rifle shown on 
your December front cover? It looks like 
a .50 caliber bolt-action weapon of 
some sort. I'm aware that the military 
has some .50-caliber sniper rifles, but 
I thought they were Barretts. This 
one looks custom-made. Is it military 
issue or a personally owned weapon 
used to accent the theme in the 

SSgt. Murphy D. Riggan 
via e-mail 

THE troops in the Battalion Command Group of the 319th 
Military Intelligence Battalion have been wondering about the 
sniper on your December front cover. Could you identify that 
soldier and settle the debate? 

Sgt. Ilene M. Henderson 
Fort Bragg, N.C. 

OUR Fort Greely, Alaska, photographer advises that a British 
Army lance corporal named Harris, a member of the British 
Special Weapons Test Team, was using a British .50-caliber 
test weapon. He was training at Fort Greely's Cold Regions 
Test Center when the photo was taken. 

Lethal Weapon 

YOUR October article on the 
Objective Individual Combat 
Weapon said it "might replace 
the M-1 6A2 rifle by 2006." That's 
incorrect; this weapon will 
supplement the Land Warrior 
System M-4 carbine and might 
replace the M-203 grenade 
launcher. Each squad, if con- 
gress approves the system, will 
receive two or three OICWs. The 
article made it sound like every 
soldier will receive this weapon 

SFC Steven P. Klein 
Aberdeen Prvg. Ground, Md. 

JOEL Goldman, chief of the Joint 
Services Small Arms Program, 
Close Combat Armaments Cen- 
ter, ARDEC, at Picatinny Arse- 
nal, N.J., and officials at the U.S. 
Army Infantry School, Fort Ben- 
ning, Ga., offer this response: 

"Neither of us can say with 
certainty exactly what will be the 


distribution of the OICW in the 
infantry squad. What we can say 
is that it is intended for the infan- 
try who are in the direct line of 
battle or 'at the tip of the sword. ' 
The OICW provides an all-new 
level of capability at extended 
ranges against exposed targets 
and against targets in defilade. 
The OICW is the lethality up- 
grade for the Force XXI soldier 
and is intended to replace the M- 
16A4 modular weapons, which 
will be the current Land Warrior 
weapons. How many will be re- 
placed in each of these frontline 
squads is under analysis. As the 
OICW works its way into the 
force structure, it appears that 
modular weapons will supplant 
M- 1 6A2 rifles and M-4 carbines. 
Because of the large number of 
these already in the force and 
because of budget limitations, 
there will be a coexistence ofthe 
various weapons for the fore- 
seeable future, following initial 
fielding of the OICW." 


Researching History 

THE William A. Stanley that 
Kathleen Gold referred to in the 
December Feedback is a Civil 
War Navy Medal of Honor recipi- 
ent. He served on the USS Hart- 
ford, from which Adm. Farragut 
gave the famous order: "Damn 
the torpedoes! Full speed 
ahead!" Stanley was cited for 
continued action even after be- 
ing severely wounded during a 
battle in Mobile Bay in 1864. 
J.W.Newton, USNR (Ret.) 
Holly Hill, Fla. 

Happy 362nd 

THANKS for noting the birthday 
anniversary of the National 
Guard in your December issue, 
and especially for the positive 
press you have given the men 
and women who serve as "citi- 
zen soldiers" overthe years. Due 
to Soldiers, many of the myths 
that the full-time and traditional 
soldiers of the Guard are just 
weekend warriors have been dis- 
Sgt. J. Wesley Schermerhorn 
via e-mail 

Uniforms and Awards 

I'M HAVING a problem getting 
color pictures of the military uni- 
forms, both male and female, for 
my bulletin board. I think you 
publish the pictures each year; 
can I get those e-mailed to me? 
SSgt. Eric M. Storck 
via e-mail 

DO you know where I can get 
information about the prece- 
dence of military awards? I am 
also looking for the Class A uni- 
form layout that includes a full- 
length view describing the place- 
ment of awards on both the male 
and female uniform. 

Charles P. Cavanaugh 
via e-mail 

OUR January 1999 issue, The 
Soldiers Almanac, carries a 

: ebruary 1999 

pullout poster that features 
proper Army uniform wear. The 
poster also shows badges and 
ribbons authorized for wear on 
the uniform. The reverse side of 
the poster shows the organiza- 
tional emblems and locations of 
major active Army, Guard and 
Reserve units. 

Caption Correction 

PLEASE correct the caption un- 
der the photo of my son and me 
on page 49 of the January alma- 
nac issue of Soldiers. It should 
read: "CSM John C. Skinner 
shares a hug with his son, John 
Jr., while watching the Special 
Olympics at Fort Leonard Wood, 

My son is not qualified to be 
a Special Olympics athlete. 

CSM John C. Skinner 
Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. 

Correcting SOAR 

THE photos of the MH-60K on 
page 29 and in the table of con- 
tents of the December Soldiers 
are not of a current model, but 
rather of the prototype or test 
model. The red test probe and 
the end of the refueling probe 
are the giveaway. Also, the bot- 
tom-right photo on page 28 is not 
of the mud pit; rather it shows 
SFC David L. Leamon emerging 

from a tunnel on the low-wire 
crawl obstacle. And that photo is 
also mine, not Armour's. 

In the story's fifth paragraph 
I should have made it clear that 
the courses are for the transition 
training of already-qualified UH- 
60 and CH-47 mechanics into 
the maintenance techniques re- 
quired for the significantly differ- 
ent MH models. 

Finally, the page 30 fourth- 
paragraph reference to pilots 
transitioning to the CH-47E 
should read "MH-47E." 

Walter Sokalski Jr. 
Fort Bragg, N.C. 

More Soldiers 

WE currently receive about six 
copies of Soldiers each month 
and they are snapped up within 

Is there any way we can get 
more copies sent here to our 
learning center? 

Stephanie Lanzillota 
Darmstadt, Germany 

CAN we get a subscription to 
Soldiers, since we're not get- 
ting it here in the 248th Military 
Intelligence Company? 

Sgt. Alberto A. Willecke 
Fort Gillem, Ga. 

THE editorial staff of Soldiers 
does not handle the magazine's 

distribution. That's done through 
the U.S. Army Publishing 
Agency's recently renamed Dis- 
tribution Operations Facility (for- 
merly Publications Distribution 
Center) in St. Louis, Mo. Your 
unit publications person can 
start the process by contacting 
USAPA at their new website 
address, http://www.usapa., 

New Subscriber 

THANKS for the back issue and 
your letter. I have enclosed my 
subscription for Soldiers. I re- 
ally like the back cover on the 
Medal of Honor. How many is- 
sues have had this series? Could 
I get more of those? If you have 
a beat-up copy, the back page is 
all I need from them. I would 
appreciate whatever you can 

David Erbstoesser 
Bismarck, N.D. 

Soldiers is for soldiers and DA 
civilians. We invite readers' views. 
Stay under 150 words — a post- 
card will do — and include your 
name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire 
and may condense your views be- 
cause of space. We can't publish 
or answer every one, but we'll use 
representative views. Write to: 
Feedback, Soldiers, 9325 Gun- 
ston Road, Ste. S108, Fort Bel- 
voir, VA 22060-5581, or e-mail: 

United States Government 

Order Processing Code 


YES, please send 
The total cost of my order is $ 

Pnce includes regular shipping & handling and is subject K 

subscriptions to: 

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Credit card orders are welcome! 

Fax your orders (202) 512-2250 
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Soldiers (SOL) at $24 each ($30.00 foreign) per year. 
For privacy protection, check the box below: 

Do not make my name available to other mailers 
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Mail to: Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250-7954 
Important: Please include this completed order form with your remittance. 

Thank you for your order! 


Compiled by SFC John Brenci 


Take a virtual tour of our new 1 + 1 barracks complex.. 



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Btaurie* » lewinG 




f^f* f W BUU.6Ti!IKKRD 


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The ac SiM is the Army's proponent for lusta! 

atlons - where soldiers, takoi 

civilians and family members live, work anil train. 
Quality installations are an investment in America's Army, directly 

affecting readiness, retention and quality of life. 

The address for the virtual tour of the 1+1 Barracks Com- 
plex is 

Washington, D.C. 

Barracks Ready 

WHILE ongoing construction of 
the Army's new 1 +1 barracks is a 
long-term project that won't be 
completed at some installations 
until the next millennium, con- 
struction of the project's website 
is complete. 

The new barracks are cur- 
rently in use at Fort Rucker, Ala.; 
Fort Bragg, N.C.; Fort Lewis, 
Wash.; Fort Carson, Colo.; and 
Fort Hood, Texas, said Birgitt 
Seymour, leader of the perma- 
nent party unaccompanied per- 
sonnel housing team with the 
Assistant Chief of Staff for Instal- 
lation Management's Facilities 
and Housing Division. 

Personnel at other locations 

can get a sneak peak at the facili- 
ties by accessing the 1+1 Bar- 
racks Complex website at http:// 

The site features a virtual 
tour of barracks at Fort Rucker 
and Fort Bragg. 

Comparable to college dor- 
mitory rooms, the new barracks 
units have private bedrooms for 
each junior enlisted soldier, and a 
kitchen and bathroom shared with 
one other soldier. Senior enlisted 
soldiers have private suites with 
a living area. 

Construction on the 1 +1 bar- 
racks began in 1996. The $8 bil- 
lion Defense Department con- 
struction program is scheduled 
forcompletion in the United States 
by 2008, in Germany by 2010 
and in Korea by 2012. — Army 
News Service 

Washington, D.C. 

Retired General 

SEVENTEEN specifications al- 
leging violations of the Uniform 
Code of Military Justice have been 
preferred against retired Maj. 
Gen. David R. Hale. 

The charges allege that Hale 
lied to military officials, had im- 
proper relationships with four 
wives of officers subordinate to 
him in rank, and that he obstructed 
an investigation. All of the alleged 
misconduct occurred while Hale 
was on active duty, during his last 
three assignments prior to retire- 
ment last February. 

The charges were preferred 
by Lt. Col. Mark Henderson, a 
judge advocate assigned to Fort 
Bragg, N.C. Lt. Gen. G.A. 
Crocker, the commanding gen- 
eral of I Corps and Fort Lewis, 
Wash., appointed Henderson 
Oct. 30 as a preliminary inquiry 
officer under the Manual for 

Courts-Martial. In that role, 
Henderson's task was to review 
the allegations and to prefer 
charges if he believed the avail- 
able evidence warranted charges. 

On Dec. 10 Crocker ap- 
pointed Col. Gary J. Holland, chief 
circuit judge from Fort Campbell, 
Ky., as an Article 32 investigating 

According to Army legal ex- 
perts, the purpose of the Article 
32 investigation is to determine 
whether the charges are war- 
ranted by the evidence and to 
make recommendations to 
Crocker, the general courts-mar- 
tial convening authority. 

The date of the Article 32 
hearing has not been announced, 
officials said. 

Hale's last assignment be- 
fore reti rement was as the Army's 
deputy inspector general. He re- 
tired after more than 30 years' 
service and is a decorated vet- 
eran of the Vietnam War. Hale 
was recently attached to Head- 
quarters and HQs. Company, 

U.S. Army Garrison, Fort Lewis, 
so that he can be ordered to re- 
port when necessary. As a Regu- 
lar Army retiree eligible to receive 
retirement pay, Hale is subject to 
the UCMJ and must obey military 
orders, Army legal officials said. 
Army legal officials stressed 
that the charges preferred against 
Hale are allegations at this stage 
and that like any other soldier, he 
is presumed innocent unless and 
until proved guilty. — ARNEWS 
and I Corps PAO 

Washington, D.C. 

Lawyers Get 

A RECENT survey of law-school 
counselors and graduates indi- 
cates that the Army's Judge Ad- 
vocate General's Corps is one of 
the best government employers 
for recent law-school graduates, 
said Col. Richard D. Rosen, chief 
of personnel, plans and training 
in the Office of the Judge Advo- 
cate General. 

Career News 

Defense Courier Service 
Seeks Applicants 

THE Defense Courier Service, whose mission is the safe and 
prompt delivery of sensitive and classified material, is seeking 
applicants for courier duty. 

Applicants must be in the rank of sergeant or above with a 
final top secret security clearance in their possession prior to 
arriving at DCS. 

Soldiers possessing PMOS 71 L (administration specialist) 
are encouraged to apply. Soldiers in other career fields must 
obtain branch clearance before submitting an application. 

For more information contact SFC James Harris at (DSN) 
923-6011, extension 2130, ore-mail him atjharris1@meade- — Deputy J1 for Army Personnel 



The results of the survey were 
published in October in "America's 
Greatest Places to Work with a 
Law Degree." said Lt. Col. Robin 
L. Hall, the OJAG's chief of re- 
cruiting. The survey noted that 
new Army lawyers "get front-line 
responsibility and experience." 

Additionally, Hall said, Army- 
trained lawyers are currently in 
great demand in the private sec- 

"The bottom line is we're get- 
ting top-quality folks, but we are 
also such good trainers our JAGs 
are extremely marketable at three 
to six years of service. They are 
getting out for huge salaries," Hall 
said. "The economy is booming 
and law firms are heavily recruit- 
ing folks with JAG experience 
who already know how to litigate 
cases, handle clients and man- 
age caseloads." 

JAG lawyers have the luxury 
of practicing different types of law 
as they move through their ca- 
reers. This is because special- 

ization is not required as it is in 
the private sector, Hall said. 

With some civilian firms of- 
fering almost $100,000 for new 
law-school graduates, it may be 
no wonder some JAG captains 
are getting out to earn compa- 
rable salaries, Hall said. How- 
ever, more than enough experi- 
enced Army lawyers are remain- 
ing to provide continuity, she said. 

In the meantime, Hall said, 
the Army is a great place for young 
lawyers to start their careers. 

"You can graduate from one 
of the top law schools and be 
hired at a great salary at a civilian 
firm to do research for years, or 
the Army will pay you a good 
salary and train you to practice all 
kinds of law, immediately," Hall 

"After a few years, you'll be 
extremely marketable in the pri- 
vate sector. The Army gets good 
young lawyers; the lawyers get 
valuable experience," she said. 

Fitness News 

New APFT Standards 
in Effect 

ARMY Chief of Staff Gen. Dennis J. Reimer approved imple- 
mentation of the new Army Physical Fitness Test standards, 
which are in effect as of Feb. 1 . 

The new standards were originally scheduled for Army- 
wide implementation Oct. 1 , 1998, but were delayed because 
new PT scoring cards had not been printed and Department of 
the Army leadership had not received input from major com- 
manders offering feedback on the new standards. 

The new cards have been printed and shipped to the Army 
Reserve, state adjutant generals for the National Guard, and to 
active-component installations in the United States and over- 

The new PT test adds three additional age groups: 52-56; 
57-61 ; and 62-plus, said Col. Stephen Cellucci, commandant of 
the U.S. Army Physical Fitness School at Fort Benning, Ga. 
The previous test's most senior category was age 51 , which 
raised unrealistic fitness expectations for older soldiers. 

The average scores for the new PT test "should be around 
238," Cellucci said, which is close to today's average. Soldiers 
who want to earn a fitness badge now need to score 270 total 
points — 90 per event — instead of the 290 points previously 
required. Soldiers who wish to keep their fitness badges will 
need to revalidate them at each PT test. — ARNEWS 

Washington, D.C. 

New SGM 

SGM Jeff S. Howard began the 
New Year in the newly created 
sergeant major's position with the 
Department of the Army Inspec- 
tor General's office in the Penta- 

The Army's inspector gen- 
eral, Lt. Gen. Larry R. Jordan, 
decided it would be beneficial to 
have a sergeant major in the 
agency to provide an experienced 
senior enlisted perspective on the 
issues confronting the Army to- 

Besides traveling with the 
inspector general to sites through- 
out the Army and focusing on 
soldier issues, the sergeant ma- 
jor will accompany DA IG inspec- 
tion teams. He will also serve as 
a liaison with the sergeant major 
of the Army, major command ser- 
geants major and senior noncom- 
missioned officers of other staffs 
and organizations. 

Howard reported for duty in 
January and is attending the In- 
spector General University at Fort 
Belvoir, Va. — ARNEWS 

Tobyhanna Army Depot 

Train, Save 

WHEN Tobyhanna Army Depot, 
Pa., needed to build a site to test 
large satellite antennas, an Army 
Reserve engineer company per- 
formed real-world training and 
saved the Army about $60,000. 
The depot needed an outdoor 
test site near the Satellite Com- 
munications Facility to handle 65- 
ton antennas, so it sought help 
from Company C, 365th Engi- 
neer Battalion. 

First Sgt. Bill Stevens sug- 
gested using his unit to build the 
site, to give soldiers training and 
save the depot money. 

"The project is really a win- 
win situation for Tobyhanna and 
for the company," said Dave 
Allison, the project manager within 
the depot's Directorate of Public 

The company rescheduled 
classroom training to be able to 
work on the project. Stevens said 
the Reservists would do other 
projects forTobyhanna that meet 
training requirements. — Toby- 
hanna Army Depot PAO 

Reservists SSgt. Jim Roman (on ground) and PFC David Mor- 
gan of Co. C, 365th Engr. Bn., prepare to construct an 
antenna test site at Tobyhanna Army Depot. 

February 1999 



Natick's Edward Doucette shows the Deployment Assis- 
tance Device for the MIRPS to CSM Edward lannone of the 
U.S. Army Aviation Center and School at Fort Rucker, Ala. 

Natick, Mass. 


PARATROOPERS now have a 
new reserve parachute that is 25 
percent more reliable than the 
current reserve parachute. 

The Modified Improved Re- 
serve Parachute, fielded by the 
U.S. Army Soldier Systems Cen- 
ter-Natick, has a new method of 
activation that doesn't require ac- 
tion by the paratrooper after pull- 
ing the reserve parachute handle. 

In the case of a main para- 
chute malfunction, the current 
procedure calls for pulling the 
reserve parachute from the de- 
ployment bag after the reserve 
handle is pulled. In layman's 
terms, that means the soldier 
physically has to throw his re- 
serve parachute away from his 
main canopy. 

The new MIRPS eliminates 
the need for a paratrooper to 
hand-deploy his reserve para- 
chute by using a spring to help 
deploy the reserve. 

The new system consists of 

a spring-deployed pilot chute at- 
tached to a bridle to provide a 
more positive inflation and de- 
ployment of the reserve parachute 
away from the jumper. 

The USASSC-Natick has al- 
ready fielded more than 5,700 
systems to Fort Bragg, N.C.; Fort 
Benning, Ga.; and Fort Lee, Va. 
The total number to be fielded is 
52,000. — USASSC-Natick PAO 

Washington, D.C. 

Catalogs Online 

THE new military clothing 
catalogs from the Army and 
Air Force Exchange Service 
are available on the Internet 

The Internet catalog pro- 
vides shopping convenience 
to active duty and reserve- 
component service members 
who live miles from military 
clothing stores. 

Just as in the store, sol- 
diers purchase clothing 
record items at the same price 
AAFES pays the supplier. Ad- 

ditionally, the catalogs have a 
variety of optional uniform 
items and accessories from 
which to choose. 

Though identical in prod- 
uct selection, the electronic 
catalogs do not replace the 
paper versions, which are 
available in clothing sales 
stores and by calling (888) 

Each service's catalog 
has the latest dress, service, 
physical training and battle- 
dress uniforms, as well as 
boots, shoes, shirts and in- 

Additional merchandise 
available to authorized cus- 
tomers includes luggage, 
watches, award cases, sun- 
glasses, knives and binocu- 

Listed catalog prices in- 
clude delivery by parcel post. 
No handling fees are charged. 
Delivery via priority mail can 
be requested at additional 

Online purchases require 
a major credit card or Deferred 
Payment Plan account. Cata- 
log orders processed by 
phone or mail may be paid for 
by check. — AAFES PAO 

Washington, D.C. 

New SGMs 
Fielded Faster 

THREE hundred of the active- 
Army senior noncommissioned 
officers on December's sergeants 
major promotion listwereselected 
to take the Sergeants Major Non- 
resident Correspondence Course 
rather than attend the Sergeants 
Major Academy at Fort Bliss, 

This recently approved 
policy change is among sev- 
eral that maximize sergeants 
major strength in the field 
while ensuring school billets 
are filled, said Maj. Marlon K. 
Beck, policy officer for en- 
listed promotion boards, Di- 
rectorate of Military Person- 

Quality-of-Life News 

Credit Cards Reliable at 

MORE than 20 commissaries now have direct commercial data 
line backup capability, which makes it possible for customers to 
make purchases through credit card transactions. All commis- 
saries in the United States should have the capability by June. 
Through a variety of backups, including direct commercial lines 
and satellite links, nearly every commissary worldwide will have 
the capability by July. 

Most credit-card transactions will continue to flow over the 
Defense Information Systems Agency's "non-warfighter" data 
network. If there is any problem, the direct-line backup auto- 
matically takes over. 

"Our primary network at times can't respond within the 
seconds required to complete a commercial credit card trans- 
action," said Rose Parkes, the commissary agency's chief 
information officer. "That led to credit card downtimes and 
customer waits of up to several minutes, an eternity in the fast- 
paced world of commissary checkouts. We worked with DISA 
to test a number of backup systems, and this one works the 

Deployment began aftertesting showed insignificant down- 
times at six commissaries that had previously reported the most 
problems. — Defense Commissary Agency PAO 



nel Management, Office of the 
Deputy Chief of Staff for Per- 

Under the Select-Train- 
Promote system initiated in 
October 1993 for promotions 
to sergeant major, the Army 
requires eligible master ser- 
geants to complete the Ser- 
geants Major Course prior to 
being promoted to sergeant 
major, Beck said. 

Under this system, he 
said, master sergeants re- 
ceive conditional promotions 
to sergeant major, contingent 
on successful completion of 
the appropriate resident or 
nonresident Sergeants Major 
Course. Soldiers who don't 

complete the necessary 
schooling or training have 
their promotions revoked. 

NCOs attending the Ser- 
geants Major Academy are re- 
quired to successfully com- 
plete the school's nine-month 
curriculum, Beck said. The 
Army now finds it can often 
take almost a year-and-a-half 
to fill some vacancies with 
academy graduates, he said. 

To address this issue, the 
Army is taking 300 of its most 
senior master sergeants se- 
lected for promotion to ser- 
geant major on the Decem- 
ber list and enrolling them in 
the nonresident correspon- 
dence course in April 1999. 

Tax News 

Tax Advisers Gear Up 
for Tax Season 

IF soldiers would rather receive a bigger paycheck every month 
than receive a big refund in March or April every year, they can 
do something about it now or when they file their 1998 federal 
tax returns. 

According to Maj. Rick Rousseau, a professor in the legal 
assistance division of the Judge Advocate General's School, 
most taxpayers hope for a large tax refund every year. But a 
large refund results from large withholdings during the year. 
Rousseau said soldiers can receive more money each month 
by revising their withholding allowances on an Internal Rev- 
enue Service Form W-4. Of course, he added, this means that 
their refunds will be smaller, too. 

If soldiers want more money now and a smaller refund later, 
Rousseau recommends they discuss it with a tax preparer while 
preparing 1998 returns or consult IRS Publication 919, "Is my 
Withholding Correct for 1 998?" The publication explains how to 
analyze and factor in changes such as new dependents or 
higher education tax credits when adjusting tax withholding. 

It also includes a Form W-4 to submit to local military 
finance offices to change the amount of tax withheld. 

Legal assistance offices worldwide are ready to help Army 
taxpayers file their 1998 returns. Last year, Army legal assis- 
tance personnel saved soldiers and their families an estimated 
S1 9,913,670 in tax preparation and filing fees, Rousseau said. 
Of these returns, 1 24,906 federal and 6,1 00 state returns were 
filed electronically, which helped speed refunds. 

For more information contact a local legal assistance office 
or unit tax adviser. IRS publications and tax forms are available 
by calling (800) 829-3676, or they may be downloaded from the 
IRS website at — Judge Advocate 
General's School 

These soldiers were selected 
to fill sergeant major vacan- 
cies in the field prior to the 
May 2000 graduation of the 
soldiers sent to the resident 

"Under this system we 
might be able to start assign- 
ing sergeants major to posi- 
tions in the field almost imme- 
diately," Beck said. 

U.S. Total Army Person- 
nel Command will first assign 
members of the current resi- 
dent class to ensure "they 
have every opportunity to re- 
ceive their assignment pref- 
erence," Beck said. 

Master sergeants with 
lesser dates of rank promoted 
off the December list will be- 
gin attendance at the resident 
course in June, Beck said. 

Beck said the Army nor- 
mally selects master ser- 
geants to fill sergeant major 
vacancies for 12-month peri- 
ods. This year, master ser- 
geants were selected to fill 
vacancies for a 1 7-month pe- 
riod, he said. — ARNEWS 

Natick, Mass. 

New Rainsuit 

THE Army is fielding a new, 
improved rainsuit, or IRS. The 
less-bulky, better-fitting and 
more-ventilated IRS will re- 
place the Wet Weather Parka 
and Trousers. 

The IRS parka and trou- 
sers are made with a pliable 
moisture vapor, semi-perme- 
able polyurethane backside- 
coated nylon material with a 
durable water-repellent finish. 
The IRS is available in wood- 
land camouflage print in five 
sizes, from extra small to ex- 
tra large. 

More comfortable than 
the WWPT, the IRS parka will 
accept the standard button-in 
field jacket liner for additional 

The parka has a roll-and- 

The Army is fielding a new, 
improved rainsuit. 

stow hood, pass-through 
pockets, underarm ventilation 
side fasteners, front insignia 
tab, and adjustable toggle clo- 
sures at the hood and bottom 
hem. The trousers have slide 
fastener adjustable closure 
bottom leg hems. 

The basis of issue for the 
IRS is one per soldier, Army- 
wide, and it will be a Common 
Table of Allowance autho- 
rized item. After the initial 
"push" fielding, the IRS will be 
available to all units for requi- 

For more information con- 
tact the U.S. Army Soldier 
Systems Center-Natick at 
(DSN) 256-4689 or e-mail 
Paul Borges at pborges 
@natick-emh2. army. mil. — 

February 1999 


T'S no longer enough 
for a soldier to be 
just a lean, mean 
fighting machine. 
The demands of today's 
world require soldiers 
to be tough, smart and 
steeped in the values of 

To that end, basic train- 
ing has expanded to nine 
weeks, and soldiers get 
extra time during which 
they can focus on human 
relations, teamwork and 
the Army core values- 
loyalty, duty, respect, self- 
less service, honor, integ- 
rity and personal cour- 


Of course, new sol- 
diers still master the skills 
needed to defeat the en- 
emy on the battlefield. 
Some things will never 

Jonas Jordan is a photographer with the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Savannah, 
Ga., District. 


Though the expanded basic training course may teach soldiers to be more sensitive, 
it still requires them to meet such tough challenges as negotiating the wire-obstacle course. 

= ebruary 1999 

Training on Victory Tower at 
Fort Jackson, S.C. r helps 

soldiers to overcome their 
fears with guidance from 

their drill sergeants. 

Fighting with pugil sticks 
(below) is one of the 
basic training methods 
used to hone the aggres- 
sive instinct soldiers will 
need to survive and win 
on the battlefield. 

Though sensitivity training 
may now be a part of basic 
training, soldiers are still 
taught to close with and 
eliminate the enemy in close- 
quarters combat (right). The 
bayonet course is one of the 
most efficient training tools 
for this purpose. 

Soldiers i 


Crawling under barbed 
wire, at night, while live 
rounds streak overhead 
continues to be one of the 
most harrowing experi- 
ences trainees face. 


to Nine 

Story by Linda Lyly 

WHEN the cadre of the 2nd 
Battalion, 28th Infantry Regi- 
ment, at Fort Jackson, S.C., 
began training a new crop of soldiers 
on Oct. 16, it was business as usual, 

Linda Lyly is a photojournalist with the Fort Jackson 

Recruits Into Soldiers 

Story and Photos by Glenna Linville 

THEY were no longer recruits. They 
were now soldiers. For more than 
230 Army privates, graduation day 
had come. 

For some, it had been 14 weeks 
since they had left home for Fort Sill, 
Okla.. to begin basic training. As 
recruits assigned to Battery A, 1st 
Battalion, 22nd Field Artillery, all had 
endured eight weeks of intense train- 
ing, learning hand-to-hand combat, 
how to march and how to fire a rifle. 
They had learned military customs and 

Glenna Linville is a public affairs specialist assigned to 
the 1st Recruiting Brigade. 

courtesies and how to adjust to bar- 
racks life. And they had met tough 
physical conditioning standards by 
passing the combat confidence course 
and Army Physical Fitness Test. 

"Forty-nine qualified expert with 
the M- 16 rifle," said Lt. Col. Michael 
T. Dooley, deputy director of the Field 
Artillery School's Fire Support and 
Combined Operations Department. 
"They had a 96 percent first-time pass 
rate with weapons qualification and a 
96 percent first-time pass rate on the 
APFT. Their drill sergeants provided 
first-class training." 

All four Btry. A platoons exceeded 
the standard and distinguished them- 

except for one significant change. 

These soldiers became the first at 
Fort Jackson to go through the Army's 
newly expanded basic training: They 
would complete nine, not the tradi- 
tional eight, weeks of training. 

The additional 54 hours focus on 
teaching Army core values, as well as 
human relations and teamwork. In a 
nutshell, the time will be used to teach 
soldiers how the Army expects them to 
treat each other, said Col. Samuel 
Barlotta. director of plans, training and 
mobilization at Fort Jackson. 

"Anytime we can give additional 
time for training soldiers for the years 
ahead, it's a good thing," said battalion 
CSM Willie Hill. "I've always felt 
we've been strapped for time." 

Lt. Col. Bill Gallagher, commander 
of the post's 1st Bn., 34th Inf. Regt., 
also sees the change as a positive step. 

"What the additional week really 
provides is the opportunity for drill 
sergeants to enhance the quality of 
training, as well as its rigor and 
intensity, during each phase of the 
cycle," he said. 

The additional week provides time 
for training in critical areas, such as 
human relations, that the eight-week 
program of instruction could not 

Cheryl and Pat Carlton see their 
son William for the first time 
since he left for Basic Combat 
Training at Fort Sill, Okla. 

selves as honor platoons. Drill ser- 
geant SFC Cedric Jackson's fourth 
platoon led the way with 1 streamers 
hanging from its platoon guidon. 
"I accept no excuses," Jackson 

February 1999 



■ $fa~ "' 

.1 -rwp ~- 1 

accommodate. Gallagher said. 

"This is good news for the cadre, 
who plan and conduct training, and it's 
also good news for soldiers, who will 
have the chance for greater develop- 
ment in basic skills, values, commit- 
ment, PT and discipline," Gallagher 
said. "I think it's a winner all around." 

The new human relations portion 
of basic training will include more time 
on equal opportunity and prevention of 
sexual harassment, in addition to 
sections on rape prevention, suicide 
prevention, teamwork, the Uniform 
Code of Military Justice, making 
ethical decisions, personal finances, 
proper behavior, and spiritual, emo- 
tional and mental fitness. 

The added hours also allow cadre 

SSgt. Wanda Vereen r a 

drill sergeant in Co. A r 
2nd Bn., 60th Inf. Regt., at 
Fort Jackson, S.C., 
shows that today's drill 
sergeants can and do 
smile (on occasion). 

to delve deeper into the Army values of 
loyalty, duty, respect, selfless service, 
honor, integrity and personal courage. 

Soldiers in basic training will not 
be lectured on the values, Barlotta said, 
but will participate in weekly discus- 
sions, with one value featured each 
week. The soldiers will be given 
various hypothetical situations, and 
will discuss how they would react in 
accordance with the value in question. 

The values will also receive renew- 
ed emphasis during the rest of basic 
training. Barlotta said. At the obstacle 
course, for example, a soldier may 
have trouble completing one of the 
obstacles. A drill sergeant could 
provide motivation by saying that 
completion of the obstacle would 

demonstrate the values of personal 
courage, duty and selfless service. 

The additional week will also give 
drill sergeants more time for after- 
action reviews and company com- 
manders more time to be with and 
evaluate their soldiers. Barlotta said. 

Finally, the additional 54 hours 
give drill sergeants more one-on-one 
counseling time with soldiers, adds 
time to the field training exercise, and 

said. "If you make sure they under- 
stand why they're being trained and 
why they're doing what they're doing, 
soldiers understand exactly what they 
have to do, and do it." 

Jackson's theory obviously works. 
He was named drill sergeant of the 
cycle for class 44-98, and has turned 
out an honor platoon for five training 
cycles, including this one. His platoon 
would set the standard to beat. The 
phrase "It's too easy, drill sergeant!" 
echoed throughout the battery area as 
soldiers responded to his commands. 

Though they may have said it was 
easy, the recruits faced challenges on 
their way to becoming soldiers. 

"Working together with so many 
different personalities was definitively 
my greatest challenge," said Pvt. 1 
Reginald Morton of Glen Burnie, Md. 
"But my greatest reward is knowing 
that when I see one of these guys again, 
he'll remember my name and say, 
'Hey, we went through basic training 

"Road marches were the hardest 
thing for me," said Pvt. 1 William 
Carlton of Duette, Fla. "They're long 
and you have a lot of weight on your 
back. You have to just drive on when 
your feet start to hurt." 

"The 'battle buddy' helps you make 
it through. He's someone you can lean 

on and study with," said Pvt. 1 Justin 
Linville of Pasadena, Md. "You team 
up with someone early in the training 
cycle to get through the tough condi- 
tioning. My battle buddy was Luis 
Mendez from the Bronx, N.Y. 

"The platoon really pulled together 
as a team to get some of the weaker 
soldiers through when we ran the 
confidence course. We learned to place 
team success above individual suc- 
cess," Linville said. 

The drill sergeant agreed with the 
private's assessment of the platoon's 

"They're good at peer training," 
Jackson said. "They grab someone 



gives soldiers an additional six hours 
of physical training. Barlotta said. 

But the additional hours won't 
significantly change the way basic 
training has been run at Fort Jackson, 
he said. "It allows our drill sergeants 
and company commanders more time 
to do what we were already doing." 

The Army's placing an emphasis 
on values creates more of a balanced 
program, Barlotta said. 

"For many years, the Army has 
focused on soldiers performing tasks, 
but has missed the boat on the ethical 
and mental aspects of being a soldier," 
he said. "It's not just shooting your 
weapon or performing hand-to-hand 
combat, but how you treat others." 

A spin-off of the emphasis on the 
Army values and human relations is a 
more formalized focus on teamwork, 
Barlotta said. 

At the obstacle course, soldiers will 
be presented with problems they'll 
have to work together to solve. They 
will also participate in field situations 
requiring more tactical teamwork. 

The process of preparing for the 
additional week of basic training has 
been going on for several months. 
TRADOC has received input from all 
Army training centers, with "a heavy 
dose from Fort Jackson," Barlotta said. 

"TRADOC will continue to refine 
it," he said. "Once the ninth week has 
been in place for a while, they will re- 
evaluate, with feedback from all its 
training centers." 

For now, Barlotta described the 
ninth week of basic training as "a great 
step. It's long overdue." □ 

that's down and out and spend extra 
time with them to pull them through 
the task." 

In saying farewell to the new 
soldiers, Dooley outlined his expecta- 
tions for them. 

"I expect you to work hard," he 
said. "You have already proven here 
that you're capable of doing that. I 
expect you to be loyal to your chain of 
command and to each other. I expect 
>ou to have the skills that are specific 
to your military occupational special- 
ties. I expect you to always be open 
and honest with your superiors. With 
those skills, you will succeed beyond 
your wildest imaginations." □ 

Soldiers await instructions from SFC Cedric Jackson as they demon- 
strate Army physical fitness exercises during family day. 

■\ — 

February 1999 


1999 Pay Charts 

THE amount in the "total entitlements" block 
of your January leave and earnings state- 
ments will be a little larger since the 1999 
raise in pay and allowances went into effect. 
The schedules here reflect the 3.6 percent 
military and 3.1 percent civilian increases 
approved as Soldiers went to press. The only 
official rates are in the Defense Finance and 
Accounting Service computer database and are 
the ones used for all pay calculations. 

Questions about pay or allowances should be 
submitted through your unit to your local finance 
office. More information is available on the 
DFAS website at □ 

Basic Allowance for Subsistence 


157.26 /month 


When on leave or authorized to 
mess separately: 

E-l <4 months 
S 6.93 /day 


S 7.50 /day 

When rations in-kind are not 

$7.81 /day 

$8.46 /day 

When assigned to duty under 
emergency conditions where no 
messing facilities of the 
United States are available: 

$10.36 /day 

$11.21 /da) 

When receiving rations in kind 
- Partial BAS 








Military Monthly Basic Pay Table 
Effective 1 January 1999 




Years of Service 







1 114.40 




959 40 

















Commissioned Officers 

8892.60 8892.60 










sioned Officers With Over 4 Years Active Duty 

As An Enlisted Member Or Warrant Officer 

3673.80 3855.30 4008.00 

3181.20 3303.00 3393.30 

2653.80 2745.90 2871.30 

Warrant Officers 









Enlisted Members 





1 274.70 










7619. 1 j 














Drill Pay Table (One UTA) 

Effective 1 January 1999 


Cumulative Years of Service 


I'nder 2 

Over 2 

Over 3 

(her 4 

Over 6 

OverS Over 10 Over 12 Over 14 


Over 18 

Over 20 

Over 22 

Over 24 

Over 26 



E - 1 >4mo 

3 1 98 















56.01 58.21 60.37 61.47 





59. 3 3 

61.47 63.72 67.00 69.11 








69.43 71.65 73.89 77.22 







80.42 82.75 84.91 87.12 








95.91 98.07 100.28 







W- 1 





74.05 77.07 80.24 83.29 








81.28 84.37 87.46 90.47 





W- ) 





89.39 94.60 97.68 100.78 






w 4 





98.76 102.91 110.10 115.21 







W- 5 








85.36 88.46 91.53 95.71 




100.78 106.04 110.10 113.11 




116.16 122.46 128.51 133.60 

















116.16 122.46 128.51 131.65 






120.29 128.51 135.73 141.91 







133.60 140.81 150.25 

















174 28 



205.75 216.04 





























































































1999 General Schedule Pay Table 
(Not Including Locality Rates of Pay) 

Annual Rates for Steps (in dollars) 
4 5 6 7 











16,718 ! 












































26,762 j 











29.833 ! 






















36,711 I 






















44,658 j 
























































Basic Allowance for Housing 

Effective 1 January 1999 

Corresponds to discontinued B 

isic Allowance for Quarters (BAQ) 



W/O Dep BAH-II-Diff 

Grade W/Dep 

W/O Dep 






W-4 732.00 







W-5 798.30 







OlE 613.20 







02E 663.60 







03E 735.30 







O-l 522.60 







0-2 584.40 







0-3 684.30 







0-4 827.10 





405 60 


0-5 938.40 







0-6 973.50 







0-7 1081.20 




February 1999 



Compiled b 

ompiled by Gil Higr 

From Army Posts Around the World 

The STREND Challenge includes the chin-up, military press, wide-grip 
pull-up, bench press, bar dip and three-mile run. 

"I always try to 
go for the hardest 
challenge," said 
Hong. "It's my na- 

Hong said the 
challenge is espe- 
cially relevant to 
soldiers. "You've 
got to be physically 
tit, especially if you 
go to war," he said. 
"When you're 
physically fit, you're 
also mentally pre- 
pared for any con- 
flict orcompetition." 

To find out 
more about 

STREND, check 
their website at 
h 1 1 p : // w w w . — 
Spec. Shirley R. 
Potter, 25th Infan- 

STREND Champion 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii 
— It seems the only compe- 
titions Capt. Sonki Hong doesn't 
win are the ones he doesn't enter. 

Hong, a protocol officer with 
U.S. Army, Pacific, at Fort Shat- 
ter, has entered eight of the 12 
STREND competitions held in 
the United States since 1996, 
winning the elite division each 
time, and the world champion- 
ship three times. 

STREND takes its name 
from the first three letters of 
strength and endurance. The 
competitions consist of five 
weightlifting events— the bench 
press, wide-grip pull-up, military 
press, chin-ups and bar dip — 
followed by a three-mile run. 
Competitors have three minutes 
to perform as many repetitions 
as they can in each of the 
weightlifting events. The run be- 
gins three minutes after the bar 
dip event ends. 

Scores are determined by 
adding the repetitions performed 
for the five strength categories, 
then dividing by the run time. 

The competition was devel- 
oped by retired SGM Edward 
Bugarin, a former special forces 
soldier, who said of his days in 
the Army: "I not only wanted to 
be in the best unit, I wanted to be 
the best of the best." When he 
retired in 1992, Bugarin had an 
idea for a total-body workout that 
would push him — and anyone 
who followed — to the limits. 
That idea became STREND. 

The first STREND competi- 
tion was hosted a year later at 
Wheeler Army Airfield. The event 
grew quickly, and by 1996 had 
branched out to Germany, which 
hosts the annual STREND Eu- 
ropean Championships. 

In March 1996 the STREND 
Fitness Challenge World Cham- 
pionships were held at Camp 
H.M. Smith, Hawaii. The event 
hosted athletes from the United 
States and Germany — good 
enough for Bugarin, who de- 
scribed it as the first "interna- 
tional" STREND challenge. 

Hong won that competition, 
repeated his win in 1997 and 
took his third world champion- 
ship in October. 

try Division Public Affairs Office 

New Construction 

F ort McPherson, Ga.— The 
U.S. Army Corps of Engi- 
neers' Savannah District's resi- 
dent office here supports con- 
struction at Fort McPherson, Fort 
Gillem, Camp Merrill and Army 
Reserve centers in north Geor- 
gia. The office was established 
in 1983 when construction be- 
gan on the Forces Command 
Headquarters building at Fort 

"We'vejust completed more 
than $60 million in projects, and 
future projects at both 

McPherson and Gillem total more 
than $5 million," said resident en- 
gineer Harry Ike. 

The resident office is small, 
consisting of six full-time em- 
ployees with support as needed 
from the Robins Air Force Base 
resident office. But Ike attributes 
its success to talented staffers 
and their close relationship with 

"Contractors are out there 
trying to do good work while 
making a profit," he explained. 
"But it can be frustrating when 
they have to deal with custom- 
ers trying to hold down costs and 
meet tight deadlines. My job is to 
work with both to produce a qual- 
ity end product." 

The U.S. Army Reserve 
Command and Control Center 
at Fort McPherson, which was 
turned over to the command in 
September 1997, is a project 
that has exceeded the 
customer's expectations. The 
facility recently won first place 
for building design from the Geor- 
gia chapter of the American Con- 
crete Institute. 

The $29 million building has 
more than 220,000 square feet 
on five floors and houses 850 
military and civilian employees. 
It has a full-service cafeteria, a 
command brief- 
ing room with 
tiered seating for 
100, large com- 
puter rooms, 
space for the 
command's his- 
torical archives 



and an audiovisual production 

The resident office recently 
turned over two other projects at 
Fort McPherson: the medical/ 
dental clinic and the Audie 
Murphy barracks complex. 

The clinic opened in Janu- 
ary. It contains doctors' offices 
and examination rooms, dental 
chairs, laboratories, diagnostic 
and treatment areas, a state-of- 
the-art fire suppression and 
alarm system, and a full-service 

The Audie Murphy complex 
conforms to the Army's 1+1 stan- 
dard of one soldier per room 
sharing a common area in a 
"mini-apartment" arrangement, 
and it overlooks the post golf 

The complex includes eight 
buildings — two three-story bar- 
racks buildings, a soldier's com- 
munity center, four company 
operations buildings and a bat- 
talion headquarters. 

The family housing project in 
Dahlonega, Ga., for Camp Merrill 
soldiers and their families, and an 
upgrade to the water-treatment 
plant at Camp Merrill have also 
been completed. 

The housing area has 40 
units, playgrounds, basketball 
courts and a 
jogging trail. 
The water- 
treatment plant 
includes a 
tank, raw-water 
intake, a new 
water supply- 
system, a new 
septic-tank sys- 
tem and a sprinkler system. 

New military construction 
projects in the works include the 
S3.1 million Military Entrance 

The Audie Murphy barracks 
complex (left) includes 
eight buildings. (Above) The 
rotunda of the new Army 
Reserve Center. 

Processing Station at Fort Gillem 
and a combined club for officers 
and enlisted soldiers at Fort 
McPherson. — Alicia Gregory, 
USACE, Savannah District PAO 

Air Show Recruiters 

Fort Drum, N.Y. — An 
Avenger crew assigned to 
the 10th Mountain Division here 
recently assisted local recruiters 
in telling the Army story at the 
18th annual "Wings of Eagles" 
air show in upstate New York. 

Aerial demonstrations, vin- 
tage airplanes, replicas and 
modern military aircraft drew 
crowds to the Elmira-Corning 
regional airport where the crew 
explained the Avenger's capa- 
bilities to visitors. 

Soldiers from the 
Horseheads and Corning recruit- 
ing stations had also arranged to 
have other exhibits on hand — 
from table displays with MREs, 
helmets and replica M-16 rifles 
to an AT-4 antitank weapon and 
50,900-pound HEMTT wrecker 
used to recover wheeled ve- 

But the Avenger system from 
Battery C, 362nd Air Defense 
Artillery, parked in front of the 
recruiting tent attracted the most 

SSgt. Matthew Dryer, Spec. 
Jarrod Byrd and PFC Danny 
Fernandez conducted demon- 
strations, encouraged visitors to 
try out the equipment, and an- 
swered questions about the 
Avenger and life in the Army. 

Visitors could simulate firing 
the Stinger missile through the 
Avenger's remote-control unit, a 
Stinger missile training simula- 
tor, and through their own imagi- 
nations while holding a dummy 
36-pound Stinger missile on their 

At the end of three days, 
recruiters had collected address 
cards from more than 200 people 
who said they were interested in 
Army programs and opportuni- 
ties. They were already busy set- 

ting up appointments with 70 tar- 
get-age individuals and looking 
forward to negotiating enlistment 
contracts as a result of the week- 
end. — 1st Recruiting Brigade 
Advertising and Public Affairs 

Guarding the Enemy 

FortA.P. Hill, Va. — Soldiers 
charged with processing en- 
emy prisoners of war, civilian 
internees and refugees practiced 
their skills last summer during 
Gold Sword IV. Nearly 3,000 sol- 
diers from 68 National 
Guard, Reserve and 
active Army units, plus 
U.S. Marines and sol- 
diers from Australia and 
several European 
countries, took part in 
the exercise here and 
at Fort Dix, N.J. 

Military intelligence 
soldiers acted as role 
players and linguists to 
add realism to the ex- 
ercise. The "internees" 
ranged from docile and 
confused to openly bel- 
ligerent or known ter- 
rorists, so that those 
guarding and process- 
ing the personnel had 
to identify threats and 
adapt to changing situ- 

Psychological op- 
erations specialists as- 
sisted military police with keep- 
ing order, and new arrivals were 
greeted with firm messages urg- 
ing them to cooperate with au- 
thorities and assuring them that 
they would be properly fed and 
cared for. 

A prisoner-transport exer- 
cise also tested the soldiers' 
ability to move masses of 
people by land and sea. The 
exercise not only employed 
standard Army trucks and vans, 
but also included moving 
people by commercial rail or 
Army watercraft. 

The 800th Military Police 
Brigade coordinated the exer- 

cise, which had been in the plan- 
ning stage for more than two 
years. The brigade had pro- 
cessed some 70,000 prisoners 
during Operation Desert Storm, 
and brought some of that expe- 
rience to this exercise. 

"We're in the people busi- 
ness, and prisoners are pro- 
tected people. Their health, lives 
and safety are our responsibil- 
ity," said the brigade's deputy 
commander, Col. Joe Campano. 

"We build a variety of simu- 
lations into a scenario, from pris- 

fm ** 




Pvt. 2 Kelsey Rutledge searches 
"prisoner" Sgt. Eric Smith for contra- 
band during Exercise Gold Sword IV 
at Fort A.P. Hill, Va. 

oners who are unhappy with their 
conditions to hostage taking and 
more. We try to make this train- 
ing real while emphasizing the 
human aspects of the process," 
Campano said. 

While much of the training 
centered around transporting 
and processing people into a 
camp, leaders also focused on 
their ability to provide such other 
support services as meeting a 
group's dietary and religious re- 
quirements, providing for spe- 
cial medical needs, and provid- 
ing recreation and work for pris- 
oners and internees. — FortA.P. 
Hill PAO 

February 1999 


ory and Photos by Spec. Aaron Reed 

AYBE it was that adrenaline rush, or 
the view of the snow-covered 
Bavarian Alps on the horizon. Maybe 
it was the blast of cold air hitting the jumpers' 
faces at 140 knots, more than 1,200 feet above 
the earth. Or maybe it was the pride they felt at 
flying 6,037 miles from San Antonio, Texas, 
and arriving on-target just 14 seconds early. 

Or, maybe it was just ... well, the fun of it 
all that put the huge grins on the paratroopers' 
faces when they hit the manicured drop zone 
in Altenstadt, Germany. 

'This is always a dramatic way to enter a 
country," said SSgt. Mark Bartlett after 
jumping from a Texas Air National Guard C- 
1 30 over the German Air Transport and Air 
Landing School in Altenstadt. "It's really a 
rush. If you have any lack of motivation for 
any reason, it ends here." 

Bartlett. a member of the 49th Armored 
Division's Long Range Surveillance Detach- 
ment, is typical of those who took part in the 
Texas Army National Guard-sponsored joint 
lumpmaster exchange. A master parachutist 
who has been on jump status for more than a 
decade, he has some 100 military static-line 

Spec. Aaron Reed is assigned to the Texas National Guard's 100th 
Mobile Public Affairs Detachment. 

"This is always a 
dramatic way to 
enter a country, " 
said SSgt. Mark 
Bartlett after jumping 
from a Texas Air 
National Guard 
C-130 over the Ger- 
man Air Transport 
and Air Landing 
School in Altenstadt, 

(Above) SFC Paul 
Callaway of the 
Texas Guard's Co. G, 
143rd Infantry, con- 
ducts a jumpmaster 
personnel inspection 
on a young German 
airborne soldier. 



(Right) Callaway enjoys the view of the 
Bavarian Alps as he stands by to jump 
into Germany. 

Winds fill a soldier's parachute after his landing on the German drop zone. 

February 1999 


"You establish 


relationships that 

are very, very useful 

when you have to 

execute combined 

operations. Plus, 

you get to train in 

environments you 

are not really 

familiar with. " 

jumps. By the time they parachuted 
into Germany in April, the 12-member 
jumpmaster team had racked up more 
than 1 50 years of collective parachut- 
ing experience and a combined total of 
3,345 military and civilian jumps. 

The Texas Guard jumpmasters 
joined counterparts from the Marine 
Corps Reserve's 4th Reconnaissance 
Battalion, the U.S. Air Force School of 
Aerospace Medicine, and the German 
army's Parachute Test Company 909 
in the 10-day training exercise. 

"This is a perfect 
example of joint and 
combined operations," 
said Col. Guy L. Jones, 
chief of U.S. Army, 
Europe's, Special 
Operations Theater 
Support Element, who 
joined the jumpmasters 
in a drop later in the 
week. "You have a 
Texas Air Guard 
aircraft, German 
parachutes, U.S. 
soldiers, airmen and 
marines, and German 
paratroopers — all 
working together." 

Jones said the 
exchange of ideas and 
the exposure to different 
procedures among the 
services and the German 
paratroopers are 
important, and the 

interaction between the soldiers counts 
for a great deal. 

"You establish professional 
relationships that are very, very useful 
when you have to execute combined 
operations." he said. "Plus, you get to 
train in environments you are not 

Suspended beneath T-10 
canopies, a pair of German 
paratroopers descend onto 
the Altenstadt drop zone 
under partly cloudy skies. 

(Above) German Army Sgt. 
Ralf Shafer leads Americans 
and Germans through the 
forest on a 20-kilometer 
forced march. 

(Right) Left to right, Marine Sgt. 
Ruben Villarreal, Col. Guy L. 
Jones, Lt. Col. Rick Weyrick and 
Air Force SSgt. Charles K. Gray 
wait with the German soldiers 
they jumped with for their 
names to be called. 

really familiar with. 
It's a great enhance- 
ment to NATO 

Though the focus 
of the activities was on 
Germans and Ameri- 
cans exiting the C-130 
together in mid-flight, 
the German soldiers 
provided some quality 
training opportunities 
while the aviators 
caught up on crew rest. 

For example, 
Parachute Test Com- 
pany 909 hosted 
weapons familiariza- 
tion and qualification 
at a nearby range. 
Americans vied for the 
German army marks- 
manship badge by 
firing the new G-36 
assault rifle, the venerable MG-3 
machine gun and the P-8 9mm pistol. 

More than half the Americans 
qualified, with several winning the 
gold badges equivalent to a U.S. Army 
expert marksmanship badge. 

After weapons qualification and 

lunch in the field, the Americans and 
their hosts donned full rucksacks for a 
20-kilometer forced march back to the 
909th 's home at Landsberg Kaserne. 

"The road march brought me back 
to reality," said one marine. "The 
shooting was fun. I didn't qualify 
expert, but I had a good time." 

Col. Friedrich Jeschonnek, com- 
mandant of the German Air Transport 
and Air Landing School, said the after- 
hours socializing between the Germans 
and Americans was just as important as 
the dawn-to-dusk training. 

"These German soldiers may have 
to go to Bosnia, or somewhere else, 
with American soldiers one day. I want 
them to remember the friendships they 
made here, and know that they can 
work together," Jeschonnek said. 

Comments by some of the Texas 
Guard members indicated that the allies 
were clearly some distance down the 
road to those friendships Jeschonnek 
wanted to establish. 

Bartlett, who'd spent a long active- 
duty tour on the border with East 
Germany at the height of the Cold War, 
said of the experience: "You know, I 
would have traded a year of my First 
tour here for this one week." □ 



"I just wanted to give something back to someone who 
gave his whole life to the whole country." 

For more 

information on 

Pvt. Fitz Lee, 

see the back 

cover of this 


A Hero Remembered 

Story and Photos by Sherry Jones 



ND they may well be 
proud of the record made, 
and rest assured that the ... 
valuable service to their country cannot 
fail, sooner or later, to meet with 
recognition and reward." 

Sgt. Jason Dulberg may not have 
been aware of those words, spoken in 
1 888 by Col. Benjamin Grierson when 
describing his 10th Cavalry Regiment 
"buffalo soldiers." But as he drove 
down Grant Avenue on Fort 
Leavenworth. Kan., in 1997, he was 
suddenly aware of one thing — the 
post theater didn't have a name. 

Convinced that the 60-year-old 
structure deserved a moniker just as 
much as the other buildings that 
memorialized important individuals 
associated with the post, Dulberg 
headed for the library in Eisenhower 
Hall to do some research. 

He began with Medal of Honor 
recipients having close ties to Fort 
Leavenworth, and eventually focused 
on buffalo soldiers from the late 1800s. 

"I wanted it to be a buffalo soldier 
because they are such a part of the 
post's history." Dulberg said. 

Buffalo soldiers are indeed impor- 
tant to Fort Leavenworth, but until 
recently were largely forgotten. The 
name "buffalo soldier" was given by 
the Kiowa Indians of western Kansas 
to black soldiers of the U.S. 9th and 
10th Cavalry. It's said to have origi- 
nally been a reference to the soldiers' 
dark complexion and woolly hair. 

The soldiers of the 10th Cav. were 
aware of the Indians' reference and 
proudly incorporated the buffalo into 
their regimental crest. 

Fort Leavenworth began to recog- 
nize the buffalo soldiers with the re- 
naming of two roads in honor of the 
9th and 10th Cav. Gen. Colin Powell 
visited the post in 1992 to dedicate the 
Buffalo Soldier Monument. 

Sherry Jones writes for Fort Leavenworth's post newspa- 
per. The Lamp. 

The post theater is just up the road 
from that monument, which sits on the 
10th Cav.'s original encampment site. 

Once he had narrowed his selection 
to two soldiers — Sgt. William 
McBryar and Pvt. Fitz Lee — Dulberg 
took his proposal to SGM Clifford 
Lovett, sergeant major of Munson 
Army Health Center, where Dulberg 
works in the orthopedic clinic. 

Lovett sent the proposal to the 
garrison commander, Col. Rolland 
Dessert, who passed it on to a six- 
member group known offi- 
cially as "The Memorial- 
ization and Celebration 
Committee," and unofficially 
as "the naming committee." 

Finally, 15 months after his 
eye-opening drive down Grant 
Avenue, Dulberg received 
word that the theater would be 
named in Lee's honor. 

Lee was born in Virginia in 
1 866, the same year Congress 
created the 9th and 10th 
Regiments. He enlisted in 
Troop M of the 10th Cav. when he was 
23 and served at Fort Leavenworth 
from 1892 to 1894. In 1898, during the 
Spanish-American War, Lee earned the 
Medal of Honor for his courageous 
rescue of wounded comrades during 

fighting at Tayabacao, Cuba. 

Due to deteriorating health, he was 
given a medical discharge and returned 
to Fort Leavenworth, where he died on 
Sept. 14, 1899. He is buried in the Fort 
Leavenworth National Cemetery. 

Dulberg attended the dedication of 
Fitz Lee Hall on Sept. 11, 1998. He 
says naming the theater for Lee was a 
good choice. "He was stationed here, 
and he's buried here," he said. "That 
makes a difference." 

Dulberg refuses to take full credit 
for the naming, however, 
pointing out that Lovett, 
Dessert and the naming 
committee kept his idea 

"They're the ones who 
got it going and allowed it to 
happen," he said. 

Driving past the theater is 
now a different experience 
for Dulberg. The new sign, 
Fitz Lee Hall, stands in front 
of the building for all to see. 
"It feels good to know 
that I had something to do with it," said 
Dulberg. "I wanted to give 
something back to someone 
who gave his whole life *| 
to the whole H 

country." □ 

Sgt. Jason Dulberg was instrumental in having Fort Leavenworth's theater 
named for Pvt. Fitz Lee, who is buried in the post's National Cemetery (inset). 

February 1999 


Environmental Front 

Compiled by Karen Baker 


Bosnia Cleanup 

SOLDIERS from the United 
States and other NATO nations 
recently met in Sarajevo, Bosnia- 
Herzegovina, to assess and rec- 
ommend solutions for extreme 
environmental problems facing 
the region. The city that hosted 
the 1 984 Winter Olympics is now 
encountering problems with raw 
sewage, methane gas and un- 
controlled landfills. 

Deployed in December 1 997, 
2nd Lt. Peter E. Nilsen, a member 
of the Combined Joint Civil-Mili- 
tary Task Force's engineering 
team, is using his experience to 
assist in area cleanup efforts. 

In civilian life, Nilsen is a pro- 
cess-controls engineer with the 
Raytheon Corporation. As an 
Army Reserve officer, he identi- 
fies problems and recommends 
solutions to hazards found flow- 
ing through rivers, floating in the 
air and sitting in landfills here. 

Take the sewage problem as 
one example. 

'The waste-waterfacility here 

is nonfunctional," Nilsen said. 
"The Serbs held the facility during 
the war, and used it as a barracks 
and as a site from which to shell 
the surrounding cities. When they 
pulled out, they removed what 
they could, and what wasn't re- 
moved was destroyed. Now all of 
the raw sewage from the entire 
city of Sarajevo, home to about 
360,000 people, is going directly 
into the river." 

A team of explosives experts 
from Norwegian People's Aid 
must clear the facility before it 
can be fully assessed and put 
back in service. Anti-personnel 
mines, live grenades and 
unexploded ordnance were found 
and are being removed from the 

"We've done aerial recon- 
naissance, and I've identified pos- 
sible problems from the photos," 
Nilsen said. "The real assess- 
ment will be done when all the 
mines are removed." 

Nilsen is also working on so- 
lutions to problems at the Sarajevo 
landfill, where leaking natural 

methane gas often causes fires. 
"There have been 40 years 
of open dumping here," Nilsen 
said. "As a result, combustion 
emissions are settling down the 
mountainsides, ready to ignite 
where they sit within the city," he 
said. — SSgt. William G. Cronk, 
27th Public Affairs Detachment 

From Bottles to Bridges 

A NEW recycled-plastic bridge at 
Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., attests 
to an expanded potential for re- 
covering a solid waste while pro- 
viding an alternative to conven- 
tional construction materials. The 
bridge spans a creek on the post's 
Gammon Field and represents 
the reuse of some 1 3,000 pounds 
of mixed plastics that had been 
otherwise destined for a landfill. 
"While larger structures have 
been built using recycled plastic 
lumber, no other known structure 
has the structural capacity of this 
bridge," said Richard Lampo, a 
researcher at the U .S. Army Con- 
struction Engineering Research 

Laboratories, which led the project 
to build the bridge. 

The bridge replaced an older 
wooden structure. The new 
bridge, 25 feet long and 26.5 feet 
wide, sits on six steel beams that 
supported the original bridge. It is 
designed to bear loads up to light- 
vehicle size and can safely sup- 
port more than 30 tons. 

'The success of projects such 




The recycled-materials 
bridge at Fort Leonard Wood 
can support pedestrians 
and light vehicles. 

as this one helps to open new 
markets for these materials and 
provides the opportunity to in- 
crease the overall recovery rate 
for plastics," said Terry Grist, an 
environmental protection special- 
ist at EPA's Office of Solid Waste. 

USACERL has worked since 
the early 1990s with Rutgers 
University, the EPA and a group 
of plastic lumber manufacturers 
to improve product quality and 
develop standards for the materi- 
als. As a Corps of Engineers labo- 
ratory, USACERL's interest was 
to infuse the technology into the 
Corps' military and civil works 

Recycled plastic lumber of- 
fers a replacement for wood prod- 
ucts, many of which are treated 
with chemicals that require spe- 
cial handling and disposal. 

"Wooden bridges also cre- 
ate maintenance problems," said 
Fort Leonard Wood civil engineer- 
ing technician Stan Martin. "We 
send out crews two or three times 
ayearto replace deteriorated lum- 
ber and fasteners," he said. "And 
most of our wooden bridges are 
on running or hiking paths, so the 
splinters and loose fasteners also 
become a safety hazard." 

Plastic lumber creates no 
such maintenance problems, 

Lampo said. — USACERL Public 
Affairs Office 

Humvee Goes Electric 

MILITARY officials and industry I 
representatives recently gath- J 
ered at Fort Gillem, Ga., to J 
watch a demonstration of a 
hybrid-electric Humvee. 

The High Mobility Multipur- 
pose Wheeled Vehicle, which is 
more powerful than the standard 
military Humvee, can climb 
steeper grades and is capable of 
higher speeds and faster accel- 
eration, said officials of the De- 
fense Advanced Research 
Projects Agency. It's powered by 
55-kilowatt magnet motors, one 
to each wheel, and draws energy 
from advanced, sealed lead-acid 
batteries and a 55-kilowatt alter- 
nator integrated with a high-effi- 
ciency diesel engine. 

The new Humvee can oper- 
ate in all-electric "stealth" modes 
for 20-mile missions within its 350- 
mile range, and its fuel economy is 
twice that of the standard vehicle. 

The hybrid Humvee is the 
only one of its kind and repre- 
sents the future for military ve- 
hicles as they transition to electric 
propulsion over the next decade, 
said the DARPA officials. The 
environmentally sensitive vehicle 
was built under a DARPA pro- 
gram exploring hybrid electric- 
drive-system technologies for 
military use. — FORSCOM PAO 

McClellan Divers Clean Up 

STUDENTS from the Chemical 
Basic NCO Course and mem- 
bers of a local diving club did their 
share to keep Fort McClellan's 
lakes and streams clean last fall 
as part of the 11th annual Ala- 
bama coastal cleanup sponsored 
by the state Environmental Man- 
agement Commission. 

Seven BNCOC students 
worked four hours collecting large 
bags of trash from around Reilly 
Lake, while four members of the 
Coosa Valley Dive Club collected 

debris from the bottom of Yahou 

"Everything went well," said 
Sgt. Eric Wadlington, BNCOC 
small-group leader and part of 
the Reilly Lake cleanup crew. "We 
gathered several bags of trash, 
several tires, some PVC pipe and 
a stop sign." 

The underwater crew at 
Yahou Lake collected materials 
that make the water look bad and 
are hazardous to the lake's in- 

"We found bottles and plastic 
and all kinds of stuff down there," 
said diving club member Mike 
Moore. "The plastic is deadly be- 
cause it can get around birds and 
fish and kill them. We hope to 
make their habitat a little safer by 
keeping the lake clean." 

Data from the cleanup will be 
reported to the state Marine Con- 

Sgt. Jeff Hakki (left) and Sgt. 
Andrew Glover pick up trash 
around Fort McClellan's 
Reilly Lake. 

servation Agency for analysis. 
This information will be put into 
computer banks to determine if 
problems exist in certain areas 
with too much trash and debris. 
The annual cleanup is also 
part of "Coastweeks," an Alabama 
program which focuses attention 
on the value of coastal natural 
resources. Many states host such 
programs in support of the Cen- 
ter for Marine Conservation's an- 
nual International Coastal 
Cleanup, in which volunteers in- 
ventory trash and debris along 
waterways to produce a report on 
the state of the world's coast- 
lines. — PFC Kris Vanhorn, Fort 
McClellan PAO 

Earth Day Poster and Guide 

The U.S. Army Environmental Center will provide 
Earth Day posters and other environmental mate- 
rials upon request to Army personnel planning 
Earth Day events. The 1999 Earth Day Organizer': 
Guide — tips tor planning Earth Day activities and 
tacts about the Army's environmental program — is 
available on the D.S. Army Environmental Center's home page 

Phone Lori Davis, the Army Earth Day coordinator, 
at (410) 436-1272 or (DSN) 584-1272, or e-mail her at tor more information. 


■mmmmm^mmmmmmmmmmmmimmmmmmmmm — mm ■■ ■ u m — 

Please send your contributions or questions to: Karen Baker. National Outreach 
Team Leader, U.S. Army Environmental Center. Attn: SFIM-AEC-PA. Bldg 4415. 
Aberdeen Proving ground. MD2101 0-540 1 . or email: mil. 
Baker can be reached by phone at (410) 436-6817 or (DSN) 584-6817. 

February 1999 


Focus on People 

Compiled by Heike Hasenaue 


and Fleming 

made four 

trips to the 

Orange Grove 



project in 

coastal Mobile 

to rescue 119 


Eubanks: Front-page soldier. 

SPEC. Stacy Eubanks can't remember the calm little 
girl wearing pink pajamas he carried through waist- 
deep water when a photographer snapped the picture that 
put him on the front page of USA Today. 

"There were so many children. We were going so fast, 
trying to get them onto the truck and out of there. And 
people kept telling us that two alligators were in that water," 
Eubanks said of the Monday morning in Mobile, Ala., a few 
hours after Hurricane Georges had battered the Gulf of 
Mexico's northern shore. 

Eubanks and Sgt. Pat Fleming, both members of the 
Alabama Army National Guard's 1133rd Medical Com- 
pany, made four trips to the Orange Grove government 
housing project in coastal Mobile that day, to rescue 119 

Federal Emergency Management Agency director 
James Lee Witt said southern Alabama suffered the brunt 
of Georges' destruction in four southern states — an 
estimated $300 million. 

More than 500 Alabama National Guard soldiers were 
called to state active duty following the hurricane. 

Eubanks, a supply specialist in an air ambulance 
company, supervises a team of welders in his full-time job 
at Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc., in Pascagoula, Miss. — MSgt. 
Bob Haskell, National Guard Bureau Public Affairs Office 

MEDAL of Honor recipient retired MSgt. Roy P. 
Benavidez, who had for years suffered from diabetes 
and had one leg partially amputated in 1997, died Nov. 29 

of apparent respiratory failure at Brooke Army Medical 
Center in San Antonio, Texas. He was 63. 

Benavidez, a member of the 5th Special Forces Group 
on his second tour in Vietnam in 1 968, had suffered several 
dozen bullet wounds, engaged in hand-to-hand combat, 
and was bayoneted repeatedly during a heroic rescue of 
eight comrades encircled by the enemy. 

Thirteen years later Benavidez received the medal he 
so richly deserved, Army officials said. President Ronald 
Reagan pinned the medal on Benavidez' chest on the 
occasion of Reagan's first official visit to the Pentagon as 
commander in chief, said Army spokesman Don Carr, who 
attended the 1981 ceremony. 

Benavidez was among a population of about 30 per- 
cent of MOH recipients during the Vietnam War-era who 
lived to accept the nation's highest honor for valor. 

He had earned numerous other awards for outstanding 
military service and had belonged to more than a dozen 
military organizations after he retired from the Army. 

A Houston, Texas, elementary school is named in his 
honor. — Office of the Chief of Public Affairs 

MAJ. Kurt Bodiford, his singing talents heretofore 
virtually unknown to coworkers and friends, recently 
won the 1998 Maryland State Karaoke Championship. 

The victory qualified him for an all-expenses-paid trip to 
Nashville, where he represented Maryland in the National 
Karaoke Championship hosted by Dick Clark. 

Bodiford is assigned to the U.S. Army Concepts Analy- 
sis Agency in Bethesda, Md., where he works as an 
operations research systems analyst. 

Before winning the state competition, Bodiford com- 
peted at nightclubs across Maryland and won two compe- 
titions based on crowd response and applause levels. 

At the state level, Bodiford and other finalists were 
judged on vocal ability, stage presence and crowd re- 
sponse. He sang Stevie Wonder's song "If You Really Love 

Bodiford has been participating in 
karaoke contests since he won a contest 
while attending the Armor Advanced 
Course at Fort Knox, Ky. — Army Public 

CAPT. James Toombs, a Reservist 
with the 7227th Med. Support Unit in 
Columbia, Mo., and a third-year medical 
student at the University of Missouri- 
Columbia School of Medicine, has re- 
ceived a $50,000 scholarship from the 
Nicholas J. Pisacano, M.D., Memorial 

Toombs, the first medical student at 
the university to become a Pisacano 
Scholar, was among six students se- 
lected from 135 applicants representing 

Bartholet: Sailing aboard Aus- 
tralia's Endeavour. 



75 medical schools in 

Pisacano Scholars 
must demonstrate a 
commitment to special- 
ize in family medicine, 
have strong leadership 
and character traits, ex- 
cel academically and be 
community-service ori- 
ented, a spokesman 

A helicopter com- 
mander who earned two 
Air Medals during Op- 
eration Desert Storm, 
Toombs has degrees in 
math and geology from 
Southeast Missouri 
State University. He pre- 
viously worked as a re- 
tirement and health-care benefits actuary in St. Louis, Mo. 
That job sparked his interest in preventive medicine, 
said Toombs, who subsequently pursued a course in 
biology for health professionals at the University of Mis- 
souri-St. Louis. He also volunteered in the emergency room 
at St. Louis Regional Medical Center. 

"I saw all kinds of folks in the ER. For some with runny 
noses and sore throats, it was their only source of primary 
health care," Toombs reflected. 

What he saw made him more passionate about the 
value of family physicians. "At age 30, everything was 
telling me, 'James, be a doctor,'" Toombs said. 

"I hope to be a part of a physicians' group where the 
practicing doctors may be 50 miles apart," Toombs said. 
"Rural medicine allows more one-on-one interactions with 
patients. I want to work with young people, helping them to 

Toombs: Doctor nets schol- 

make choices that will keep them from having to be rushed 
to the ER at 50." — University of Missouri-Columbia School 
of Medicine PAO 

JACK Bartholet, chief of the construction management 
section for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Savan- 
nah, Ga., and sailor of his own 1 8-foot sloop, traveled as a 
volunteer crew member aboard Endeavour, a replica of the 
ship Capt. James Cook commanded when he explored 
New Zealand and Australia in the 18th century. 

The 5-day voyage from Portsmouth, Va., to Alexan- 
dria, Va., was part of the vessel's world tour, which ended 
in Virginia in May. Typically, 20 volunteers augmented the 
20-man permanent crew. 

On the voyage, Bartholet experienced everything from 
shipboard meals and sleeping in a hammock to the "coor- 
dinated chaos" of furling and unfurling sails. Bartholet 
pulled watch, scrubbed decks, stood inspections and un- 
derwent hands-on training in line-handling, steering and 
climbing 1 00 feet aloft. 

"Climbing aloft was a major challenge," Bartholet said. 
"We climbed ladders that lean backwards to get to plat- 
forms located about halfway up the mast. Then we 
climbed out to the end of the yardarms by walking on 
a suspended rope, leaned over the yardarms and 
shimmied up, using our hands." 

In the Gulf Stream, about 55 miles from shore, the 
sailors experienced rough seas with large swells, 
Bartholet said. "We rolled as much as 20 de- 
grees to either side. Some people got seasick." 

When the ship arrived in Alexandria, it was 
welcomed by a huge fleet of boats. Endeavour 
and others fired their cannons. 

Then, suddenly, the adventure was over, 
Bartholet said. "It was right up there with getting 
married and soloing an airplane." — Headquar- 
ters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers PAO 

pulled watch, 
decks, stood 
and under- 



February 1999 



Compiled by SSgt. John Valceanu 

Photos From the Field 

'HETHER covered in mud or concertina 
wire, throwing a grenade or a grappling 
hook, soldiers need tough, realistic train- 
ing to give them the skills they need to 
accomplish their wartime missions. 


•. *. ■ 

Soldiers from Company C, 2nd Battalion, 5th Infantry, at Schofield Barracks, 
Hawaii, evacuate a "casualty" under simulated artillery fire during a squad field 
training exercise. — Photo by Spec. Peter Wersted 

Cadet Cynthia P. Henderson of the University of South Alabama practices toss- 
ing a grenade into a bunker during ROTC Advanced Camp 1998, held at Fort 
Lewis, Wash. Cadets familiarized themselves with the safety aspects of grenade- 
throwing before being tested. — Photo by Al Zdarsky 



Pre-ranger students from the 
1st Infantry Division low-crawi 
through the mud pit at the in- 
struction site near Schweinfurt, 
Germany. — Photo by Sgt. 
Annette Andrews 

PFC Trenton Bussed of the Hawaii- 
based 25th Inf. Div. throws a grap- 
pling hook through a second-story 
window during training at the 
Schofield Barracks MOUT site. — 
Photo by Shirley R. Potter 

February 1999 


.JV military police twosfro-a-half-to 
through the first mud%ole in t 
Recovery Lane at the jbl st Foi 

ove) and a Humvee (right) slog 
bns Under Adverse Conditions and 
pport Battalion's DRIVEX '98. 



Story by Spec. Curt Biberdorf 
Photos by 1st Lt. Quincy Ryan 

STEERING right and left, or 
shifting into drive or reverse 
didn't help. Drivers and passen- 
gers had to leave their vehicles while 
water submerged the Humvees up to 
their seat cushions. Now the next phase 
of training began. 

Getting stuck and learning vehicle 
recovery was the point of this obstacle, 
which was part of the 101st Forward 
Support Battalion's Exercise DRIVEX 
'98. The training at Fort Riley, Kan., 

Spec. Curt Biberdorf Is the senior staff writer for the Fort 
Riley Post newspaper. 

was designed to teach soldiers how to 
operate tactical vehicles under adverse 

The concept of the exercise 
evolved from an earlier winter exercise 
and snowstorm that covered roads with 
ice, leaving most vehicles at a stand- 
still. It had taken all night to travel less 
than 20 miles, said 1st Lt. Quincy 
Ryan, battalion training officer. 

"Vehicles were all over the road. 
The battalion executive officer and I 

T . 

M I 


k •-• 





"The bottom line is that these people are 

being taught to handle anything that comes 

"their way. If something breaks, they know 

how to fix it. If they get stuck, they know how 

" to get out. If someone's injured, they 

'" know how to treat them. " 




spent time teaching people how to use 
their vehicles," said Ryan, who is a 
four-wheel-drive enthusiast. "I was 
concerned. Soldiers didn't know how 
to use their machines to their maxi- 
mum potential." 

Ryan then set the plans for 
DRIVEX '98 into motion. With input 
from senior noncommissioned officers 
and motor pool sergeants, he planned a 

five-day training 
event using four 
training lanes. The 
capstone event on the last day 
was a land-navigation course. 

"By the end of the exercise, we 
should have some of the best drivers in 
the Army, soldiers who are the best at 
maintaining and operating their 
vehicles," Ryan said. 

The battalion also hired Josh Hall, 
general manager of Rod Hall Interna- 
tional, which teaches advanced military 
tactical driving primarily to Army and 
Navy special forces. This was the first 
time he traveled to an installation and 

taught off-road driving and capabilities 
of the Humvee to young soldiers. Hall 
gave ^dfj^'s wcfrth of classroom * 

instruction before the exercise and 
coached the units jkj|^rf| through 

"I was pleased with how attentive 
the soldiers were. They made my job 
easier," Hall said. 

Five companies divided into four 
groups and spent an entire day at each 
of the four lanes. With the exception of 
the vehicle recovery, the groups went 
through the course several times. 
Besides Humvees, two-and-a-half-ton 
trucks, fTve-ton trucks and several other 
vehicles went through the lanes. 

Druary 1999 




Pvt. 2 Herbert Guillory (left) and Spec. William Smart of 
the 101st FSB untangle a tow rope they'll use to pull 
their immobilized Humvee out of a mud hole. 

"It's an excellent idea. It's better 
than any field problem we've done 
before," said Pvt. 2 Duane Anderson of 
the 331st Signal Company, soaked to 
his chest after recovering his Humvee 
from the mud hole in Lane 1 , 
mmm Operations Under Adverse 
Conditions and Recovery. 

Lane 1 largely simulated 
where a tank battalion was 
positioned. The ground had a 
lot of berms, holes and broken 
terrain created by engineers. 

The first challenge was 
creeping over a series of 4- 
inch-square wooden posts that 
put one wheel on the ground 

Band another into the air. Then 
the drivers snaked through a 
IPN twisted ditch to get used to 

Ethe feeling of driving between 
The next berm helped 
drivers become accustomed to 
crossing a path at an angle. 
Going up a blind hill showed 
the drivers the importance of 
looking out the window on an 
approach to gauge the road 
ahead. A mud hole near the 
end of the lane taught drivers 
to slow down to drive through 
water and to crawl up a hill on 
the other side. 

Finally, at the bottom of the slope, 
a deeper pond let drivers practice 
easing into a water obstacle while truck 
commanders watched the air intakes to 
keep water from entering the engine. 
"It was hard, but it was a lot of 

fun," said Spec. 
Jeffrey Smith of 
Headquarters and 
HQs. Detachment, 
101st FSB. "Every- 
body was a little 
nervous heading into 
the water. I've never 
trained for off- road 
driving, but now I 
feel like I can take 
the Humvee through 
anything and know 
not to take it through 
something the 
vehicle can't take." 

Lane 2, Water 
Fording, took the 
soldiers through a 
thickly wooded, 
narrow path replicating terrain in 
Europe. The lane also taught soldiers 
field maintenance and how to impro- 
vise fixes to allow them to reach a 
support area. 

The first two streams were easy for 
every vehicle. The third required 
drivers to descend a hill, turn to the 
right, cross a stream and exit. At least 
one two-and-a-half-ton truck got stuck 
and required a tow from a nearby Ml 13 
armored person- 
nel carrier. 
Pvt. 2 
Clayton Peele of 
the 331st Sig. 
Co. said he had 
no idea of what 
he was about to 
do and was 
nervous, but after 
the first obstacle 
he knew he could 
make it through 
rugged terrain 
without harm. 

"It's all fun 
to me now," said Peele. "I look forward 
to the next obstacle. I've learned a lot, 
but there's still more to learn." 

Signal units need to traverse 
mountainous terrain in order to set up 
at remote sites. Knowing this made 
331st Sig. Co. the logical choice to 
oversee Lane 3, Mountain Trail 

Soldiers drove up and down a dirt 
hill lined with ruts and an even steeper 
hill with loose rocks. 

They used engine compression to 

slow down and brake-throttle modula- 
tion to deliver torque to the wheels 
touching the earth. They also practiced 
driving with trailers attached to their 

"This is as close as you can get to 
the terrain you'd be driving in in a 
battle situation," said SSgt. Eric 
Coburn, lane noncommissioned officer 
in charge. "We exercised the transfer 
case on this lane and fooled the vehicle 
into thinking all four wheels were on 
the ground when they sometimes 

"I knew about the transfer case, but 
I didn't know about brake-throttle 
modulation. That really helps," said 
Spec. Nathan Evans of the 331st. "This 
training has helped me." 

At Lane 4 medics from Co. C 
taught soldiers how to remove victims 
from overturned vehicles. Soldiers 
evaluated the "casualty" and called for 
an ambulance or medevac helicopter. 

"The bottom line is that these 
people are being taught to handle 
anything that comes their way. If 
something breaks, they know how to 
fix it. If they get stuck, they know how 
to get out. If someone's injured, they 
know how to treat them," Ryan said. 

The final 
challenge was 
the land- 
course. Four 
teams were 
dispatched at 
intervals after 
passing a 
written test 
assessing their 
knowledge at 
that point. The 
soldiers also 
took a pre-test 
to determine their knowledge before 
going through the training. Ryan said 
the average scores increased 25 percent 
on the final test, which was much 

Almost 80 vehicles covered nearly 
100 miles during the land-navigation 
course. Of those, two had to be recov- 
ered, said Ryan. 

The top finishers received an 
award, and everybody who completed 
the training received a certificate of 
achievement. □ 

A Humvee negotiates an obstacle that fa- 
miliarizes drivers with being off balance 
and driving on uneven ground. 



Three lucky soldiers from Fort Lewis, Wash., unleashed, 


Story by Spec. Frank A. Brown 
Photos by Spec. Tom Findtner 

THE 21 -year-old rounds were 
older than the soldiers who 
were firing them. And each 
round had cost $7,500. 

"They're expensive. That's 
why we only fire them once a 
year," said Sgt. David Cox, 
explaining his unit's annual 
tradition of selecting only three 
soldiers to fire live rounds from 
the man-portable M-47 Dragon 
antitank assault weapon. 

"We pick the battalion's three 
best gunners; one from each 
company," said Capt. Chris 
DeGaray. commander of Com- 
pany B, 5th Battalion. 20th 
Infantry Regiment, stationed at 
Fort Lewis, Wash. 

"These guys completed nine 
days of Dragon training. They 
shot expert on the training 
weapons and scored well on the 
test. This is their culminating 
event," DeGaray said. 

The three high-scoring soldiers 
in 1998 were PFC Dominic 
Kowalczyk of Co. A, Pvt. 2 Gary 
Taylor of Co. B and Pvt. 2 Andrew 
Anderson of Co. C. 

Each soldier was given one 
shot with a high-explosive 
warhead. All three aimed for the 
farthest target on the impact area, 
about 1.000 meters downrange. 
Both Kowalczyk and Taylor 
found their marks, while 
Anderson's round fell short. 

The most challenging aspect 
of the M-47 is tracking the 
missile toward an engaged target, 
said Cox, who leads the 3rd 
Squad of Co. B's 3rd Platoon. 

Peering through the weapon's 
sights, a soldier must lock two 
lines at the bottom portion of the 
cross hairs on the target, he said. 

An infrared flare at the rear 

Spec. Frank A. Brown and Spec. Tom Findtner 
work for the I Corps and Fort Lewis PAO. 

of the missile and an infrared 
sensor on the tracker guide the 
missile in flight while the soldier 
holds the target steady in the 
cross hairs. 

"If the missile goes left or 
right or up or down from where 
the cross hairs are, the tracker 
tells the missile to fire some 
thrusters, bringing it back to 
where the cross hairs are," Cox 

The other challenge was 
dealing with the Dragon's kick, 
which Cox called "a guaranteed 

"We do this so soldiers can 
experience that big bang on their 
shoulder," DeGaray said. "We 
simulate it in training, but when it 
goes off in your ear and the dust gets 
kicked up, then you understand 
you're shooting a live missile." 

The Dragon has a maximum 
effective range of 1 ,000 meters 
and a minimum arming range of 
65 meters. It's a surface-attack 
weapon that travels approxi- 
mately 565 miles per hour. 

"It's a pretty slow-moving 

The best gunners 
in 1998 were Pvt. 
2 Gary Taylor 
(top), PFC Dom- 
inic Kowalczyk 
(center) and Pvt. 
2 Andrew Ander- 
son (bottom). 


round," Cox said. "Everybody 
was able to view it from the 
observation point. 

"The weapon is good for 
missions like bunker busting and 
blowing up suspected enemy 
positions, but its primary role is 
anti-armor," he said. 

Lt. Col. Alex Perwich, 
battalion commander, said firing 
the Dragon is becoming a lost art 
since the end of the Cold War 
and downsizing of the Army. 

"The problem today is really 
a manning issue," he said. "We 
don't have the numbers to field 
an antitank team. When you're 
busy manning your M-16s and 
squad automatic weapons, it 
becomes a real challenge to stay 
focused on antitank." 

For Anderson, Kowalczyk 
and Taylor, the weapons firing 
meant that they would have a 
skill identifier officially added to 
their records and that they could 
keep the special designation by 
familiarizing themselves with the 
weapon every quarter, DeGaray 
said. □ 

Pvt. Gary Taylor (left) of Fort Lewis's Co. B, 5th Bn., 20th Inf. Regt., experiences the 
firepower of a fire-breathing Dragon as squad leader Sgt. David Cox looks on. 

ebruary 1999 


For Alaska Army National Guard soldiers in 
remote western Alaska, rescuing adventure- 
seekers from the state's awesome terrain is ... 





Story by Heike Hasenauer 

Photos courtesy Alaska Army Guard 

HEY'VE seen their share of 
storms, floods and wildfires. But 
what distinguishes Alaska Army 
National Guard soldiers from 
_ Guard soldiers in other states is 
the nature of Alaska's more "routine" 
emergency-response missions, said 
state adjutant general Maj. Gen. Jake 

Alaska Army Guard UH-60 Black 

Hawk helicopter crews rescue pilots 
in downed aircraft, mushers stranded 
on ice sheets, hikers trapped in 
flooding mud flats, and people in 
disabled and sinking boats — often 
at night — being tossed about by 1 5- 
to 20-foot waves. 

Alaska boasts 3 million lakes 
larger than 20 acres, 3,000 rivers, the 
Pacific and Arctic oceans and the 
Bering and Beaufort seas — plus 
29,000 square miles of glaciers and 
the highest mountain peak in North 



- ■?**■--■%■■.■ / - - •' ■ 

Movies An 

America. So, it's not unusual for 
adventure-seekers to find themselves in 
some life-threatening situations. 

"We've made some hairy rescues 
off ice sheets, involving Eskimos in 
skin boats in the Arctic Ocean, as an 
example," Lestenkof added. 

When a three-man civilian snow- 
mobile team traversed a glacier north 
of Valdez and, like dominoes, jumped 
one-by-one up over a ridge and landed 
on an ice ledge inside an 80-foot 
crevasse, Alaska Guard soldiers also 
flew to the rescue. 

"We deployed a Black Hawk with 
the Alaska Mountain Rescue Team 
aboard and helped get the victims out," 
Lestenkof said. "If they had fallen any 
further, they'd have been gone." 

Soldiers like Capt. Wayne Horton, 
commander of Company C, 1st Battal- 
ion, 207th Aviation Regiment, in 

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Aircraft from the 1st Bn., 207th Avn., 
respond to rescue calls from almost 
two-thirds of the state of Alaska. 

Nome, respond to search-and-rescue 
calls over almost two-thirds of the state 
— some 225,000 square miles. 

In the state that has the highest per 
capita number of private airplane pilots 
in the country, rescuers can expect a 
considerable number of missions. "In 
two recent months, we responded to 
three airplane crashes," he said. 

"Alaska is home to many cargo 
planes," said Lt. Col. Mark Stigar, the 
state aviation officer. Recently, one 
transport crashed 120 miles from 
Anchorage. Soldiers from the 
battalion's Co. A, in Bethel, responded. 
"Using night-vision goggles, in falling 
snow, and in temperatures between 10 
and 1 5 degrees below zero, they flew 
their Black Hawk 250 miles to rescue 
the crew of the crashed Caribou." 

Perhaps the most exciting rescue, 
because it was an international mission, 
occurred in November 1997. 

Horton and other soldiers in the 
battalion had been sling-loading 
wooden tripods to remote areas in the 
western part of the state. The tripods 
would be used as road markers to keep 
snowmobiles from wandering out onto 
ice sheets and into the Bering Strait. 

During the mission they got a call 
from the Rescue Coordination Center 
in Anchorage. A Russian citizen had 
been stabbed in an incident in the 
Siberian village of Inchoun, where 


• »..Tz . . v- 

Bering Sea 

i , Little Diomede 

Nome •■ 

Kuskckwim . " 


B.ry % (kulf of Alaska 

Vacific Ocean 

there are no medical facilities. Sixty 
percent of the victim's intestines were 
outside his body, Horton said. 

"We were upholding an interna- 
tional medical aid-evacuation agree- 
ment that has been in place for some 
time," Stigar explained. 

"The weather was marginal as the 
aviation detachment launched out of 
Nome at night, donning night-vision 
goggles," Horton recalled. 

Around Little Diomede Island, 
visibility was occasionally down to one 
mile, due to blowing snow. "We flew 
80 feet above the 12-foot waves as we 
crossed over the international date line, 
toward Inchoun," Horton said. 

"The Russians had no radio 
navigational aids, so we had to rely on 
a Doppler navigational system that 
becomes inaccurate over water, a hand- 
held GPS and dead reckoning," Horton 

has the highest 
per capita num- 
ber of private 
airplane pilots 
in the country, 
rescuers can ex- 
pect a consider- 
able number of 

(Far left) Little Diomede Island from the 
air. (Above) A Black Hawk lands on the 
island during a rescue mission. 

ebruary 1999 

said. Flying over 250 miles of water, 
they prayed a little, too. 

On the outskirts of Uelen, about 15 
miles from Inchoun, someone fired a 
flare to direct the crew to a helipad 
illuminated by burning smudge pots. 
Two Russian border guards boarded 
the aircraft there, escorting Horton and 
his crew the rest of the way. 

At Inchoun, a temporary landing 
zone had been established on the 
beach, marked by steel drums filled 
with burning driftwood, Horton said. 

"We picked up the patient and 
headed back to Uelen to drop off the 
border guards," Horton continued. 
Visibility had decreased to about one- 
eighth of a mile and the earlier 10- 
minute flight between the two villages 
had taken nearly 40 minutes. 

Horton, his crew and the injured 
man ended up spending the night at 
Uelen. They returned to Nome early 
the next day and the injured man was 
transferred to an Air Force C- 1 30 and 
flown to Elmendorf Air Force Base 
hospital, in Anchorage. 

He was among 300 to 400 people 
rescued each year by Alaska Guard 
soldiers, Lestenkof said. In fiscal year 
1998, the Guard was credited with 
saving 45 lives. 

The Alaska Air National Guard 
operates the Rescue Coordination 
Center in Anchorage. And Air Guard 
HH-60 Pave Hawks, outfitted with 
sophisticated navigation systems, 
flares, hoists and strobes, often respond 
to search-and-rescue requests. 

But, said Stigar, the Air Guard's 
2 1 0th Rescue Squadron has six rescue 
helicopters and the Army Guard has 24 
Black Hawks. "So, we're often the 
ones who respond." 

Stigar, a supervisory instructor- 
pilot for the Guard's 1 st Bn., 1 1 3th 
Avn. Regt., in Reno, Nev., from 1987 

to 1993, said while he was there "we 
didn't do a 20th of what we do here. 

"We perform more search-and- 
rescue missions here than the combined 
total in the lower 48 states, just because 
we're often the only guys in town," 
Stigar continued. "That's because 
Alaska doesn't have the infrastructure 
other states have. There's no way to 
drive to places like Nome and Bethel, 
for instance." 

Alaska's 2,000 Guard soldiers work 
out of locations across the state. "There 
are 76 armories," Lestenkof said. "But 
you can drive to only six of them. The 
most remote is at Little Diomede, 
across the way from Russia. A 10- 
soldier detachment composed primarily 
of local Eskimos — part of the 207th 
Infantry Scout Group, headquartered in 
Nome — is assigned there." 

During the Cold War, Little 
Diomede was a critical post, Lestenkof 
said, because the soldiers reported 
anything they saw happening in Soviet 
territory at nearby Big Diomede. Today 
the detachment is still the first line of 
defense against anyone coming over 
the Alaska Peninsula from Russia. 

But today, the National Guard 
plays an active role in substance-abuse 

The sun spreads its last 
rays across the airfield run- 
way at Bethel. 

prevention in these rural 
areas "where the level of 
poverty is substantial, and 
there's a greater potential 
for drug and alcohol 
abuse," said Maj. Mike 
Haller, a spokesman for the Alaska 
Department of Military and Veterans 
Affairs at Camp Denali on Fort 

The Guard sponsors a youth corps 
program to keep teens active in their 
communities and away from drugs, 
Haller said. He estimates the program 

•" ; <y 



Members of Co. A, 1 st Bn., 207th Avn., 
in Bethel, include full- and part-time 
Army National Guard soldiers. 



reaches some 50.000 youths and 3,000 
adults annually. 

Maj. Tom Katkus. operations 
officer for the 3rd Bn., 297th Inf. 
Group, in Anchorage, works as a full- 
time administrator for the Anchorage 
Police Department. 

"Guard soldiers who live on the 
west coast of Alaska, in the Nome and 
Bethel areas, live in a place where you 
can't distinguish between the sky and 
the ground in winter," he said. "There's 
too much ice to get boats in and out 
and too little snow to operate snowmo- 
biles. In summer it's muskeg swamp 
and water. 

"They hunt, fish, pick berries and 
travel 30 miles upriver to get wood to 
burn." he said. "We're talking about a 

group that speaks Yup'ik and never 
saw a space heater before joining the 

In August and September 1998, 
Guard soldiers in the western part of 
the state responded to a different type 
of emergency — fish failure — a state 
emergency situation not uncommon in 

"You can liken it to crop failure in 
the Midwest," Haller said. "In rural 
Alaska, folks live off the sea. Now, 
many don't have fish for the winter." 

Residents in more than 90 villages 
along Bristol Bay and the Yukon and 
Kuskokwim Rivers struggled with the 
grim fact that it had been the worst 
salmon return in the state's history. 

The Alaska Guard helped set up 

disaster-assistance centers in 105 
communities. Soldiers, speaking their 
native Yup'ik, Inuit or Athabascan to 
the villagers, served as interpreters and 
transported assistance teams in and out 
of affected areas that collectively cover 
as much ground as Washington and 
Oregon combined. 

In its more standard mission, the 
Alaska Guard works with the Air Force 
to provide air base protection. "We 
deploy with Air Force units to provide 
ground security for them in the host 
nations where they travel," Lestenkof 

"In addition, this spring we're 
sending at least a company of scouts to 
Europe for the first time," he said. 
"We're very excited about that." □ 

The Bethel team landed in a remote 
area of western Alaska to respond 
to a civilian plane crash. 

ebruary 1999 

ft-- • ■.• v ».v K 

£•'." A,* 

Story and Photos by Cpl. Scott Kelley 

OMEWHERE in that thick, 
tangled web of trees and brush 
was a pair of opposing force 
T-80 tanks. Spec. Richard 
Cope lowered his Dragon 
antitank weapon and studied the woods 
in front of him. 

Cope, a paratrooper in the Southern 
European Task Force's 1st Battalion, 
508th Infantry, knew what he had to 
do. The tanks were keeping his com- 
pany from finding and seizing weak 
spots in the OPFOR lines so allied 
tanks could advance. The attack would 
grind to a halt if the T-80s weren't 

Cope suddenly spotted his first 
prey, a 44-ton T-80, parked in a 
clearing ahead. The paratrooper quietly 

Cpl. Scott Kelley is the SETAF Infantry Brigade public af- 
fairs NCO. 

moved forward. The OPFOR tankers 
didn't see Cope point his Dragon at 
them. They never heard him fire his 
weapon. Their tank's MILES gear went 
off before they knew what hit them, 
and Cope had his kill. 

The second T-80 tried to retreat, 
but Cope knocked it out, too. His lethal 
Dragon opened the way for the rest of 
his company, which resumed its 

Cope's engagement was but a small 
"battle" in the "war." Troops from the 
SETAF Infantry Brigade, based in 
Vicenza, Italy, had joined with other 
soldiers from across U.S. Army, 
Europe, at the Combat Maneuver 
Training Center in Hohenfels, Ger- 
many. "Blue" force soldiers "fought" 
hundreds of OPFOR for control of the 
maneuver area, a 40,000-acre tract of 
sleep hills, dense woods and lank- 
beaten roads. 

CMTC, USAREUR's version of 
the Joint Readiness Training Center at 
Fort Polk, La., or the National Training 
Center at Fort Irwin, Calif., is a 
training site where battalion- and 
brigade-sized task forces can fight 
mock battles in a stressful and realistic 

"Our big mission was seizing 
terrain for the armored forces; so we'd 
have to leave a day before the tankers, 
to be in position when they arrived," 
said Capt. Christopher Collins, Com- 
pany B commander. "There were some 
changes in our medical evacuation and 
communication procedures. We also 
had to take extra care in marking our 
positions, because accidents can occur 
when you have light infantry moving 
around tanks in a battlefield environ- 

An Army force was built around 
the brigade, SETAF's primary combat 





'%"■ -J 

r *~ i * 

' '<*^ 

unit. Teamed with the brigade's 1,100 
soldiers were M1A1 Abrams tanks and 
Bradley infantry fighting vehicles from 
the 1st Bn.. 63rd Armored Regiment, in 
Vilseck. Germany; M109 Paladin self- 
propelled how itzers from Bamberg. 
Germany: and mechanized infantry 
from Wiirzburg. Germany, among 
others. An infantry company from the 
Vermont National Guard rounded out 
the force. The ad hoc unit was desig- 
nated Task Force-51. All told, more 
than 3.100 soldiers took part in the 
CMTC rotation. 

"The large numbers are challenging 
because the CMTC box is built for a 
smaller force." said brigade com- 
mander Col. Frank Kearney III. 
"SETAF is Europe's rapid-reaction 
unit, and we're usually augmented by 
other units. We're used to doing 
humanitarian and noncombatant 
evacuation missions in Africa, but not 

Soldiers on patrol (left) reach another CMTC hilltop, while an M1 A1 tank of the 
163rd Armored Regiment (above) seeks out enemy troops and vehicles. 

with tanks, and there are many contin- 
gencies out there where the 1st of the 
508th and a heavy unit may have to 
work together." 

The rotation put both light and 
heavy forces through a number of high- 
intensity scenarios. Starting at the 
western edge of the Hohenfels box, two 
battalion task forces — the armored 
and infantry — advanced eastward 
against a series of OPFOR defensive 

Infantry combed CMTC's thick 
woods for OPFOR soldiers while tanks 
duked it out in the valleys below. Each 
time TF-5 1 butted heads with one of 
the enemy lines, 508th soldiers infil- 
trated, seized key points and held them 
open for the heavy forces. 

"The OPFOR hates the infantry," 
said SFC Stephen Bonfiglio of the 1st 
Bn, 63rd Armd. Regt., as he and his 
crew scanned the horizon for T-80s and 
infantry fighting vehicles. "If the 
infantry does what it's supposed to, it 
keeps the enemy out of the woods and 
in the open where we can destroy 

Rain showers added a degree of 
real-world misery for soldiers on both 
sides. Roads became muddy and 
slippery. Fields turned into gooey tank- 
traps. Everything got wet and nasty, 
and it stayed that way for much of the 
exercise. Weather and enemy antiair- 
craft guns also stopped a number of air- 
insertion missions, which forced the 
paratroopers to conduct some 1 0-hour- 

ebruary 1999 

Soldiers of the Vermont Guard's 3rd Bn., 1 72nd Inf., unload concertina wire for 
use around their position at the CMTC in Hohenfels, Germany. 

SETAF infantrymen carry a "wounded" comrade to a casualty collection point 
after an encounter with "enemy" troops. 

long marches. Anxiety, little or no 
sleep, constant battle and world-class 
OPFOR made for a rough time. 

"Everyone has driven on despite 
the cold and distances we've traveled, 
but it has definitely been a miserable 
experience," said 2nd Lt. Ron 
Dibisceglie, a Co. A platoon leader. 

TF-51 continued, however, and 
went toe-to-toe with the main enemy 

force in a disk-shaped valley bordered 
by thick woods and rolling hills. All of 
TF-5l's components — infantry, tanks, 
helicopters and artillery — came 
together during the battle. 

"Having light and mech infantry, 
tanks, smoke and helicopters in one 
area made things pretty chaotic," said 
SFC Joseph Hughes, a Co. A platoon 
sergeant. "It takes a lot of coordination 

Spec. Christopher Feeney, a 
paratrooper in Co. A, 1st Bn., 
508th Inf., pauses during his 
unit's patrol at CMTC. 

to make something like this work." 

Blue Force infantrymen again 

sabotaged rear areas, killing tanks and 

destroying supply depots. But the line 

itself held out against repeated armored 

assaults, and the battle ended in a draw. 

"It's tough trying to beat these 

guys," said Spec. Darren Smith, a 

grenadier. "The OPFOR knows this 

area. We put obstacles on a main road 

and they go down spider trails instead. 

The best we can do is try to detour 

them toward the tanks." 

Light and heavy forces worked 

hand-in-hand during the remainder of 

the exercise. The infantry used the 

tanks' firepower during the defensive 

phase. The heavy guns, combined with 

squads wielding Dragon antitank 

weapons, made for a formidable 

barrier. The same held true during the ; 

search-and-attack phase. Infantrymen 

located OPFOR positions and passed 

the information on to tankers who 

itched for targets. i 

The arrival of good weather 

coincided with the end of the rotation. 

After-action reviews sprang out across ; 

Hohenfels as player units discussed all ] 

that happened, both good and bad. And ■ 

the SETAF Inf. Bde. began preparing ^ 

for its next rotation. □ a 



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United States Army 

A Heritage of Honor 

Cuba, 1 898 

ces, sailing from Tampa, Fla., landed at 
' Daiquiri, Cuba, on June 22. From there the Army moved 
westward toward well-entrenched enemy troops guarding the land 
approaches to Santiago Bay. 

Despite early setbacks, infantrymen of the 2nd Division stormed 
the fort at El Caney, while the 9th and 10th Cavalry and the 1 st U.S. 
Volunteer Cav., the famed Rough Riders, seized San Juan Heights 
and Kettle Hill on July 1 , forcing the Spanish navy from the bay and 
into the waiting guns of the U.S. Navy. The remaining Spanish forces 
surrendered to Maj. Gen. William Shatter on July 17, effectively 
ending the war in Cuba. 

Maj. Gen. Leonard Wood 

Surgeon and Soldier 

Medal of Honor for actions against the 
Apaches in the summer of 1 898. Col. Wood 
was commander of the Rough Riders and 1st 
and 10th U.S. Cav. regiments during the 
Spanish- American War campaign in Cuba. 

Pvt. Fitz Lee 


Troop M, 10th U.S. Cav. 

Medal of Honor for action at 
Tayabacoa, Cuba, June 30, 1 898, for 
voluntarily going ashore in the face of 
the enemy to rescue wounded com- 
rades after several previous attempts 
had failed. 





■ 1L II 

omen jp the Army: 

A Prou 

and Save 


The Official 

U.S. Army Magazine 

Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: GEN Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: MG John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Information Strategy: William R. Drobnick 

Soldiers Staff 

Editor in Chief: LTC Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSG John Valceanu 
Photojournalism Heike Hasenauer 
Associate Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T. Marsden 

Soldiers (ISSN 0093-8440) is published monthly under super- 
vision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide the Total 
Army with information on people, policies, operations, technical 
developments, trends and ideas of and about the Department of 
the Army. The views and opinions expressed are not necessarily 
those of the Department of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest 
to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is autho- 
rized to Editor, Soldiers, 9325 Gunston Road, Suite S108, 
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L Into the Rough 

A standard parachute jump 
from 800 feet is nothing 
compared to leaping into a 
forest with a chainsaw and 
plastic explosives in your ruck. 

A Small Act of Bravery 

He stood his ground, kept his 
weapon and proved that personal 
courage is still an Army value. 


Teaching Equal Opportunity 

Tolerance, fairness and mutual 
respect are on the class schedule 
at the Defense Equal Opportunity 
Management Institute. 




Army's EO Climate 

This year's Equal Opportunity 
Training Conference in Orlando 
brought together EO advisers 
from throughout the Army. 

Women in the Army: 
A Proud History 

From the Revolutionary War 
through Operation Joint Forge, 
women have made vital contribu- 
tions to the Army 
and the nation. 





V\TY Move: Vo ItYourself md $ave 24 


Do It Yourself and Save 

A DITY move can save the 
government money and make a 
profit for soldiers under- 
taking a permanent change 
of station. 

Zo PT Shaped for 

The Army Physical 
Fitness School is helping 
to change the ways 
soldiers do PT. 


A Hard Lesson 
to Learn 

Smokers, dippers 
and drinkers have 
more to worry about 
than cancer and liver problems. 

40 Modernizing MEDEVAC 

The new UH-60Q brings a range 
of new capabilities to the science 
of aeromedical evacuation. 



Sharing the Army 
With the World 

These professionals are dedicated 
to preserving and presenting the 
Army's colorful history. 

The Army Museum 

The long-planned U.S. Army 
Museum may soon be a reality. 

4/ Britain's National 
Army Museum 

History and pageantry come alive 
in this London landmark. 


Center of Military 

History n 

Army Museum 45 






9 Around the Services 
10 Feedback 
1 2 What's New 
26 Postmarks 
32 Your Money 
34 Focus on People 
36 Sharp Shooters 


MAR 1 5 1999 


Front cover: 

Hanging from a pine 
tree after a rough- 
terrain jump, 2LT 
Daniel Manley, 2nd 
platoon leader, Co. B, 
27th Engr. Bn., pre- 
pares to release his 
rucksack and rappel to 
the ground.— Photo 
by SFC John Brenci 

PFC Nicholas Rivera, a light-equipment operator with Co. B, learns how to tie his rappeling 
line to his parachute risers during training before a rough-terrain jump. 


If you think making 
an airborne jump 
at 800 feet above 
the earth is a little 
nerve-racking, try 
jumping ... 


Although blindfolded, SPC 
James Carey, a heavy-equip- 
ment operator, effortlessly 
rappels to the ground from a 
simulated parachute "hang." 

SFC John Brenci 

IMAGINE voluntarily hurling 
your body into space from abo^ 
800 feet above the ground. YouS 
heart pounds so hard you feel 
dizzy; everything seems to 
move in slow motion. All your 
faith is now in the parachute on 
your back — will it malfunc- 
tion? f 
If that vision doesn't raijrf^the hair 
on your neck, throw in a 80-pound 
rucksack filled with plastic explosives 
and a chainsaw. Now picture your 
landing zone not as a sandy clearing but 
as a thick forest with branches reaching 

your skin and break your 

r Many people might question the 
sanity of a person in that situation, 
perhaps even consider him certifiable. 

Yet the Fort Bragg, N.C. -based 
engineers of Company B, 27th 
Engineer Battalion, 20th Engr. 
Brigade, get in that very situation 
several times a year, and they are 
anything but crazy. Doing "rough- 
terrain" jumps is part of their mission. 

The engineers of Co. B have a 
primary mission of airfield construc- 
tion and repair, with the additional 

March 1999 

Light-equipment platoon soldiers prepare one of two bulldozers for slingload opera- 
tions. The "dozers" help clear the landing zone the rough-terrain jumpers will create. 

capability of jumping into rough 
terrain, said CPT Erik Zetterstrom. Co. 
B's commander. The unit has identical 
capabilities to the other line companies 
in the brigade except for this one twist. 

"We provide the Army with the 
capability of clearing a landing zone to 
allow follow-on forces to come in or to 
conduct any one of our other mis- 
sions." said Zetterstrom. 

They use their rough-terrain 
capability to go places others can't. "If 
you're going someplace with no open 
area, you need people who can go in 
and clear an area for choppers to come 
in. It's an important mission." said PFC 
Steven Pipher. a Co. B engineer. 

Zetterstrom explained that a typical 
rough-terrain mission might be to jump 
a platoon-sized element into an "aus- 
tere" environment and clear a 100-by- 
1 00-meter area, using explosives, 
chainsaws and bulldozers, in 36 to 72 
hours. A 1 00-by- 100-meter forward 
landing /one is large enough for two 
CH-47 Chinook helicopters to land. 
said Zetterstrom 

"We can build a landing /one in 72 
hours." said SPC Luis Ortiz, a Co. B 
engineer with six rough-terrain |umps 
to his credit. "It's done pretty much by 
one platoon. A platoon can clear an 
area tor resupply or bi^.- enough for 
troop insertion by helicopter." 

It r 1 1 ; i j. mil) be an additional 

i apability, bui rough terrain lumping is 
what sett the unit apart from othei 
airborne forces. 

i the "iil> unit m the Army, 

SSG Patrick Ford, 2nd Platoon sergeant and 
jumpmaster, clears the rear of a mock C-130 
aircraft during pre-jump training. 

except maybe the rangers and special 
forces, that is qualified to do this," said 
SGT Brian Shrader, an engineer with 
Co. B. "And rough terrain doesn't 
mean just trees — it's basically 
anywhere that's hard to reach." 

The 20th Engr. Bde. is one ol two 
lull engineer brigades, said brigade 
(SM David Andrews. The brigade is a 
sell contained package and is able to 
do everything from horizontal and 
vertical construction to building 
airfields and landing /ones. 

"We gel iii Inst and can be ex- 
tracted last. We don't need airfields to 

land on, and we can build an area up to 
a certain peak of readiness. Then the 
heavy engineers can safely follow us," 
Andrews explained. 

The brigade's flexibility was shown 
during the Gulf War, when it turned an 
existing road into an airfield from 
which coalition aircraft could operate. 

"It was done so that the road was 
used for normal traffic when aircraft 
weren't coming in. A lot of people 
probably didn't even know that the 
airfield was there," Andrews said. 

Once per quarter the unit tries to 
schedule a proficiency rough-terrain 
jump with a follow-on mission to clear 
an area. However, Zetterstrom said, the 
training opportunities have been 
working out to about twice a year. 

The unit members recently con- 
ducted a training mission with a 
surprising curve. They were able to 
jump in with live explosives to clear 
the landing /one. 

'That's never happened since I've 
been commander," said Zetterstrom. "I 
think the last lime it was done was 
seven years ago." 

] ™ore S67 


sep- to 

! Bui fa. ii 




(Above) SGT Erick Alcantara 
(right) reports on his recon of the 
LZ to his platoon leader, 1 LT Jo- 
seph Goetz (left). 

The troops were psyched. 
But then, most of them love 
rough-terrain jumps and 
missions. They wear spe- 
cially padded rough-terrain 
suits and what look like 
modified motorcycle helmets 
to protect them from the 
spear-like branches of trees. 

Zetterstrom said, statistically, 
rough-terrain jumps are safer than 
regular jumps. "Most of the jumps we 
do are into the trees, and we have the 
suits on to protect us. You don*t have 
the impact with the ground that you 
normally have." he added. "The 
soldiers seem to like it. If we were 
jumping into an area covered with 
rocks or something it might be a 
different story.'* 

Ortiz, likes rough-terrain jumps 
better than regular jumps because if 
you land in the trees it's better than 
doing a parachute landing fall. 

"It's pretty soft," Ortiz said. "You 

Co. B soldiers practice their parachute landing 
falls during pre-jump training. 

bounce around a little bit. I always go 
for the smaller trees; that way you can 
get really close to the ground. On my 
last jump I landed six feet from the 
ground. I just popped out of my 
harness and left." 

For those less fortunate than Ortiz, 
the ground is just a short rappel away. 

Zetterstrom threw another wrench 
into the latest RT mission by giving his 
troops only 36 hours to jump in and 
create a landing zone. They would be 
working through the night. 

Once on the ground they would 
have to work swiftly to remove 
parachutes caught in trees. Zetterstrom 

JUMPING into areas most people would 
consider dangerous requires very spe- 
cialized equipment. The rough-terrain jump- 
ers of Co. B, 27th Engineer Battalion, 20th 
Engr. Brigade, are issued the following equip- 
ment before conducting rough-terrain mis- 

Rough-terrain suit 

The RT suit is identical to the suit used 
by "smoke jumpers" in the U.S. Forest Ser- 
vice. In fact, said CPT Erik Zetterstrom, Co. 
B commander, the rough-terrain jumpers' 
suits are obtained from the same company. 

It consists of a top and bottom made of 
thick nylon with padding in the torso, elbows, 
knees and seat. It has a crotch strap to 
protect the groin (prevents branches from 
going between legs) and has a built-in 
rappeling seat. An extended collar prevents 
branches from going underneath the hel- 
met. Pockets in the legs are used to hold the 
letdown line for rappeling. 

Rough-terrain helmet 

The RT helmet looks like a motorcycle 
helmet with a facemask to prevent tree 
branches from injuring soldiers' faces. 

Work gloves 

The gloves are the same work gloves 
issued for Army rappeling. 

Letdown Line 

This rappeling line is made of nylon 
webbing. When a soldier lands in the trees 
and can't reach the ground, he ties the line 
to his parachute risers, attaches the line to 
his built-in rappeling seat, releases himself 
from his parachute harness and rappels to 
the ground. 

Ball of twine 

The twine is attached to the end of the 
letdown line. When a parachute is stuck in a 
tree, the soldier takes the twine to the near- 
est firebreak or road to make finding the 
parachute easier. 

MC1-1C "steerable" parachute 

The MC1-1C is issued to rough-terrain 
jumpers so they can steer away from ob- 
stacles. — SFC John Brenci 

March 1999 

Caught in a tree a few feet from the ground, 
PFC Jeremy Flagg, a heavy equipment op- 
erator, moves his equipment to his side so 
he can slip out of his parachute harness. 

said they use vehicles and manpower to 
do that. 

Then, ever so carefully, engineers 
would move to place demolitions 
against trees and connect them by 
detonation cord. In one thundering 
crash, most of the forest would collapse 
from the explosion, Zetterstrom said. 

Two bulldozers, arriving on the LZ 
by slingload, would be used to level 
most of the ground through the night, 
while soldiers used chainsaws to cut 
down the smaller trees. 

After two days of special training 
and hours of pre-jump training and 
inspections, the heavily weighted and 
exhausted troops were ready. They 
could barely move they had so much 
gear on: main parachutes, reserve 
parachutes, rucksacks weighted with 
chain saw parts and demolitions, 
weapons, RT helmets and thick, 
padded RT suits. 

In the forest you could only hear the 
buzz of aircraft overhead while engi- 
neers silently drifted toward the 
foliage. Suddenly shouts rang out from 
soldiers about to make impact. As 
troops landed there were eerie sounds 
of "snaps" and "cracks" — not bones, 
just branches. O 

Rough-terrain Jur 


ALL engineers in Co. 
B, Z7th Engr. Bn. f 
ZOth Engr. Bde. f must 
go through two days 
of training prior to 
every rough-terrain 

The first day of training for an RT 
jump consists of the following classroom 

Inspecting and donning the rough- 
terrain suit. 
"Rigging" a weapon for an RT jump. 
Steering the MC1-1C parachute. 
Marking the parachute. 
Drop-zone specifics. 
Aircraft exiting procedures. 
Purpose of the RT jump. 
Contents of the rucksack. 


The second day of training for an RT jump consists of hands-on trainin 
at the rappeling tower. 

Soldiers inspect and don their RT suits, are blindfolded, don their R 
helmets, and get in a modified parachute harness connected to a system i 

Other soldiers lift the trainees 20 to 30 feet in the air. The blindfolde 
trainees then take their letdown lines out of the pockets of their RT suits an 
tie the letdown lines to their modified parachute risers. Then they connectth 
lines to their built-in rappeling harnesses, lower the lines, use their "brake 
hands to get locked in place, get out of their parachute harnesses and rapp' 
to the ground. 

According to SFC Alvin Rivera, acting first sergeant for Co. B, the reasc 
the trainees are blindfolded is because if they actually get caught in the tree 
they won't be able to see what they're doing during a night jump or if branche 
are in their faces. 

Blindfolded paratroopers learn to rappi 
from their parachutes in case they get stuc 
in the trees on the rough-terrain jump. 

On the third day, 
the RT jumpers con- 
duct pre-jump training 
and the actual RT jump 
and follow-on mission. 
— SFC John Brenci 


This list is not all-inclusive. 


J Daniel Devries, light-equipment platoon leader 
r Co. B, talks his troops through rehearsals he- 
re occupying and clearing a landing zone. 

Soldier Ingenuity at Work 

rHEN a paratrooper lands on the ground, the first 
thing he must be able to do is operate his weapon. 
The faster he gets his weapon operational, the 
better his chances of survival. 

Paratroopers jump out of airplanes with their weapons 
in a weapons case, which allows them quick access to 
their weapons when they reach the ground. 

However, rough-terrain jumpers don't use the weap- 
ons cases because they need the freedom of their arms if 
they get stuck in trees. 

Instead, they rig their weapons on their backs and put 
wadding and masking tape over the key points of the 
weapon to protect it from branches. 

SPC Jarrod McGee, an engineer and unit armorer for 
Co. B, developed a 
quick-release sys- 
tem to coverthe key 
points of the wea- 
pon, because the 
traditional method 
didn't allow the 
weapon to become 
operational fast 

"The first thing 
you need to be able 
to do is make the 
weapon functional," 
said McGee. "Be- 
fore, it took me so 
long to get the tape 
off, it seemed like a 
terrible waste of 

So he devel- 
oped a simple, but 
efficient, method of 
getting the weapon 
operational. By 
merely running the SPC Jerrod McGee 
masking tape be- 
tween two folded sides of some duct tape he created a 
"tab" the soldier could tear off the magazine well, the 
charging handle and the muzzle — making the weapon 

"It probably saves about two minutes of time," said 
McGee. Which is a lifetime if the enemy is looking at you 
down the barrel of his weapon. 

— SFC John Brenci 


A Small 

Act of 


Stony by SPC Robert B. Valentine ' 
Photo by SGT Amy Elker 

PFC Jarred H. King refused to surren- 
der his weapon to Serb troops. 

SOMETIMES it's a small act 
of bravery that best defines 
what it means to be a 
soldier. This is certainly true 
of PFC Jarred H. King. 

On Dec. 2, 1998, armed 
guards blocked King's path and 
Serb officers demanded that he 
give up his weapon. Alone, 
scared, but undaunted, King 
refused to comply. 

He had deployed to Bosnia- 
Herzegovina in September with 
the 1st Cavalry Division from 
Fort Hood, Texas. A field 
artillery surveyor, King was 
assigned as a driver for MAJ 
David Miller, the Joint Military 
Commission's liaison officer to 
the Serb corps. 

The JMC's mission is to 
monitor compliance with the 
military provisions of the Dayton 
Peace Accord. 

Five times a week Miller, 
King and a Yugoslav interpreter 
drive 40 minutes to Serb corps 
headquarters in Sokolac, Serb 
Republic, from Sarajevo, Bosnia- 

"About an hour before we left 
Sarajevo the former commander 
of the 5th Drina Corps of the 
Bosnian Serb Army was appre- 
hended by United Nations troops 

SPC Robert B. Valentine is a member of the 31 9th 
Mobile Public Affairs Detachment. 

and taken to stand trial for war 
crimes," said Miller, an Army 
Reservist from Appleton, Wis. 

"When we arrived at Serb 
headquarters there were a lot of 
soldiers milling around, but 
nothing else out of the ordinary. 
As usual, the interpreter and I 
went inside to meet the Serb 
liaison. King always stays with 
the vehicle to make sure no one 
tampers with it," he said. 

Inside, the Serb liaison 
escorted Miller and his inter- 
preter to an office and closed the 
door. Soon the two men heard 
shouting outside the room, and 
suddenly the interpreter seemed 
very nervous. When the Serbs 
ordered the two men to stay in 
the room, "for our own safety," 
Miller quickly returned to the 
vehicle, told King to load his 
weapon, then re-entered the 
building for his interpreter. 

King, now fully armed, was 
in the vehicle alone when several 
Serb guards approached him. 

"They motioned for me to 
take the magazine out of my M- 
1 6, but I pretended to not under- 
stand," King said. 

"One officer who spoke 
English motioned for me to roll 
down the window and said 
'Don't you want peace? Why 
don't you give us your 

"I was 

scared/' King 
said, "hut I 
could tell that 
they were 
scared. I 
didn't know 
the situation, 
hut I knew I 
had to he 
careful not to 
start any- 
thing. I had to 
stay calm." 

weapon?'" King explained. 
"Then, an officer came out of the 
building and started passing out 
AK-47s, bandoleers, and flak 
vests to the guards. This was 
definitely out of the ordinary. 

"I was scared," King said, 
"but I could tell that they were 
equally scared. I didn't know the 
situation, but I knew I had to be 
careful not to start anything. I 
had to stay calm." 

King slowly exited his vehicle 
and slung his M-16 over his 
shoulder to show the Serbs that 
he didn't have any dangerous 
intentions toward them. Mean- 
while, Miller was speaking to the 
Serb deputy commander inside. 

"He wanted us to stay in the 
building, saying that he was 
concerned for our safety from 
civilians and that we couldn't 
leave," Miller said. "I asked my 
interpreter to get King." 

"I could tell that the inter- 
preter was shaken," King said, 
"so I locked the vehicle and 
followed him inside." 

The three men had been 
detained for 90 minutes before 
MG Kevin P. Byrnes, com- 
mander of Multinational Div. 
(North) and the 1st Cav. Div., 
reached them by phone. 

Byrnes then talked to the 
Serbs and asked if the trio was 
under arrest. The deputy com- 
mander said, "no," and shortly 
thereafter, a Serb military convoy 
escorted Miller, King and their 
interpreter back into Muslim- 
Croatian Federation territory. 

After the debriefing of the 
incident, Byrnes awarded King 
the Army Achievement medal. 

"PFC King did a terrific job. 
He did exactly what we want all 
soldiers to do under stressful, 
uncertain circumstances," Byrnes 

"We have a dangerous job; 
we go into the lion's den every 
day," Miller said. "PFC King did 
a good job, he kept his cool and 
did not provoke an already 
hostile situation." 

The attention and accolades 
he received surprised King. "I 
didn't expect anything out of it," 
he said. "I was just doing my job 
and did what was common sense 
to me." □ 


I Around the Services 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

A Tomahawk cruise missile lifts 
Navy destroyer during the Desert 

Navy Joins in 
Desert Fox 

Washington, D.C. — Ships and 
aircraft from the USS Enterprise 
battle group and other ships in 
the Arabian Gulf were among 
the U.S. and British forces that 
took part in strikes against mili- 
tary targets in Iraq as part of 
Operation Desert Fox in mid- 

Units participating in the at- 
tack included aircraft from Car- 
rier Air Wing Three, USS 
Gettysburg, USS Paul Hamilton, 
USS Hopper, USS Stout, USS 
Fletcher. USS Hayler, USS 
Nicholson and USS Miami. In 
addition, USS Can, USS Belleau 
Wood and USS Germantown 
provided support. 

'Their mission was to attack 
Iraq's nuclear, chemical and bio- 
logical weapons programs and 
its military capacity to threaten 
its neighbors," said President Bill 

According to defense offi- 
cials, military targets were se- 
lected on the basis of their mili- 
tary significance to the Iraqi re- 
gime, including the targets' con- 
tribution to Iraq's ability to pro- 
duce, store, maintain and deliver 
weapons of mass destruction — 
with consideration given to mini- 
mizing collateral damage with- 
out adding undue risk to U.S. 

"It is inevitable during con- 

|| flict that the fo- 
t* If: cus would be on 
| ourweaponsand 
It/) their effective- 
ly ness," said Army 
GEN Henry H. 
Shelton, the 
chairman of the 
Joint Chiefs of 
Staff. "But we 
must not lose 
sight of the fact 
that it is our 
people that make 
the difference. It 
is oursuperb sol- 
diers, sailors, airmen and ma- 
rines that make America the su- 
per power that it is. We owe men 
and women in uniform carrying 
out this operation a great deal." 
To reinforce naval forces al- 
ready on station, the USS Carl 
Vinson battle group arrived in 
the region Dec. 18. — Dennis L 
Everette, Navy News Service 

off from a 
Fox attack. 

African Eagle 
in Morocco 

Sidi Slimaine Air Base, Mo- 
rocco — About 200 U.S. airmen 
deployed here in early Decem- 
ber for African Eagle '98, a bilat- 
eral exercise held every two 
years between the U.S. Air Force 
and Royal Moroccan Air Force. 

The exercise is directed by 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff and is 
designed to maintain and in- 
crease operational capabilities 
through combined air-to-airtrain- 
ing. It also strengthens bonds 
between the two nations. 

The U.S. airmen came pri- 
marily from the 31 st Fighter Wing 
at Aviano Air Base, Italy, and 
other U.S. European bases. This 
exercise gave the pilots a train- 
ing opportunity they haven't had 
since November 1997. 

"We've found that this is the 
best place to do air-to-air training 
in the U.S. Air Forces in Europe 
area of responsibility," said Maj. 
J.Q. Watton, 31st FW project 
officer and 555th Fighter Squad- 
ron pilot. "It's been invaluable. 

Some of our young guys have 
never done most things we're 
doing here. Some haven't done 
any of it." 

Watton said the exercise 
consisted primarily of dissimilar 
air-combattraining, involving dif- 
ferent types of aircraft. In this 
case the Americans "fought" 

American forces participat- 
ing in exercises like this not only 
get good training, they also get 
the chance to do something good 
for others, said Edward Gabriel, 
U.S. ambassador to Morocco. 

"There is a personal element 

SSgt. Drew Myer of the 555th 
Fighter Sqdn. pre-f lights an F- 
16 during African Eagle '98. 

involved in this, a humanitarian 
element, as well as military co- 
operation. We have more than 
100 folks here with the military, 
and when they're not flying, 
they're helping out the school 
here," Gabriel said. 

The air expeditionary group 
wrapped up operations Dec. 19. 
— USAFE News Service 

Marines Land at 

Aberdeen Test Center, Md. — 

Sixty-seven Marine Reservists 
from Company B, 4th Light Ar- 
mored Reconnaissance Battal- 
ion, in Frederick, Md., deployed 
recently to the Aberdeen Test 
Center for a weekend training 
exercise. They were the first 
Marine unit to use the ATC for 
weekend training, according to 
Dick Samples, ATC Warfighter 
team chief. 

The marines arrived in 17 
light amphibious vehicles and an 
amphibious recovery vehicle to 
train in Spestuie Narrows, a 
Chesapeake Bay inlet within the 
confines of ATC. 

After a two-hou r convoy from 
Frederick, the marines performed 
pre-operational safety checks, 
conducted launch-and-swim 
operations, and completed after- 
operational checks on all 1 7 LAVs. 
Each LAV has a crew of three. 

Every crew followed the 
training plan and completed the 
exercise, and the entire opera- 
tion was a success, Samples said. 

"They wanted to come here 
because the ATC is close to the 
unit's home base, and it offers an 
ous operations," Samples said. 

The marines said they plan 
to return next year for more train- 
ing. —Lena Goodman, ATC Pub- 
lic Affairs Office 

Marine light amphibious vehicles cross Spestuie Narrows during 
the training at Aberdeen Test Center. 

March 1999 



From the Editor 

HISTORY, tradition and an un- 
derstanding ot the legacy of 
those who have served be- 
fore us are a large part of 

bat-ready force. This month, 
we offer you a brief look at 

tributions of women in the 

at the Army's Center of Mili- 
tary History. As it has been 
since its inception in 1943, 
CMH is hard at work chroni- 
cling and cataloguing Army 
activities and artifacts. Among 
its many initiatives is the ef- 
fort to build an Army museum 

This month you may also 
read about rough-terrain 

and get some tips on do-it- 
yourself moving. 

You'll notice we've begun 
using Army-standard abbre- 
viations for military rank. For 
many years we used a hybrid 
form of rank abbreviations 
that conformed neither to the 
Associated Press nor stan- 
dard Army style. Since the AP 
abbreviations are usually long 
and unnecessary for a largely 
military readership, we chose 
to go with what we all know 
best: the Army way. 

Ribbon Correction 

AS one of thousands of Ameri- 
can and NATO soldiers who 
served in Bosnia, I was awarded 
the NATO medal for service 
there. I am puzzled about why 
the ribbon and medal, sold in 
military clothing sales stores, is 
incorrect in color and omits the 
"Former Yugoslavia" bar on the 
ribbon. I think our suppliers got 
this wrong from the beginning 
and have never corrected it. 
Soldiers magazine got it right 
ontheirchart. Whycan'ttheU.S. 
manufacturers do the same? 
SFC Eugene M. Greene 
Vilsek, Germany 

The Institute of Heraldry (from 
which Soldiers received its rib- 
bon chart data) has evaluated 
the manufacturing requirements 
for the NATO ribbon. Heraldry 
agrees that the colors are wrong. 
The specifications are being 
changed to have the blue and 
white match the ribbon awarded 
by NATO. 

Concerning the "Former 
Yugoslavia" clasp, Heraldry re- 
minds that Department of De- 
fense Manual 1 348. 33-M autho- 
rizes U.S. service members to 
retain the ribbon clasp if pre- 
sented; however, the wearing of 
ribbon clasps with the NATO 
medal or service ribbon is not 
authorized. The rationale for not 
authorizing the ribbon clasp to 
be worn is to allow for recogni- 
tion of subsequent awards (if 
approved by the secretary of 
defense) for service in different 
NATO operations. Subsequent 
awards will be recognized by a 
bronze service star affixed to the 
NA TO medal suspension ribbon 
and service ribbon. 

Call Them "Doc" 

YOU had an interesting article in 
the June issue about combat 
medics and their efforts to earn 
the Expert Field Medical Badge. 
From personal experience in 

Extra Posters 

MY sergeant major wants to know if we 
can get eight extra copies of the poster 
from The Soldiers Almanac. She 
wants to frame and hang them around 
the 96th Regional Support Command 
headquarters area. Can you send 
them in a mailing tube? 

SFC Claudette Ellesson 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

SINCE the January issue of Soldiers was released we have 
been deluged with requests for copies of the Symbols of 
Excellence and Serving America posters included in the maga- 
zine. Do you have a source from which we can order copies? 
Would it be too expensive to reproduce them? I suggest that 
they be considered for production as Department of Army 
posters so they can be ordered through the publications sys- 
tem. In the meantime, I could use 1 dozen but will settle for one 
dozen if you can arrange it. Thanks. 

Carl W. Dvorak 
Fort McCoy, Wis. 

WHILE the potential demand for extra posters was an un- 
known at press time, Soldiers ordered a limited quantity to fill 
requests such as yours. Your copies have been mailed (in 
mailing tubes!). 

Vietnam, I have the utmost re- 
spect for medics. We soldiers in 
the field called them "Doc," and 
immediately respected them. 
"Doc," usually a SP4, was never 
allowed to pull any duty. As a 
group, their accomplishments in 
combat were noteworthy and 
newsworthy, and their exploits 
helped pave the way for the 
modern medical specialist known 
as the physician's assistant. 
LTC Paul J. Constantino 
Burlingame, Calif. 

DEP Recruiting 

YOUR December "Focus on 
People" article about a young 
lady enlisted in the Army's De- 
layed Entry Program who re- 
ceived an Army Achievement 
Medal because she helped en- 
list five classmates concerns me. 
As a former recruiter I know how 
difficult the mission is and how 
important the assistance of the 


DEPs is. However, USAREC al- 
ready has an accelerated pro- 
motion program to PV2, which 
this young lady also received, 
for helping to enlist others. The 
idea of giving an AAM to an 
enlistee not yet on active duty 
seems somewhat insulting to 
other soldiers who earn the 
award. Let's not give new enlist- 
ees the impression that awards 
are given away like candy. 

SFC T.J. Beary 
Carlisle Barracks, Pa. 

RETIRED sergeant major and 
former recruiter Frank Shaffery, 
now chief of USAREC's Recruit- 
ing Operations Plans and Poli- 
cies Division, responds: 

"You are correct in your un- 
derstanding of the referral sys- 
tem. However, this soldier dem- 
onstrated achievement above 
and beyond that for which the 
referral promotion incentive is 
awarded. The AAM is designed 


to acknowledge achievement 
above and beyond normal duty 
performance, so the commander 
felt the award was appropriate 
recognition. The enlistment of 
five soldiers is an accomplish- 
ment seldom achieved by oth- 
ers in the DEP." 

Alaska Lineage 

Hasenauer on her well-written 
articles in your December issue 
about Alaska. I offer one correc- 
tion to her story on page 9 about 
the Crisis Response Force: The 
1 st Battalion, 501 st Infantry Regi- 
ment, traces its lineage to the 
Army's oldest parachute unit, the 
501st Parachute Inf. Bn., acti- 
vated Sept. 16. 1940. The origi- 
nal members of the Parachute 
Test Platoon, activated June 25, 
1 940, were incorporated into the 
501st PIB. During World War II, 
the 501st PIR saw attached ser- 
vice with the 101st Airborne Di- 
vision from Normandy to Ber- 
chtesgaden. Thanks for the great 
articles about the Last Frontier. 
CSM Mike Kelso 
Fort Richardson, Alaska 

Completing the Set 

OUR command sergeant major 
here in the 57th Signal Battalion 
has been framing the back cov- 
ers of Soldiers to put your pre- 
sentation of Army values on dis- 
play. We are missing the issues 
covering integrity and honor. 
How can we get those? 

PFC Shanan R. Worley 
Fort Hood, Texas 

THE back covers you need are 
May (integrity) and August 
(honor). Let us know if you can't 
find those issues locally and we II 
try to replace them for you. 

Moving Wall 

WHILE leafing through the Janu- 
ary issue of Soldiers I noticed 
the picture of the Moving Wall 

March 1999 

(Vietnam Memorial) on page 52. 
The picture is very nice, but imag- 
ine my surprise when I noticed 
my name in the upper left corner! 
Michael J. Poll is also my father's 
name, and he was in service 
during the Vietnam War; how- 
ever, we both are currently alive! 
How can I find out the particulars 
on this soldier so I can maybe 
trace some roots? 

SGT Michael J. Poll II 
via e-mail 

THERE is a "Virtual Wall" 
website that allows you to look 
up all the names on the wall. 
The name you questioned 
shows up as a Michael John 
Poll from Spring Lake, N. C. You 
can get details at http:// 

No Earring 

WE received a few copies of the 
January issue of Soldiers that 
show SGT Cory Lunderville on 
the back cover with what ap- 
pears to be an appearance dis- 
crepancy. It looks like he is wear- 
ing an earring in his right ear. 
Would you explain how that hap- 

SSG Jeffrey L Patterson 
via e-mail 

SORRY, but our 7-power loop 

failed to show any evidence of 
an earring on the copies in our 
office. We would suggest that 
what you saw was one of those 
not-infrequent glitches that hap- 
pen whenever you put ink on 
paper, especially when using a 
high-speed web press like the 
one on which Soldiers is 

Getting Out 

THE last several issues of Sol- 
diers have not had the pages 
listing units that have vacancies. 
I have been assigned to the 235th 
Military Police Company (EPW/ 
CI), a new South Dakota Army 
National Guard unit in Rapid City, 
and we have many vacancies. 
CPT Timothy P. Moran 
via e-mail 

PLEASE see the June and July 
Feedback and September 
What's New for background on 
how Soldiers handles these 
notices. The bottom line is that 
we can no longer use requests 
from individual units. Input is 
now provided directly to Sol- 
diers by the National Guard and 
Army Reserve. 

Extra Almanacs 

WOULD you send me a copy of 
the January 1999 issue of Sol- 

diers? I have been unsuccess- 
ful in obtaining a copy of The 
Soldiers Almanac here at Fort 
Monroe. Please mail it to my 
home address. 

LTC James M. Bates Jr. 
Williamsburg, Va. 

MY unit is conducting a training 
session with Junior ROTC ca- 
dets and I would like to get 15 
additional copies of the excel- 
lent January almanac. The infor- 
mation in this particular issue 
will be very helpful and instru- 
mental for my class. 

My unit has received some 
copies of that issue, but we need 
more for this class. I would be 
happy to pay for them or even to 
drive to your office to pick them 
up since I live only 40 minutes 

Thanks for producing such 
an interesting issue. 

2LT Reginald L Gatling 
Fort Lee, Va. 

Soldiers is for soldiers and DA 
civilians. We invite readers' views. 
Stay under 150 words — a post- 
card will do — and include your 
name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire 
and may condense your views be- 
cause of space. We can't publish 
or answer every one, but we'll use 
representative views. Write to: 
Feedback, Soldiers, 9325 Gun- 
ston Road, Ste. S108, Fort Bel- 
voir, VA 22060-5581, or e-mail: 

United States Government 

Order Processing Code 


i YES, please send 

The total cost of my order is $ _ 

Price includes regular shipping & handlir 

subscriptions to: 

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setype or print) 

Company name 


n, floor, suite 

Street address 






Da /time phone m 


^urc^ase orde' n 

mfter 'opfiona , 

Credit card orders are welcome! 

Fax your orders (202) 512-2250 
Phone your orders (202) 512-1800 

Soldiers (SOL) at $24 each ($30 00 foreign) per year. 
For privacy protection, check the box below: 

Do not make my name available to other mailers 
Check method oi payment: 

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Authorizing signature 

Mail to; Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250-7954 
Important: Please include this completed order form with your remittance. 

Thank you for your order 


Compiled by SFC John Brenci 

CPT Daniel Norvell checks the range of mo 
tion on the leg of an injured ranger. 

Fort Lewis, Wash. 

Sports Medicine for 

RANGER medics are among the 
most highly trained and compe- 
tent in the military. Their skills in 
trauma care on the battlefield are 
without question. 

But the injured ranger who 
hurts his knee on a jump onto an 
airfield doesn't need a medic — 
he just gets up and drives on with 
the mission. Days, weeks and 
months later, his knee still both- 
ers him. 

Rangers are the Army's pre- 
mier special operations light-in- 
fantry force, trained in lightning 
strikes from the air, ground or 
water. Training to meet standards 
much higher than those for aver- 
age soldiers can take an extreme 
toll on a ranger's body. 

"We've realized two things in 
looking at our injury data," said 
COL Stanley A. McChrystal, com- 
mander of the 75th Ranger Regi- 
ment at Fort Benning, Ga. "First, 
guys missa lot of training. Second, 
we lose a lot of good rangers." 

Introducing sports medicine, 

hopes, will be the 
answer — and the 
remedy — to his 
rangers' athletic 

A sports medi- 
cine program has 
been active in the 
regiment's 2nd 
Battalion at Fort 
Lewis since Feb- 
ruary 1998, and 
entered a nine- 
month test period 
in September. Statistics will be 
taken at all three of the regiment's 
battalions to test the program's 

"One statistic we got from 
3rd Bn. shows that 78 percent of 
the profiles and lost time we had 
in that battalion for a year were 
sports related, not sickness re- 
lated," he said. 

Sports medicine is where 
CPT Daniel Norvell enters the 
picture. A physical therapist at 
Fort Lewis's Madigan Army Hos- 
pital, Norvell has set up shop at 
the 2nd Bn. physical fitness cen- 
ter along with Jim Davis, a 
Madigan physical therapy spe- 
cialist who serves as the battalion 
strength and conditioning coach. 
Norvell and Davis have been 
seeing rangers at their sports 
medicine clinic since February 
1 998. 1 nstead of going to Madigan 
for physical therapy, rangers sim- 
ply come to the clinic. 

Both McChrystal and Norvell 
agree that one of the most posi- 
tive things the program provides 
is that it takes away the stigma of 
admitting injury. 

"Rangers don't want to go on 
profile — it's a psychological 
thing," McChrystal said. "They 

don't want to be viewed as being 
broken, and don't want to go 
across town to do physical 
therapy. It's not as convenient, 
and there's a certain stigma at- 
tached to it in their minds." 

Norvell and Davis understand 
how rangers train and what their 
mission is, giving them the ability 
to provide quality care to the bat- 

"Our goal is to try to intervene 
as quickly as possible when a 
ranger is injured, with the goal of 
getting that ranger back on the 
battlefield as quickly as possible, 
just like getting an athlete back 
on the playing field," said Norvell. 

The sports medicine pro- 
gram, McChrystal said, sends the 
right message to his rangers. 

"We ask these guys to per- 
form at a professional athlete 
level," McChrystal said, "and 
when you provide this kind of 
care and focus, it sends a mes- 
sage to the ranger that his body is 
very, very important to us." — 
U.S. Army Special Operations 
Command Public Affairs Office 

Washington, D.C. 

Cold War Certificates 

THE ARMY is managing a De- 
partment of Defense program that 
recognizes service members and 
government civilian employees 
for their service during the Cold 

Qualified military and civilian 
personnel can now access the 
Internet address http:// to ob- 
tain information on how to re- 
ceive a Cold War Recognition 
Certificate signed by Secretary of 

Defense William S. Cohen, ac- 
cording to MAJ Dan Gibson, chief 
of the military awards branch in 
the Adjutant General Directorate. 

'The Internet address will pro- 
vide applicants with information 
on how to apply for the Cold War 
Certificate. Applications will ap- 
pear on the website April 5," 
Gibson said. "The applications 
will collect individual/personal 
data and instruct applicants on 
which documentation will be 

Gibson cautions applicants 
not to send original required docu- 
ments, such as DD Forms 214, 
(Certificate of Release/Discharge 
from Military Service). Photo- 
copies only should be forwarded, 
he added, as any documents sent 
will not be returned. 

The Department of the Army 
is designated as the executive 
agent for implementation and 
award of the CWRC. The Per- 
sonnel Service Support Division 
of the U.S. Total Army Personnel 
Command's Adjutant General Di- 
rectorate in Alexandria, Va., is 
responsible for the program. 

The certificate will be pro- 
vided to all members of the armed 
forces and qualified federal gov- 
ernment employees who faith- 
fully served the United States 
during the Cold War era, from 
Sept. 2, 1945, to Dec. 26, 1991, 
officials said. Cohen approved 
issuance of the certificate in ac- 
cordance with section 1 084 of the 
1998 National Defense Authori- 
zation Act. 

Above Cohen's signature, the 
certificate bears the inscription: 
"In recognition of your service 
during the period of the Cold War 
(2 September 1945 - 26 Decem- 
ber 1 991 ) in promoting peace and 

ifefjjj Zmls 'JteJljjs 

March 3: Iraqi generals and GEN Norman Schwartzkopf met 
to discuss the cease fire in 1 991 . 

March 2: The United Nations voted in favor of U.S. 
resolutions on a cease-fire with Iraq in 1991. 



March 4: William f, Sherman, Ulysses S. Grant's successor as commanding 
general of the Army, was appointed general of the Army in 1869. 
■ ■ ■ ■ " ii ■— »— ■-— ^ 


stability for this Nation, the people 
of this Nation are forever grateful." 

At the end of World War II in 
1945, the United States and the 
Soviet Union, formerly allies, be- 
came rivals for political and mili- 
tary influence throughout the 
world. This struggle erupted sev- 
eral times over the years, includ- 
ing the Korean War (1950-53), 
the Hungarian Revolution (1 956), 
the Berlin Crisis (1961), the Cu- 
ban Missile Crisis (1 962) and the 
Vietnam War (1964-1975). 

The Soviet Union attempted 
to keep up with a massive Ameri- 
can arms build-up during the 
1 980s. Soviet efforts to match the 
Americans, combined with a 
draining war in Afghanistan, ulti- 
mately "broke the bank." Cracks 

Hot Army Website 

NCO Journal Online 

appeared in Soviet hegemony or 
influence; the 1 989 fall of the Ber- 
lin Wall effectively lifted the "Iron 
Curtain" that the Soviets erected 
28 years earlier to separate East- 
ern and Western Europe. 

The Soviet Union ceased to 
exist in 1991, ending the Cold 
War and communist political con- 
trol of Russia, which began in 
1 91 8. — Army News Service 

Dallas, Texas 

AAFES Offers 
Auto Parts Online 

DISCOUNT auto parts are now 
being offered to authorized cus- 
tomers on the Internet at http:// in a coopera- 
tive effort between a ma- 
\ jor wholesaler and the 

Army and Air Force Exchange 

Brought online in November, 
the site gives customers who 
make their own repairs another 
option, said Ray Howard, AAFES' 
wholesale parts buyer. 

"Potential customers in re- 
mote locations, particularly over- 
seas, tell us their options are lim- 
ited when it comes to repai r parts," 
said Howard. "This online service 
is intended to fix that and offer 
average prices 10 to 20 percent 
below retail competition." 

Customer service, consumer 
protection, and the backing of a 
major supplier were elements 
deemed essential for AAFES' first 
online vendor partnership. "It's 
easy to offer parts for sale on a 
website. The challenge is to make 
sure that things like exchange 

MOST noncommissioned officers in the Army 
have probably noticed the NCO Journal, the quar- 
terly magazine dedicated to the NCO Corps, is not 
currently being published; however, it is available 

The NCO Journal is the only online magazine 
dedicated to providing an open forum for the 
exchange of ideas and information to support 
training, education and development of the NCO 
corps. Soldiers who have seen the site in the past 
may not have noticed that the website has moved. 

To log onto the Army's only NCO Corps 
publication you must first log on to the U.S. Army 
Sergeants Major Academy homepage at http:// The USASMA site has 
an icon that links directly to the NCO Journal site. 

The USASMA homepage also contains infor- 
mation for students going to all the courses at the 
academy, the Museum of the NCO website, infor- 
mation about the El Paso area and links to other 
helpful NCO sites. — USASMA Public Affairs Office 

:-— , -,-: ;. i-n-.Tr- " 




credit, vendor error and shipment 
cost don't bite the customer," said 

The Internet operations man- 
agerfor Parts House, Inc., a Jack- 
sonville, Fla., -based firm that 
handles $75 million in annual 
sales, agreed. 

"We're excited to serve the 
military customer and we're dedi- 
cated to making it work," said 
Ralph Hodges. To order or price 
parts, an online shopper fills in an 
electronic mail request describ- 
ing the parts needed and in return 
receives a price listing complete 
with part numbers. A quote for 
shipping cost is added to any 
request that provides the desti- 
nation zip code. Submission of a 
follow-up e-mail order form com- 
pletes any desired transaction. 

Consumer protection fea- 
tures established for the site in- 
clude credit for exchanged parts, 
insured shipping and cost-free 
replacement of defective or 
wrongly delivered parts. 

Currently only such after- 
market parts as brakes, alterna- 
tors, starters and front-end as- 
semblies are available through 
the site. Tires, wheels and auto- 
motive accessories may be avail- 
able later, said Howard. 

Purchases require a major 
credit card or Deferred Payment 
Plan account. Primary shipment 
is by parcel post with air shipment 
available upon request. 

AAFES and Parts House 
guarantee shipment of an order 
the same or next business day. 

In its first two months, the site 
handled more than 1,500 price 
quotes, $11,000 in sales, and 
requests from Kuwait, Korea, 
Japan, Guam, Germany and Tur- 
key, said Howard.— AAFESPAO 

_ March 8: In 1917. the U.S. invaded 
Cuba for the third time. 

March 10: North Vietnamese captured U.S. spe- 
cial forces camp in the Ashau Valley in 1966. 

March 11: GEN Douglas MacArthur 
left Bataan for Australia in 1942. 


March 9: In 1 91 5 Mexican revolutionary "Pancho" Villa attacked Columbus, N.M. In response. U.S. 
President Woodrow Wilson sent GEN John J. Pershing to lead a punitive expedition into Mexico. 


March 15: Andrew Jackson, the seventh 
president (1829-36), was born in 1767. 

vlarch 1999 



Soldiers in last year's Bataan 
Memorial March race to the fin- 
ish line at WSMR. 


Bataan Memorial 
March Set 

MARCHERS interested in com- 
peting in the largest memorial 
march in the country should be 
gearing up for the 11th annual 
Bataan Memorial March sched- 
uled for April 18 at White Sands 
Missile Range, N.M. 

The march recognizes the 
sacrifices made by thousands of 
U.S. and Filipino service mem- 
bers overwhelmed by the Japa- 
nese in the Philippine Islands 
during World War II. 

More than 1 ,900 people par- 
ticipated in the 1998 memorial 
march. The course covers 25 
miles of southern New Mexico 
desert. It starts on main post, 
crosses hilly terrain, windsaround 
a small mountain and returns to 
main post through sandy trails 
and washes. The elevation var- 
ies from 4,100 to 5,300 feet. 

The event is open to military 
(active duty, Reserve, National 
Guard, ROTC or retired) and ci- 

vilian teams and individuals in 
either heavy or light divisions. 
Military marchers will be required 
to wear full field gear in both divi- 
sions. Civilian marchers in either 
division should wear appropriate 
attire for a road march through 
desert terrain. 

All marchers entered in 
heavy-division categories must 
also carry a 35-pound rucksack. 
Teams may consist of five to 
seven people; five people must 
cross the finish line togetherwithin 
a 10-yard gate. 

The team entry fee is $100 
for entries postmarked by April 1 . 
After that date, the price is $1 30. 
Individuals who meet the early 
deadline pay $20 while payments 
postmarked after April 1 should 
be made out for $30. The fee 
covers T-shirts and an informal 
meal during the closing ceremony. 
Checks should be made payable 
to IMWRF. The mailing address 
is Bataan Memorial March, Com- 
munity Recreation Division, P.O. 
Box 400, WSMR, NM 88002. 

Applications or detailed in- 
formation may be obtained by 
calling (505) 678-3374 or the 
White Sands Missile Range Pub- 
lic Affairs Office at (505) 678- 
1134 or (DSN) 258-1134. The 
application form and further infor- 
mation will be posted on the 
WSMR website, http://, as it be- 
comes available. — WSMR PAO 

Fort McClellan, Ala. 

WAC Foundation 

THE Women's Army Corps Foun- 
dation is sponsoring a contest to 
design a new logo for the U.S. 

Army Women's Museum, for- 
merly the WAC Museum, which 
is relocating this year from Fort 
McClellan, Ala., to Fort Lee, Va. 
The winning logo will repre- 
sent the new museum, which will 
explain and display the history of 

the Women's Army Corps and 
the achievements of all women 
who have and are still serving in 
the Total Army. The logo will be 
used by the WAC Foundation on 
all merchandise available in the 
museum's gift shop. 

Commissary News 

Commissary Set 
to Impose Fees 

CUSTOMERS who write bad checks in commissaries face 
paying a new administrative fee now that the Defense Commis- 
sary Agency has implemented new business requirements re- 
cently passed into federal law. 

"The great majority of our customers write good checks," 
said Richard E. Beale Jr., DeCA's director. "In fact, more than 
99.8 percent of checks written to commissaries clear just fine. For 
the very few that don't, this puts our collection procedures in line 
with other retailers." 

Beginning with checks presented at commissaries in Febru- 
ary, patrons whose checks bounce will be assessed an adminis- 
trative fee of $25. The commissary will collect the fee when the 
patron redeems the dishonored check. The only exception is 
when a check bounces because of bank error. 

If dishonored checks are not redeemed at the commissary 
within 30 days, the military finance office may charge an addi- 
tional $15 fee. If the customer takes no action, the finance office 
may deduct the debt from the soldier or sponsor's pay. Soldiers 
will be held responsible for dishonored checks written by family 

In Europe the system works differently. Dishonored checks 
aren't sent to the commissary, but to the Subsistence Finance 
and Accounting Office, Europe. If dishonored checks are not 
redeemed within 30 days the finance office may charge an 
additional $15 fee. If the customer takes no action, the finance 
office may deduct the debt from the soldier or sponsor's pay. 

Previously, customers had a 30-day grace period to redeem 
their dishonored checks without assessment of an administrative 
fee or penalties by military finance offices. 

The change brings the commissary in line with dishonored 
check practices and procedures used by commercial retailers, 
military exchanges, and morale, welfare and recreation activities, 
said Gary Lutz, DeCA's Director of Resource Management. — 
Defense Commissary Agency PAO 


March 16: U.S. forces defeated Japanese 
forces on Iwo Jima in 1945. 

March 20: The U.S. government appealed to the International 
Court on behalf of American hostages held in Iran in 1980. 

March 21: Congress authorized na- 
tional soldiers' home in 1866. 



The logo will replace the cur- 
rent Pallas Athene logo used by 
the foundation. All contest 
entries must abide by 
the following rules: 

represent women 
in the Army and be 
designed in such a 
way that it can be 
used on clothing, sta- 
tionary, coins, jewelry 
and other mementos. 

• Entries should be submit- 
ted on 8 1/2" x 1 1" white paper. 
Contestants should print their 
name, address and phone num- 
ber on the back of each entry. 

• Entries should be mailed to 
U.S. Army Women's Museum 
Logo Contest, P.O. Box 5339, 
Fort McClellan, AL, 36205. The 

contest period is from Mar. 1 to 
Sept. 30, 1999. All entries must 
be postmarked by Sept. 30. 
The contest is open 
to anyone, civilian or 
military. The three 
winners will be no- 
tified in writing by 
the Women's Army 
Corps Foundation 
after Dec. 1 . 
The winning en- 
tries become the property 
of the Women's Army Corps 

In the event of duplicate en- 
tries, the postmark will determine 
the order of submission. 

The following prizes will be 
awarded to the winning entries: 
• First place: $100 savings 
bond; shirt or jacket with the logo; 

Competition News 

DLI Hosts 

Language Olympics 

MILITARY and federal government linguists worldwide will con- 
verge on the Presidio of Monterey, Calif., May 3 through 7 to 
compete in the 1999 worldwide language Olympics. 

Participants will compete against each other in Arabic, 
Mandarin Chinese, Korean, Farsi, Russian or Spanish. 

Various games conducted in the different languages will 
challenge the linguists and give them the opportunity to achieve 
individual and unit recognition. 

Linguists have the opportunity to compete even if they can't 
leave their home stations. Those with access to video teletraining 
studios can compete long-distance from April 19 through 30. 

All Department of Defense and reserve-component organi- 
zations, National Guard units and U.S. government agencies are 
eligible to compete. 

The Marine Corps Detachment at the Presidio of Monterey 
will coordinate the competition. For information or registration 
forms call Gunnery Sgt. David Volling at (DSN) 878-5861 or (831 ) 
242-5861, or e-mail him at — De- 
fense Language Institute Foreign Language Center 

March 24: The U.S. and Libya clashed in 
the Gulf of Sidra in 1986. 


and free admission to all events 
at the Year 2000 Dedication and 

• Second place: $50 savings 
bond and a shirt or jacket with the 

• Third place: A shirt or jacket 
with the logo. 

The U.S. Army Women's Mu- 
seum groundbreaking ceremony 
will be held at Fort Lee, Va., in 
April. The museum is scheduled 
to open in October of 2000. 

For more information contact 
the WAC Foundation at (256) 820- 
3233 or by e-mail at — 
WAC Foundation PAO 

Heidelberg, Germany 

Tattoos Linked 
to HIV 

ONE of the great benefits of serv- 
ing in the U.S. military is the op- 
portunity to travel. Most travelers 
seem to like taking home me- 
mentos of their travels to distant 

Unfortunately, two soldiers 
who recently served in the peace- 
keeping mission in the Balkans 
took home HIV infections. Both 
soldiers, who were from different 
units in the United States, en- 
gaged in "protected" sexual ac- 
tivity during their "R&Rs" in 
Budapest. They 
also received tat- 
toos at local Hun- 
garian parlors dur- 
ing the R&Rs. 

Soldiers should be 
aware of the risks 
— including HIV 
infection — asso- 
ciated with getting 

While preventive-medicine 
officials can't pinpoint the exact 
source of the infections, one po- 
tential risk factor is getting tat- 
toos. Although the relationship 
between HIV and transmission 
by tattooing has not been estab- 
lished definitively, the possibility 
does exist. 

LTC (Dr.) Evelyn Barraza, 
preventive medicine consultant 
for the Europe Regional Medical 
Command, emphasized the pub- 
lic health risk in obtaining a tattoo 
from unlicensed or unregulated 

"Many tattoo parlors outside 
of the United States are not sub- 
ject to health inspections, may 
not adhere to sterile precautions, 
and may have multi-use needles 
and dye containers," she said. 
"Additionally, tattooing is common 
in populations where HIV, hepa- 
titis, syphilis and tuberculosis are 
prevalent. The transmission of 
viral hepatitis through tattooing is 
well established through numer- 
ous medical studies. The poten- 
tial for transmission of infectious 
diseases during the process of 
tattooing is a valid concern." 

It is important for travelers to 
be aware of the risk of the trans- 
mission of disease or infection by 
any invasive procedure such as 
tattoos or body piercing. — ERMC 


March 29: US troops left Vietnam in 1973, 
nine years after the Tonkin Gulf Resolution 


March26: Ground-breaking in Washington. DC. 
for Vietnam Veterans Memorial in 1982. 

March 1999 


SFC Kimberly Rogers, a recent graduate of DEOMI's EO Adviser course, reviews a 
book on gender issues in the school's library. 

"Soldiers attend the 

course to increase the 

positive human-relations 

climate and enhance 

combat readiness in the 

Army and learn about 

new policy and 


O be a good equal-opportu- 
nity adviser you have to 
know yourself. It"s important 
to be aware of your own 'baggage' so 
that when others come to you for 
advice, it doesn't cloud the picture," 
said SFC Fredricka McCray, EO 
adviser for the 8th Transportation 
Brigade at Fort Eustis, Va. 

McCray recently graduated from 
the 15-week EO Adviser Course 
conducted at the Defense Equal 
Opportunity Management Institute at 
Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. 

Her commander at Fort Eustis relies 
on McCray to provide advice on where 
individual EO complaints should be 
directed for action. Her other responsi- 
bilities include planning and coordinat- 
ing ethnic observances and developing 
affirmative-action plans. 

DEOMI teaches prospective EO 



[m 1 1 I 1 1 HI Story Photos by 
IP ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ VH Heike Hasenauer 

al Opportunity 

advisers and managers how to deal 
with issues based on race, sex, ethnic 
group, age and religion. 

Some 65 instructors teach various- 
level EO and equal employment 
opportunity courses to active-duty and 
reserve-component enlisted members 
and officers from all the services, and 
to Defense Department civilians. 

Each year the institute graduates 
about 1 .000 students from all its 
courses, including between 400 and 
500 from the EOAC. About a year ago, 
due to the services' increased demand 
for EO advisers. DEOMI-West, located 
at the National Guard facility at Camp 
Robinson, Ark., began training some 
120 additional EO advisers annually, 
said DEOMI spokesman Air Force 
Maj. Gary Perugini. 

Roughly 70 percent of classroom 
time at DEOMI is spent in small 
groups and lectures, with a lot of 
discussion devoted to first-hand 
accounts of discrimination. 

"Most folks have difficulty talking 
about their own behavior. During the 
first two weeks, not too much is shared 
because of a low trust level," said 
instructor MSG Alvin Mitchell. "As 
people get more comfortable around 
each other, things gradually take on 
more steam." 

Students spend about 200 hours 
listening to other people's stories and 
feelings and sharing their own, said 
instructor CPT DeWayne McOsker. 

"During the first three weeks, 
students look at themselves to under- 

March 1999 

stand how they developed their values 
and how their own socialization affects 
how they deal with other people," said 
Air Force Lt. Col. Theresa Morris, 
director of academics. 

DEOMI instructor MSG Alvin Mitchell can 
observe students in any of the classrooms 
without disrupting their discussions. 

In the fourth week, the focus moves 
to interpersonal relationships — 
dealing with other people, she said. 
Cultural-awareness classes focus on 
ethnic groups and the behavior unique 
to various groups. 

"We spent two weeks studying 
different cultures," said SFC Edward 

Yurek, who's assigned to the 75th 
Ranger Regiment at Fort Benning, Ga. 
"We went everywhere through discus- 
sions, guest lectures and visual presen- 
tations — from American Indian 
reservations to mosques. It was very 

In sexism, racism and affirmative- 
action classes, instructors use case 
histories as well as their own experi- 
ences as former EO advisers to develop 

"I realized I have taken a lot of 
things for granted," said SFC Tim 
Dirks, a Fort Bragg, N.C., soldier 
assigned to the 503rd Infantry Battal- 
ion. And he's harbored prejudices, he 

"There's so much racism because 
people make assumptions," McCray 
said. "People judge others because of 
what they've always heard or what 
they've seen a few members of a group 

"The training brings out a lot of 
pertinent information that I want to 
share with other people," said SFC 
Laura Bullard, from the U.S. Total 
Army Personnel Command. 

"It's interesting to know, for 
example, how people are stereotyped," 
Bullard said. 

"I had my racism when I came 
here," said McCray, who's black. 
"While here, I saw I was holding onto 
something I shouldn't have. When you 
understand what another culture had to 
go through to get where it is, you have 
an appreciation. It's not just African- 


Americans who have had 
to struggle. Others have, 

During the 15 weeks 
— especially in the small 
groups — people often 
cry, McOsker said. 
"Sometimes things come 
out about abuse, rape or 
the pain of discrimination 
that's been put deep 
down inside. 

"Students form a 
bond with other students 
and get answers to some 
questions they've wanted 
to ask for years," 
McOsker said. 

Two weeks of the EO 
Adviser Course is devot- 
ed to service-specific training and 
includes two days of "Consideration of 
Others" training and a three-day, field- 
test segment, said CPT Leven Pressley- 
Sanders, Army service liaison officer. 

Students respond to scenarios that 
require them to handle complaints, 
issue complaint forms, and provide 
advice and guidance as opposed to 
"shooting from the hip," and make 
logical recommendations to the 
commander, Mitchell said. 

Because the EO training of senior 
leaders, as well as the planning and 
coordination of ethnic observances, are 
EO adviser responsibilities, students 

Recent graduates of DEOMl's EO Adviser course spent the last week 
of their training acting out real-life scenarios. 

also learn how to budget for training 
and special events and must demon- 
strate how they'll train unit EO repre- 
sentatives, said Pressley-Sanders. 

"Soldiers attend the course to 
increase the positive human-relations 
climate and enhance combat readiness 
in the Army, and to learn about new 
policy and procedures," she said. 

"To me, the most important thing is 
that the prospective EO advisers have 
heard as many true EO-related stories 
as possible before actually serving as 
advisers. Because if you've never 
heard about a particular situation, you 
may not have a clue about where to go 

to resolve it when 
you're actually faced 
with it." 

Defense Depart- 
ment officials recog- 
nized the need for race 
relations training 
following the civil 
rights movement and 
formed a task force to 
examine causes and 
possible cures for racial 
tension in the military. 

The task force's 
1971 recommendations 
resulted in DOD 
Directive 1322.1 1 and 
the Race Relations 
Education Board that 
created the Race 
Relations Institute. The name was 
changed to the Defense Equal Opportu- 
nity Management Institute in 1979. 

Recent changes to the curriculum at 
DEOMI include the addition of a five- 
day workshop, called the Equal 
Opportunity Orientation Workshop, for 
people in command and leadership 
positions, and the previous one-hour 
block of instruction on extremist 
activity was expanded to five hours. 

For information about the EO 
Adviser Course and others, including 
the EO Program Manager's Course, 
contact DEOMI at (DSN) 854-2675 or 
(407)494-2675. □ 

The Army's EO Climate 

«tHERE are a number of ways to assess the Army's EO 

I 'climate,'" said Dr. M. R. Dansby, directorof research atthe 
Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute. 

In 1 996, Army officials at the Pentagon called on some of the 
Defense Department's top EO advisers at DEOMI for guidance 
on how best to determine the EO climate Armywide. 

The action was prompted by the slaying of two black civilians 
in Fayetteville, N.C., a crime with which three 82nd Airborne 
Division soldiers from nearby Fort Bragg were charged. 

Following the Army's sexual-harassment scandals involving 
drill sergeants and trainees at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md., 
and the Army's top enlisted man, former SMA Gene McKinney, 
the Army again called on DEOMI to get a clearer picture of 
attitudes and behaviors within its ranks. 

The Military Equal Opportunity Climate Survey, available 
through DEOMI since 1990, is conducted at a commander's 
request, Dansby said. 

DEOMI maintains a database of some 6,000 units and 
roughly 750,000 people surveyed — the majority of them within 
the Army. 

"We strip away the unit identification and add information to 

the database to look at the general climate across the services," 
Dansby said. 

About 1 00,000 people from 1 ,000 units are surveyed annu- 
ally, Dansby continued. Half of the respondents are soldiers. 

From the computerized surveys returned to DEOMI, Dansby 
can produce disparity maps that give commanders an immedi- 
ate view of where their units fall in relation to the rest of the Army. 

"It helps commanders come up with action plans to target 
specific needs," Dansby said. "What we really look for are trends. 

"Today in the Army, the greatest disparity about the EO 
climate is between white male officers, who view it as very good, 
and minority officer women, who perceive EO least favorably. 

"The majority of minority members across the Army at least 
rate EO as OK," Dansby continued. Armywide, the general 
consensus is that sexual harassment and discrimination are on 
the downswing. And white males and the majority of females 
believe sex has become less of an issue since 1994. 

There are definitely areas in which the Army can improve 
itself, Dansby said. "I'm not saying our hair's on fire. But when 
minority group members say the EO climate is 'average,' they're 
saying 'some things could be better.'" — Heike Hasenauer 



The Army's 
EO Climate 

Story and Photos by 
Heike Hasenauer 

MAJ Basilio Reyes, a Puerto 
Rico-based, full-time 
Reserve soldier with the 87th 
Division, is Hispanic. An enlisted 
soldier in 1975. Reyes remembers 
\\ hen the Army conducted race rela- 
tions seminars and the climate in the 
service was not totally conducive to 
fair and equitable treatment for all. 

In 1983. following a break in 
service, Reyes returned to active duty 
as an officer. At that time, his company 
executive officer made it clear he 
didn't want blacks or Hispanics in his 
unit. He actually said so. 

"I wasn't experienced enough to do 
anything about the officer's blatant 
biases." Reyes said. "I simply found 
myself another unit, as did other 
Hispanic and black soldiers." 

Today, leaders at all levels focus 
more of their attention on how people 
perform their jobs. Reyes said. "Today, 
minorities have better opportunities." 

"Diversity is our strength," said the 
commander of U.S. Army Training and 
Doctrine Command. GEN John 
Abrams. in an address to some 300 
equal-opportunity advisers and repre- 
sentatives from across the Army who 
gathered in Orlando, Fla., recently, for 
the Army's annual Equal Opportunity 
Training Conference. 

"We're growing more diverse in so 
many ways." added Secretary of the 
Army Louis Caldera. "It used to be that 
when we spoke about diversity, it was 
about blacks and whites. Today, we 
have people from every corner of the 

Caldera said that when he was a 
third-year cadet at the U.S. Military 
Academy at West Point, N.Y., female 
cadets had just entered the academy 
when he served as president of the 
Cadet Human Relations Council, 
troubleshooting potential problems. 

Recently, a former fellow cadet told 
Caldera. ""You had a great impact on 
the way I've treated people.'" Caldera 

March 1999 

told the EO advisers. "You have that 
impact, too." 

EO advisers, typically sergeants 
first class, undergo 15 weeks of 
intensive training at the Defense Equal 
Opportunity Management Institute at 
Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. [see 
related story] before working for 
brigade-level commanders on issues 
ranging from sexual harassment and 
ethnic and sexual discrimination to 
extremist activities. 

EO representatives — staff ser- 
geants to second lieutenants — attend a 
two-week EO training course at their 
installations before performing the EO 
role at the battalion and company 

Besides serving as advisers to the 
commander on EO-related issues, 
they're responsible for conducting EO 
observances to educate soldiers and 
Defense Department civilians about the 
Army's people and their backgrounds. 

People attending the week-long 
conference shared ideas and worked 
through a half-dozen scenarios, 
brainstorming solutions aimed at 
fostering harmony in the ranks. 

COL John Westwood, chief of 
human resources in the Leadership 
Branch of the Office of the Deputy 
Chief of Staff for Personnel, recalled 
an instance when he offered his seat on 
the Washington, D.C.-area Metro to a 
female major, who graciously ac- 
cepted. Both Westwood and the major 
were in uniform. "We were not equal 
in rank, so why did I do that?" 

Did he think her less capable of 
standing? Was she frail or weak? No. 
"My mother taught me that when 
riding public transportation I was to 
give my seat to women and older 
people, as a sign of respect," said 
Westwood. "Had I been in a profes- 
sional setting where military rules 
apply, I would have played by those 
rules. The event on the Metro was a 
nonmilitary situation. I certainly think 

Secretary of the Army Louis Caldera ad- 
dressed EO advisers from throughout the 
Army at the recent EO conference. 

it's possible to respect women as 
women and as soldiers. There is a time 
and place for everything. 

"My behavior on the Metro was a 
result of the way I was socialized," he 
said. "We come from different experi- 
ences, and that's OK. If we were all the 
same it would be a boring world." 

CSM Michele Jones, a reservist 
with the 78th Division, shared an 
experience that occurred in her career. 
She once worked for a male com- 
mander who strongly suggested they do 
some physical training together — 
away from the installation, and off- 
duty, she remembered. 

Perhaps Jones misinterpreted his 
comments about how sexy she looked 
in her PT outfit and how capable she'd 
no doubt been in her former role as a 
professional cheerleader. 


EO advisers gathered in Orlando to share ideas, work through scenarios taken from 
real life and brainstorm new ways of doing business. 

"I chose to pull back and evaluate 
what happened after he spoke to me," 
Jones reflected. "I avoided putting him 
in a defensive situation and was able to 
maintain a professional relationship." 
"Most EO situations result from a 
misunderstanding, where someone 
ruffles someone else's feathers," said 
SFC James Lee, EO adviser for the 
1 1th Air Defense Artillery Brigade at 
Fort Bliss, Texas. 

"EO complaints often result from 
perceptions of a lack of respect. What 
people say or do is often a question of 
impact versus intent," echoed SFC 
Joyce Walker, EO adviser at Fort 
Monroe, Va. "That's why EO training 
and awareness are so important." 

Increased emphasis on EO in the 
Army has resulted in a "much better 
Army," said BG Clayton E. Melton, 
who directs the Army Human Re- 
sources Directorate at the Pentagon. 

The Army's mandatory "Consider- 
ation of Others" training, which begins 
with new recruits in basic training, has 
had a positive impact, he said. More 
people are aware of what EO is about. 
And fewer people will tolerate behav- 
ior that violates EO standards. 

"Today, commanders arc much 
more sensitive to issues, and they know 
if they're not, they will break their 
units," Melton said. "They know that in 
order to build unit cohesion, you have 
to have a command climate in which 
everyone treats everyone with respect." 

"The Army's definitely headed in 
the right direction." said ETC Kathleen 

Seith, EO officer for XVIII Abn. Corps 
at Fort Bragg, N.C. There remains, 
however, a negative offshoot of the 
Army's recent sexual-harassment 
scandal. That is, men are now not 
likely to mentor women, Seith said. 

"Males won't mentor. They treat 
women paternalistically," Seith opined. 
"And they won't enforce standards on 
female soldiers." 

Rather than tell a woman her 
insignia or name tag need adjusting, for 
example, a sergeant major will ask 
another female NCO to do it. 

Distancing the sexes so they don't 
feel comfortable speaking to each other 
is not the Army's goal, said Seith of the 
residual effect of the scandals. 

"Whatever problems are out in 
society are going to be in the Army," 
said CSM Cynthia Dunlap, comman- 
dant of the XVIII Abn. Corps NCO 

There is still room for improve- 
ment, Jones added. While she attended 
the Sergeants Major Academy at Fort 
Bliss, Jones decided that men's 
perceptions of women are still an issue. 

Jokes about women — harmless as 
men might intend for them to be — do 
hurt women, Jones said. Likewise, it 
hurts a man when he gives up his seat 
or opens a door out of respect for a 
woman and she "thanks" him with a 
contemptuous glare. 

Pregnancy in the ranks was another 
sex-related issue discussed at the 

"How can female soldiers be equal 

to male soldiers when they may not be 
deployable in a crisis?" one group 
facilitator asked. Work groups wrestled 
to come up with an answer. "The 
follow-on question, of course, is: 'Are 
women suited to be in the combat 

"These are leadership issues," 
Dunlap said, "for a commander 
authorized three mechanics, two of 
whom may be women." If they become 
pregnant, it is definitely a readiness 

"Once each quarter I talk to the 
pregnant soldiers at Fort Bragg," 
Dunlap added. "They have to under- 
stand that they have to have a program 
in place after the child is born that 
ensures they will be there when the 
commander needs them." 

LTC Larry C. Burnett, chief of the 
EO section within DCSPER, headed 
the EO office at XVIII Abn. Corps in 
December 1995, when officials there 
learned three soldiers had been in- 
volved in extremist activities. 

The soldiers, later found guilty of 
the off-post murder of two black 
civilians, were processed out of the 
Army and sentenced to prison by a 
civilian court. 

"After that, we developed a training 
program based on surveys of the effect 
the soldiers' involvement in the group 
may have had on others," Burnett said. 
"That program is now being used by 
other units, although there have been 
no other reported cases of extremist 
activity involving soldiers." 

It's the job of EO advisers and 
representatives to keep a finger on the 
pulse of the organization — staying 
proactive to ensure the EO climate is 
favorable to all soldiers. 

"In 2020, we have to have an Army 
that has broad political support and 
support from society," Caldera said. It 
should be an Army of which "people 
will say: That's where someone from 
my background can be successful. The 
Army will make use of my talents. I'll 
be valued as an individual.'" □ 



Women in the Army: 

A Proud History 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu w 

FROM the Revolutionary War 
through Operation Desert Storm 
to the present, women have 
made vital contributions to the 
Army and the nation. 

The Revolutionary War 

Women were not allowed to enlist 
in the Continental Army or the 
various local militias during the 
Revolutionary War, but they played a 
vital role by joining their husbands 
during campaigns and serving as 
camp cooks, laundresses, seam- 
stresses and nurses. Some women 
earned places in history through their 
bravery and selflessness. 

Mary Hays McCauly took her 
fallen husband's place at his cannon 
during the Battle of Monmouth in 
1778. She will forever be remembered 
by artillerymen as "Molly Pitcher." 

While McCauly' s bravery is known 
to many, another woman, Margaret 
Corbin. performed the same act a year 
earlier during the Battle of Fort 
Washington. Corbin was wounded 
during the battle and taken prisoner by 
the British after the Americans' defeat. 
Through an act of the Continental 
Congress on July 6, 1779, she became 
the first woman to receive a federal 
pension because of a war wound. 

Another little-known Revolutionary 
War heroine is Tyonajanegen, a 
member of the Oneida tribe who 
married an American Army officer of 
Dutch descent. She rode into battle at 
her husband's side during the Battle of 
Oriskany and loaded her husband's 
weapon for him after a wrist injury 
rendered him incapable of loading it 

March 1999 

The War of 1812 

Mary Ann Cole served as an 
American Army nurse during the siege 
of Fort Erie, from July to October 
1814. During the siege, 1,800 Ameri- 
cans were killed or wounded in action. 
Cole cared for patients, prepared meals, 
dispensed medications and kept 
medical records for the regimental 

surgeon during a period of heavy 
British bombardment and increasing 

The Mexican-American War 

Elizabeth Newcom joined the 
Missouri Volunteer Infantry in 1847. 
The problem with that was that women 
weren't allowed to join the Army at 


that time, so she listed herself as "Bill 
Newcom" and disguised herself as a 
man. Newcom marched more than 600 
miles with her infantry company, yet 
wasn't discovered to be a woman until 
the unit went into winter quarters near 
Pueblo. Colo. She was released from 
duty as a soldier, but was assigned 
other duties until she was mustered out 
of the Army the following year. 

Newcom eventually married and. 
five years after the war. asked the 
Missouri courts to grant her the 
military pay and bounty land promised 
to soldiers serving in the Mexican- 
American War. She was eventually 
granted her pay and benefits by the 
U.S. Congress. 

The Civil War 

Thousands of women served in the 
Civil War. primarily as nurses. Clara 
Barton. Dorothea Dix and Mary Ann 
Bickerdyne are among the best known. 
But hundreds of other women also 
served with distinction in the conflict. 
One woman. Dr. Mary Walker, was a 
Union Army surgeon and treated 
Confederate wounded after she was 
taken prisoner. 

Secular schools of nursing did not 
exist during the Civil War, so Catholic 
nuns were a major source of profes- 
sionally trained nurses for the military. 
The Sisters of Charity furnished 300 
nurses and ran 19 hospitals, while the 
Sisters of Mercy provided 100. Other 
orders also contributed to the effort. 
supplying different numbers of nurses 
at different times. 

Though not a nun. Sally Tompkins 
of Richmond. Va.. displayed angelic 
compassion. She used her own funds to 
Staff and equip a hospital lor Confeder- 
ate soldiers and served as its supervi- 
sor. Due to her emphasis on cleanliness 
and diet, her institution had one of the 
highest recovery rates of all Confeder- 
ate hospitals. The Confederate army 
eventual!) granted Tompkins a special 
commission to captain. 

The Spanish-American War 

More than 1,500 women served as 
militar) i ontracl nurses in the Spanish 
\meri< an Wai l he) worked in 

ral hospitals, aboard hospital ships 

and in camps in the I niled Slates. 
Philippine Islands. Puerto Rico and 
II .hi Nui '■'-. who had already 

Female soldiers have always shared the dangers of war. These Army nurses were freed 
in February 1945 after three years in Japanese prison camps in the Philippines. 

contracted yellow fever, and thereby 
become immune to the disease, were 
assigned to higher-risk hospitals in 
Cuba. These nurses, including 32 black 
women, faced long hours, an oppres- 
sive climate, poor sanitation, limited 
supplies and seemingly limitless cases 
of illness and wounds. Twenty contract 
nurses died during their wartime 

The performance of contract nurses 
in the war led directly to the 1901 
creation of the Army Nurse Corps. This 
was the first time women became 
official members of the American 

World War I 

In World War I, 230 bilingual 
telephone operators were recruited and 
trained for duty by the Army Signal 
Corps. They were nicknamed "Hello 
Girls," and worked on switchboards in 
France, relaying messages between the 
front lines and headquarters elements. 
Other women worked for the Army 
Quartermaster Corps as stenographers 
in supply offices in France. 

And women continued to distin- 
guish themselves as military nurses, 
working long hours close to the front 
lines, sometimes braving hostile fire to 
save lives. More than 400 American 

nurses died in the line of duty during 
the war. The majority of them sue 
i umbed to an influenza pandemic thai 
was ravaging the globe, concentrating 

An Army nurse and two medics check the 
condition of patients arriving at a WW II 
evacuation hospital in Northern Ireland. 

on port towns, military installations 
and other densely populated areas. 

World War II 

Answering the nation's call again, 
women began enlisting in the newly- 
formed Women's Army Auxiliary 
Corps in l ( M2. At the lime. War 
Department planners needed them to 
fill combal-supporl roles, freeing men 
forcombal positions. The following 



By the early 1980s women were filling 
combat-support roles — such as military 
police — once open only to men. 

year, the Women's Army Corps was 
created by legislation signed by 
President Franklin D. Roosevelt. By 
that time, some 60.000 women had 

Though they no longer served only 
as nurses, female soldiers continued to 
provide medical support to frontline 
troops. Sixty-six Army nurses spent 33 
months as prisoners of war at the Santo 
Tomas prison camp in the Philippines. 
Thirteen Army nurses walked 800 
miles across mountains to freedom 
after their medical evacuation plane 
crashed behind enemy lines in the 
Albanian mountains. Other female 
soldiers had to endure torpedoed ships, 
air raids, artillery shelling and a host of 
other threats. Many died. 

Following the war, military plan- 
ners decided that a small corps of 
women should hold permanent posi- 
tions in each of the military services. 
President Harry S. Truman signed the 
Women's Armed Services Integration 
Act of 1948 into law. Though the act 
finally created a provision for women 
to serve on active duty outside of a 
conflict, each service had a 2 percent 
cap on the number of women who 
could serve, and promotions were very 


Five hundred and seventy Army 
nurses served in Korea. Of these, 70 
percent served in the then-experimental 
mobile Army surgical hospital units. 
The typical MASH followed combat 
troops, moved frequently and often 
provided care under fire. 

Many other women also served in 
Japan, and more than 1 20,000 served in 
the United States as part of the war 
effort. The Korean War marked the 
first time enlisted female Reservists 
were involuntarily recalled to active 

During the Vietnam War an 
estimated 7,500 women served in 
Southeast Asia, most as military 
nurses. Some were wounded, and eight 
were killed. Their names are engraved 
in the Vietnam Veterans Memorial 

The first non-Medical Corps 
women to go to Vietnam were a 
detachment of 100 WACs assigned to 
the U.S. Army, Vietnam, headquarters 
in 1966. They served as clerk typists 
and administrative workers first at Tan 
Son Nhut, and eventually at Long 
Binh. The detachment grew to 140 
soldiers within a few years, and the 
women expanded the fields in which 
they worked to include communica- 
tions, personnel, finance and intelli- 

The All-Volunteer Army 

When the draft ended and the all- 
volunteer Army came into being in 
1973, less than 3 percent of the Army 
was made up of women. But their 
numbers grew steadily as they took on 
such new jobs as construction equip- 
ment operators, military police and 

Women gained eligibility to 
participate in Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps programs in 1972; and 
the U.S. Army Military Academy at 
West Point, N.Y., began accepting 
female cadets in 1976. In 1978, the 
Women's Army Corps was inactivated, 
and female soldiers became just as 
much an integral part of the nation's 
Army as their male counterparts. 

Female soldiers serving in nontradi- 
tional roles saw action in Grenada 

during Operation Urgent Fury in 1983. 
One hundred and seventy women took 
part in that operation. 

Six years later, 770 women de- 
ployed to Panama for Operation Just 
Cause. There, three female helicopter 
pilots came under heavy fire, and CPT 
Linda Bray made her way into the 
history books as the first woman to 
command a U.S. Army unit engaged in 
direct combat. Other female soldiers, 
serving in a variety of jobs, also saw 
combat during the operation. 

The Gulf War and Beyond 

Operations Desert Shield and 
Desert Storm represented the largest 
deployment of women in the Army's 
history. They served in a variety of 
combat-support and combat-service- 
support positions, proving their ability 
to meet the challenges of modern 
warfare on today's high-tech battle- 

Following the Gulf War, female 
soldiers continued to play key roles in 
Army missions, serving in such places 
as Somalia, Haiti and Bosnia. □ 

Vehicle servicing and operation were 
among the once male-only tasks opened to 
women in the 1970s. 

This article is based primarily on infor- 
mation provided by Dr. Judith 
Bellafaire, curator of the Women in 
Military Service for America Memo- 
rial. WIMSA's informative website is 
at Other in- 
formation was obtained from retired 
Air Force Capt. Barbara A. Wilson, 
who maintains a website at http:// 
index.html. — SSG John Valceanu 

March 1999 









LIS ss 

HE Do-It- Yourself Move 

>enuiu goods during a perma- 
-change-of-station move. The 

1 1 k'j 1 1 it i 

might seem 
appealing because of its ease, but 
soldiers can't come out ahead 
financially by having the govern- 
ment move them. WhehldSne right, 
soldiers stand to save the govern- 
ment money and make a profit 
through the DITY Move program. 

■ < 



• YOU I 

moving cop 
hold good 

• You Ik 
your houi 

• You I 
goods unt j 

•You hi 
im mediate^ 

incentive n 
would havj 

Your Rest 

• Obtaini 
materials ah 
port your pid 

• Locator 
certified errl 

• Maintci 

• Submit 
45 days aft 



have to wait for a 
ly to move your house- 

:omplete control over 
d goods during the 

use your household 
're ready to move, 
'our household goods 

nment will pay you an 
5 percent of what it 
pay for a commercial 


Shecessary equipment, 
■hides to safely trans- 

!ght scales to obtain 
Daded weights, 
ceipts and records of 

bttlement claim within 
h start of the move. 

What You Need to Know: 

• The Personal Property Office 
MUST approve a DITY move. 

• Actual moving costs that exceed 
the cost the government would have 
spent are at your expense. 

• The most important step is accu- 
rately estimating the weight to be 

• You must obtain a certified weight 
ticket for the empty weight of the ve- 
hicle and after the vehicle is loaded. 

• Privately owned vehicles are not 
included in the weight of household 

• You are authorized an advance 
operating allowance of up to 60 per- 
cent of what it would cost the govern- 
ment to move your goods. 

• The costs you incur to perform 
the DITY move are not taxable. 

• The vehicle used to perform the 
DITY move must be approved by the 
Personal Property Office. 

• If using a trailer, check your insur- 
ance policy to ensure proper cover- 
age in case of loss or damage. 

• Additional insurance is not reim- 



Final Settlement: 

• Final settlement is based on the 
actual weight moved. 

• Your actual costs are deducted 
from 95 percent of what it would have 
cost the government to move your 

• The remaining amount is your 
financial profit, less applicable fed- 
eral and state taxes. 

• Incentive payment estimates pro- 
vided at the time of counseling are 
estimates only. 

Special Note: 

• If a settlement claim is not made 
within 45 days of the start of your 
move, action will be taken to recoup 
any advance operating allowance 
from your pay. For more information 
contact your local Personal Property 

The Official U.S. Army Magazine 



From Army Posts Around the World 

New Trucks From Old 

Fort McCoy, Wis. — A "new" truck unveiled at a rollout ceremony 
here in October is the first in a program that's expected to save 
the Army Reserve approximately $15 million during the next three 
years. The M-91 5A4 truck, which was converted from an old M-91 5 
vehicle, cost about 50 percent less than a new truck, yet has the 
same capabilities and carries a new warranty. 

Reserve officials say the conversion concept, borrowed from 
private industry, could save nearly $90 million in the next 10 years 
and has the added value of providing hands-on experience and 
training for the soldiers who are rebuilding the equipment. 

"Our trucks were in poor condition, and we didn't have the funds 
to buy new ones," said LTC Nancy Thomas of the Army Reserve 
Logistics/Equipment Division. "This program provides vehicles that 
are just like new. The ultimate result is improvement in mission 
readiness and capability." 

Plans have been approved for Reserve soldiers to work with 
civilian workers at Fort McCoy to refurbish the trucks with commer- 
cial rebuild kits, known in the industry as "glider kits." 

The kits contain such replacement components as frames, 
axles, brakes, fuel tanks, cabs and electrical wiring to create new M- 
91 5A4 trucks. 

Each conversion takes approximately one week, while the new- 
truck acquisition process takes two to five years, Thomas said. 

The glider kit program began about two years ago when the 
Reserve became concerned about its aging fleet of vehicles, said 
Richard Engel, Freightliner Corporation's director of government 
vehicle sales. 

In May 1997 a prototype Freightliner glider was deployed to Germany 

for use in Bosnia. The truck logged about 20,000 miles with no problems. 

In October 1998 an accelerated test program was used to 

increase cost savings and speed the development process. Rather 

than shipping the renovated vehicles from Freightliner's facility in 

Portland, Ore., to Aber- 
deen Proving Ground, 
Md., for testing, 
soldiers drove four 
trucks, loaded with 
trailers, cross- 

country from Oregon to Mary- 
land. Data from that trip and 
from testing at Aberdeen were 
used to determine road-worthi- 
ness and to make improve- 
ments before issuing kits to 
perform the conversions at Fort 
McCoy. — Rick Hilton, Office of 
the Chief, Army Reserve 

Dead RATI 

RATT platoon member SPC 
James G. Van Alstine sets up 
an antenna during training at 
Camp Walker, South Korea. 
The RATT has been replaced 
in Army service. 

Camp Henry, Korea — 
Once the Army's most de- 
pendable means of communi- 
cation, the Radio Teletype, or 
RATT, has been replaced by 
smaller, lighterandfasterequip- 

The Army's last RATT pla- 
toon was removed from the 1 9th 
Theater Army Area Com- 
mand's Modified Table of Or- 
ganization and Equipment in 
October, said 2LT Anne-Marie Wiersgalla, platoon leaderfor informa- 
tion management in Headquarters and HQs. Company, 19th TAA- 

When the RATT was introduced in 1968 it was a huge improve- 
ment over the field telephones and AN/PRC-77 radios then in use, 
said Joseph R. Brown Jr., who served as a supply sergeant during the 
Vietnam War. When the RATT platoon was activated in Korea, it 
served as the peninsula's only communications support able to send 
messages around the world. 

More than 20 years later the RATT system was still going strong. 
"Because of the Army's fast and distant movement during the 
Gulf War, RATT equipment was used more than any other commu- 
nications asset in the inventory," Wiersgalla said. 

Tri-Service Tactical Communications, a more "user-friendly" 
system that provides communications links between units and com- 
manders worldwide, made the old RATT networks obsolete soon 
after the newer system was introduced, Wiersgalla said. 

Also replacing the RATT is the Single Channel Ground Air Radio 
Airborne Radio System, which became the primary means of FM 
communications shortly after it was introduced, she said. SINCG ARS 
provides secure communications up to 40 kilometers. — SSG David 
K. Dismukes, 19th TAACOM Public Affairs Office 

USAMU's Record-setting Year 

The new M-915A4 truck could 
save the Army nearly $900 mil- 
lion in the next 10 years. 

Fort Benning, Ga. — The U.S. Army Marksmanship Unit domi 
nated the other services in 1998, winning individual and team 
world championships, setting new world records and earning the 
United States quota slots for the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney, 

The International Rifle Team, inadditiontowinningthelnterservice 
Championship, brought home four world cup medals, three world 



records, four world championship titles and two quota slots for the 
U.S. team that will compete in the 2000 Olympics. 

The International Pistol Team, which also won the Interservice 
championship, had six shooters on the U.S. National Shooting Team 
and four shooters on the U.S. World Championship Team. 

The USAMU junior pistol shooters also had a great year, winning 
eight individual and team medals at the National Championships. 
Three of its shooters earned slots on the World Championship Team. 

The Shotgun Team won seven medals at the National Champi- 
onships and earned the United States an Olympic quota slot in the 
skeet competition. 

USAMU's Running Target Team swept the Interservice Cham- 
pionships, placed three shooters on the national team and had three 
shooters qualify for the World Championships. 

Since 1 956, members of the Marksmanship unit have won more 
than 40 world championships and 19 Olympic medals. — Paula J. 
Randall-Pagan, USAMU PAO 

An AH-1 Cobra flies over Hawaii's Pohakuloa Training Area 
during the type's final active Army live-fire exercise. The 
Cobras will likely pass to National Guard or foreign users. 

Cobras Retire From Active Duty 

Schofield Barracks, Hawaii — The AH-1 Cobra, the Army's first 
full-fledged attack helicopter, has fired its final rounds as part of 
an active Army unit. 

Pilots and soldiers from the 1st Battalion, 25th Aviation Regi- 
ment, blasted targets with more than 17,800 20mm rounds, 1,500 
rockets and 1 8 TOW missiles during a two-week gunnery exercise at 
Pohakuloa Training Area on the island of Hawaii in September and 
October. The battalion, part of the 25th Infantry Division based at 
Schofield Barracks, is the last active Army unit to fly the Cobra, the 
service's premier attack helicopter from the early years of the 
Vietnam War through much of the 1980s. 

The gunnery, dubbed Cobra Glory, was a nostalgic event for 
many of the unit's pilots. "It's a sad thing," said CW2 Jeff Newman. 
'These aircraft provided the finest close-air support in the inventory." 

Newman, who learned to fly the Cobra at Fort Rucker, Ala., in 
1996, was among the last active Army pilots to be trained on the 
aircraft. Like many of the Hawaii-based pilots, he's reluctant to lose 
the Cobra, which was first fielded in 1967. 

"Cobras take more pilot skill to fly, because they have fewer 
computers than new models like the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, which 
is replacing the Cobra," he said. "Flying a Cobra, you have to be 

cognizant of the aircraft itself — there's nothing automatic on it — 
while watching everything that's going on around you." 

The 25th Inf. Div. will be without Cobra support by the end of this 
month, when it loses the last of its 24 AH-1s. Officials said the 
helicopters will likely go to National Guard units or be sold to foreign 

CW3 Tim Sorreles will become a UH-60 Black Hawk pilot once 
the Cobras are gone — after 1 5 years and 3,500 hours in the AH-1 . 

"This aircraft has never let me down," he said. "It's just been a 
workhorse all the way. We're transitioning into the new aircraft, but I'm 
really going to miss this one. This is seat-of-the-pants type flying." — 
SSG Doraine McNutt, 17th PAD 

Drive-by History 

Tobyhanna Army Depot, Pa. — More than 350 antique military 
vehicles and thousands of their enthusiasts overran Tobyhanna 
Army Depot last summer. The occasion was the national meeting of 
the Military Vehicle Preservation Association. 

Stuart and Sherman tanks, half-tracks, jeeps, trucks, landing 
craft and specialized tracked and wheeled vehicles that carried U.S. 
forces to victory in World War II, now lovingly and painstakingly 
restored by proud owners, were the star attractions of the event. 
Vehicles that assaulted Pacific islands and rolled across North Africa, 
France and Germany drew young and old alike: excited children 
dwarfed by the tanks and veterans with memories of the vehicles and 
the history they represented. 

"MVPA members are dedicated to preserving and restoring 
military vehicles, so that the history they represent is passed on to 
future generations," said Frank Buck of the Red Ball Military Trans- 
port, the local MVPA chapter that hosted last year's meeting. 

The event attracted the largest number of privately owned World 
War 1 1 tanks in more than 40 years, said Scott Sebring, also of the Red 
Ball chapter. Vehicles and equipment dating from World War I 
through Vietnam were on display, as were several pieces of foreign 

More than 350 vendors, many selling original parts needed to 
keep the vehicles running, participated in the four-day meet. MVPA 
officials estimated total attendance at 15,000, including contingents 
from England, other European countries and Canada. — TAD PAO 

The World War II M36 "Jackson" tank destroyer was a 
popular attraction at the MVPA national meeting. 

March 1999 


precision and 
recovery are 
the foundation 


Story by Dr. Ed Thomas 

PT Shaped 
for Combat 

ARMY physical training is scheduled for a tuneup 
in the next few years, and the doctrine team of the 
United States Army Physical Fitness School at 
Fort Benning, Ga., is gearing up for the challenge. 
"The Force XXF soldier will carry heavy loads 
into high-tech conflicts that will often be fast, con- 
tinual, and more lethal than ever before," said 
USAPFS Chief of Doctrine Frank Palkoska. "Physical 
fitness is a force-multiplier that can mean the differ- 
ence between victory and defeat." 

(Continued on page 30) 

Dr. Ed Thomas is an instructor at the U.S. Army Physical Fitness School at Fort 
Benning, Ga. 



The erect posture is 

used for standing, 

walking, marching, 

running and so on. Over the 

years, gravity takes its toll. 


Six Basic 

Figures 1, 2, and 3 are common postures. 
Figures 4, 5, and 6 are uncommon postures. 

The horizontal posture on 
| the side, back or front is 

the position of neutrality. 
Its effect is not enough to reverse 
gravity's influence. 

Flexion is the forward-bend- 
ing posture of accessibility 
used in sitting or other activi- 
ties that include reaching, bending 
or leaning forward. 

) means leaning 

backward. The 
posture helps com- 
pensate for flexion. 

COL Stephen D. Cellucci, com- 
mandant of the USAPFS, sup- 
ports SFC Kevin Murphy in a 
horizontal extension. 

• The brachiated 
posture includes 
hanging from the 
upper or lower limbs. 
Anchoring the feet to 
the bar allows for nu- 
merous variations. 

The inverted pos- 
Itures include 

handstands, forearm 
stands, shoulder stands, 
and so on. 

March 1999 

Murphy (left) and Cellucci demonstrate an 
advanced brachiation technique by hang- 
ing —with palms reversed — from the hori- 
zontal bars. 

(Continued from page 28) 

Current PT doctrine was developed 
at Fort Benjamin Harrison, Ind., by the 
U.S. Army Physical Fitness Center 
during the early 1980s. This "new 
doctrine" was last modified in the 1992 
revision of FM 21-20, "Physical 
Fitness Training." 

"In the early 1980s we started leaning 
away from battle-focused physical 
training," said COL Stephen D. Cellucci, 
the USAPFS commandant. 

"Moving the proponency back to 
Fort Benning in the early 1990s was a 
smart move," he said. "Commanders 
down here want PT shaped for combat, 
and the USAPFS now has a team of 
military and civilian personnel ready 
and able to do the job." 

"It's about training smarter, not 
harder," said CPT Dan McMillian, a 
USAPFS physical therapist. "Progres- 
sion, variety, precision and recovery 
are the foundation. 

"Not all physical training should 
hurt," McMillian said. "For instance, 
soldiers should learn a variety of 
restorative movements that bring the 
body toward its optimal state of 
readiness and compensate for the 
stresses of rigorous training." 

Restorative exercises are normally 
simple, fast and painless, but they pay 
tremendous dividends, he said. 

Restorative gymnastics was first 
introduced at the U.S. Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, N.Y., a century 
ago, but faded from the doctrine as 
sports and games became supreme in 
the early 1920s, McMillian said. 

Restorative exercises are normally 

simple, fast and painless, but they 

pay tremendous dividends. 

But the medical community 
continued to explore the healing 
potential of movement. One pioneer in 
the field is LTC Frederick J. Sheffield, 
who conducted extensive research into 
the potential of inverted traction while 
he was assigned to San Francisco's 
Letterman Army Hospital during the 
early 1960s. 

He and other researchers and 
physical fitness experts since then have 
become advocates of 
suspending or turning 
the body upside 
down — under the 
right conditions, with 
the right equipment 
and with proper 
technique — to 
effectively compen- 
sate for the debilitat- 
ing stress of gravity 
on the entire human 

"Dr. Robert M. 
Martin, a retired 
chiropractor, osteo- 
path and physician, 
further refined the 
inversion concept 
with his theory of six 
basic human pos- 
tures," said Cellucci. 

"Three postures are 'common' and 
three are 'uncommon,'" Cellucci said. 
"The uncommon postures compensate 
for the stress of the other three, so it 
makes sense to employ all six." 

Cellucci listed the three common 
postures as upright (standing), horizon- 
tal (lying down), and flexed (bending 
forward), and identified the uncommon 
postures as extension (leaning back- 
ward), brachiation (arm hanging), and 
inversion (upside-down). 

"The three uncommon postures 
help compensate for the damage done 
as we spend 16 or more hours a day 
during work, rest and play in the three 
common postures," he explained. 

McMillian said that there are lesser 
degrees of inversion: "In the field, it 

can be as simple as lying head down- 
ward on a hillside." 

In the inverted posture, the force of 
gravity upon the body is reversed, and 
the whole organism is allowed to 
elongate, he explained. The spine 
decompresses, the abdomen draws 
inward and headward instead of 

(Inset) Murphy supports Cellucci through 
an inverted extension. In a simple inversion 
(above) Cellucci hangs upside down from 
the horizontal bar. 




B8Bk % - 

As Cellucci (left) demonstrates brachia- 
tion, MSG James Schumacher demon- 
strates an inverted squat. 

sagging footward and outward. The 
chest is easily expanded, and the 
diaphragm is pushed and pulled 

McMillian said the benefits are too 
numerous to mention, but that turning 
upside down can feel natural, once you 
rediscover and adapt to the posture. 

Restorative movements also align 
the body, develop spatial awareness, 
and work together with strenuous 
exercises to prepare soldiers to learn 
motor skills such as climbing, leaping, 
balancing and the endless variety of 
movements required in combat, he 

"Training solely for the PT test will 
do little to prepare a soldier to move 
well under fire," said Steve Van Camp, 
a USAPFS instructional systems 
specialist. "Previous PT doctrine, 
especially that found at turn-of-the- 
century West Point and in the postwar 
PT manuals, has much to offer us." 

SFC Kevin Murphy, a Master 
Fitness Trainer course instructor for 
USAPFS 's Reserve Component 
Division, echoes the sentiments of his 
civilian counterparts. 

"Reviewing previous PT doctrine 
has really turned on some lights for 
me." he said. "Whenever we show 
some of the older concepts to our MFT 
students, they are very interested." 

"Reviewing past doctrine while 
keeping up with increasing OPTEMPO 
is not easy," said Palkoska. "But it 
must be done if we expect to develop a 
combat-ready force which is physically 

March 1999 

and psychologically prepared to 
mobilize, deploy, fight and win 
wars anywhere in the world. 
We would be foolish to 
ignore lessons learned in the 
PT arena." 

Cellucci agreed. "You 
will be seeing the best of 
the past, combined with 
the latest wisdom of the 
present, in future PT 
doctrine," he said. "It 
will be a battle- 
focused 21st- 
century wheel that 
we won't have to 
waste time rein- 
venting." □ 

Cellucci, with help 
from Murphy, demon- 
strates a handstand. 

[Your Money 


Story by Isaac Templeton Jr. 

AN article in a recent issue 
of Money magazine said 
that no matter how long 
parents have known college ex- 
penses were coming, most are 
caught unprepared for the cost. 
At the current rate of growth, 
some experts project, by year 
2014 the cost of a four-year col- 
lege degree at a public institu- 
tion will be about $1 30,000, and 
that a comparable education at 
a private college will cost 

According to a survey of 
1 ,062 parents conducted by ICR 
Survey Research Group, most 
parents of college-bound high 
school students typically have 
saved only $11,000 for their 
child's education, and nearly 
half of the parents of chil- 
dren under age 11 
hadn't saved any- 
^^ thing for future 
costs. As a re- 
sult, most par- 
ents look for alter- 
native financing, ac- 
cording to Money. About 
a third plan to take 
a second job. Oth- 
ers say they'll 
have to borrow to 
pay the bills. 
One of the best ways to be- 
gin a savings or investment pro- 
gram for your children is to hold 
your spending to your current 
level, so you can set aside money 
from future salary increases and 
promotions. That means paying 
off yourconsumer debts as soon 
as possible and avoiding taking 
on new bills. 

But don't expect that effort 
alone to be enough. According 
to the Teachers Insurance An- 
nuity Association, to pay foryour 
child's education 18 years from 

Isaac Templeton Jr. is the U.S. Army 
Community and Family Support Center's 
Consumer Affairs Program manager. 

now you would have to begin 
saving $278 per month, today, 
based on the $130,000 figure 
mentioned earlier. 

Financial Strategies 

The experts agree: First you 
must establish a financial plan 
with goals, objectives and strat- 
egies for generating the esti- 
mated amount of money your 
children will need. This requires 
the assistance of a certified fi- 
nancial planner or adviser. 

The best investment strate- 
gies include plans that take ad- 
vantage of tax-deferred savings 
or savings taxed at lower rates. 
These plans might include: 

• Custodial savings accounts 
set up in the child's name. 

• Investments that defer as 
much income as possible until 
the child turns 14 years old. 

• Series EE U.S. Savings 
Bonds and other government 

• Mutual funds and stocks. 

• Zero coupon municipal 

• Property such as real es- 
tate transferred to a child, age 
14 or over, so that when prop- 
erty is sold, it will be taxed at the 
child's rate. 

Another important strategy 
is to maximize returns on your 
investments over time. This part 
of your plan requires knowledge 
and understanding of your in- 
vestment options and discipline 
to keep your money in the in- 
vestment plan for a long period, 
despite your immediate needs. 

That means setting aside 
some resources so they earn a 
good return but are accessible 
when a need arises. 

Education Tax Incentives 

The Taxpayer Relief Act of 1 997 
provides new federal tax ben- 



efits for people paying higher 
education costs for themselves 
or members of their families. 
These benefits include tax cred- 
its, a deduction for student loan 
interest, and provisions for in- 
vesting in education individual 
retirement accounts or making 
withdrawals from traditional IRAs 
to meet education costs. Two 
new TRA 97 tax credits, called 
the Hope and Lifetime Learning 
Credits, started in 1998. 

Hope Scholarship Credit 

A Hope Scholarship Credit may 
allow you to claim a maximum of 
$1,500 a year for educational 
expenses. The credit applies to 
qualified tuition and related ex- 
penses paid for a student's first 
two years of post-secondary 
education at an eligible educa- 
tional institution. Subject to 
phase-out for higher-income tax- 
payers, the credit applies to ex- 
penses incurred on behalf of the 
taxpayer, spouse or dependent, 
one of which is at least a half- 
time student for at least one aca- 
demic period during the year. 

Lifetime Learning Credit 

The Lifetime Learning Credit 
applies to qualified tuition and 
related expenses for courses to 
acquire or improve job skills. This 
credit is also subject to phase- 
out based on income, and the 
maximum amount of the credit is 

Both credits are reduced or 
eliminated based on income. The 
credit phase-out begins with 
modified Adjusted Gross Income 
exceeding $40,000 ($80,000 on 
a joint return), with full phase- 
out at $50,000 ($1 00,000 joint). 

Education Loan Interest 

The TRA 97 allows taxpayers to 

deduct interest up to $1 ,000 on 
qualified education loans taken 
for themselves, their spouses or 
dependents. Regardless of 
when you took out the loan, you 
can deduct only interest paid 
during the first 60 months in 
which interest payments are re- 
quired. The interest deduction is 
available to taxpayers whether 
or not they itemize other deduc- 

Education IRAs 

The new law creates a new type 
of tax-favored individual retire- 
ment account designed for those 
saving for a child's future educa- 
tional expenses. Beginning in 
1 998, annual nondeductible con- 
tributions of up to $500 per year 
per beneficiary may be made 
until the time their beneficiary 
turns age 18. Yearly withdraw- 
als to pay qualified education 
expenses of the child (the desig- 
nated account beneficiary) are 

The $500 permissible con- 
tribution is phased out for those 
taxpayers who have modified 
AGIs above $95,000 ($150,000 
on a joint return). No contribu- 
tion to an education IRA is al- 
lowed once modified AGI is 
$110,000 ($160,000 on a joint 

Withdrawals from IRAs 

Also beginning in 1 998, you can 
use traditional IRA distributions 
to pay higher educational ex- 
penses. You will owe income tax 
on at least part of the distribu- 
tion, but you won't have to pay 
the 1 percent tax for early with- 

Other Tax Breaks 

Additional provisions in the new 
tax law include: 

• Employer-paid education 

• Qualified tuition programs. 

• Educational Saving Bonds. 
Internal Revenue Service 

Publication 970 explains the new 
tax credits and other allowed 
educational tax deductions. To 
order IRS Pub. 970, call (800) 
829-3676 or visit the IRS website 

Prepaid Tuition Plans 

More than 30 states now have 
prepaid tuition plans. These 
plans allow you to pay for your 
child's college education in ad- 
vance, at current rates, either in 
lump sum or installments. Pre- 
paid plans may be a good deal 
for parents who are certain which 

college their child will attend, 
and the plans provide some pro- 
tection against inflation. 

But for the careful investor, 
such plans may not be the best 

Dee Lee, a Harvard Univer- 
sity financial planner, suggests: 
"You can do better than inflation 
in a growth-stock fund, while 
keeping control over your 
money." Parents also must thor- 
oughly understand all of the 
terms and conditions of the pre- 
paid plan they may be consider- 

Here are some questions 
you should ask before making a 

• What's the refund policy 
should your child decide not to 
attend the preselected college or 
wants to attend another college? 

• Are taxes deferred on in- 
come earned on the plan each 
year until withdrawals? 

• What's the projected inter- 
est rate earned on the principle? 

• What's the penalty for early 
withdrawal from the plan? 

• What's the risk involved 
should the plan go into default? 

For more information, and a 
list of states offering prepaid tu- 
ition plans, you can visit the Col- 
lege Savings Plan Network 
website at 

Parents should also con- 
sider how much their children 
could contribute to financing their 
own education. In her book 
"From Cradle to College: A 
Parent's Guide to Financing Your 
Child's Life," Neale Godfrey sug- 
gests that a child should contrib- 
ute at least 25 percent of the 
college expenses. 

The first step, for both par- 
ent and child, is to start saving 
and investing early and regu- 
larly. This not only lessens the 
"sticker shock," it allows the child 
to become an active partner in 
the process. □ 

March 1999 


I Focus on People 


Compiled by Heike Hasenauer 




outshined top 

Army Guard 


from across 

the United 



one of 54 




Denington: Top Guard recruiter 

SFC Christina Denington, National Guard recruiter 
and retention NCO for the 2668th Transportation Com- 
pany in Fresno County, Calif., admits she almost threw in 
the towel one night last August after returning to her home 
in Clovis from a long day on the road. 

Her 3-year-old son asked her who she was and toddled 
away, clutching his blanket. 

"I wanted to quit right then and there. I didn't think it was 
worth it. And I cried and cried," she said. 

But her family wouldn't let her quit. And, in late 1998, 
she and her husband, 1SG Jim Denington, a full-time 
Active-Guard-Reserve soldier assigned to Co. D, 1st Bat- 
talion, 149th Armor, in Madera, flew to Washington, DC 

There, Denington, who outshined top Army Guard 
recruiters from across the United States, accepted one of 
54 prestigious Chief's-50 Awards, a silver ring. 

SFC Artelia Korokous, who had also set out to 
become the Golden State's first female top recruiter, was 
among the other awardees. She had recruited 93 people, 
compared to Denington's 102. Korokous recruits for San 
Diego-based units, including the 240th Support Bn. and 
Headquarters and Hqs. Co., 2nd Brigade, 40th Infantry 

"Most Chief's-50 winners recruit 40 or 50 good sol- 
diers," said National Guard recruiting and retention SGM 
Samuel Kanouse. — MSG Bob Haskell, National Guard 
Bureau Public Affairs Office 

LIKE many soldiers, Chaplain (CPT) Avrohom Horovitz 
had doubts about whether joining the Army was the 
right decision. 

But Horovitz, one of only eight active-duty rabbis in the 
Army, found confirmation at his former Miami synagogue 
soon after he told his congregation he'd enlisted in the Army 

"In the synagogue where I was praying, an older 
person came to me crying and showed me his arm. It had 
numbers tattooed on it, because he'd been in a concentra- 
tion camp," Horovitz said. 

"The man told me it was the U.S. Army that had 
liberated him, and he remembered a soldier coming to him 
and speaking Yiddish," Horovitz continued. 

"I was very proud of my decision to join the Army then," 
he reflected. "The Army has been behind so many good 
things, for example, helping to liberate holocaust victims." 

While attending chaplain school two years ago, Horovitz 
was so impressed by the Army way of life that he transferred 
from the Reserve to active duty. 

Today, he's the first rabbi Fort Stewart, Ga., has had in 
several years, said Chaplain (CPT) Cliff Vicars, Horovitz's 

Already, Horovitz, the father of six, has made some 
positive changes at the post. He's changed the Jewish 
services from monthly to weekly and has begun to coordi- 
nate community events for soldiers and family members. 

While Christian chaplains were part of the Army since 
the Revolutionary War, it wasn't until 1862 that the Army 
began to recruit Jewish chaplains. — PV1 Christopher 
Smith, Fort Stewart PAO 

NINE-year-old Kimberlee Fowler of Fort Benning, Ga., 
won a $5,000 U.S. Savings Bond and a trip for herself 
and her family to Washington, D.C., for winning the Armed 
Services YMCA Military Family Week Art Contest. 

The family toured the Pentagon, the White House, the 
National Air and Space 
Museum, and visited the 
Vincent Van Gogh exhibit 
at the National Gallery of 

Ten other elemen- 
tary school children, two 
from each service, were 
named service winners 
and runners-up. Each re- 
ceived $500 and $100 
savings bonds. 

The Army winner, 
also from Fort Benning, 
was 10-year-old James 
Zadra, the son of Julie 

Fowler and Zadra: 
Showing off winning 




Mills (left) and Dunton: 80 years after WWI service. 

and SSG James Zadra, a member of Headquarters and 
Hqs. Company, 3rd Bde., 3rd Inf. Div. 

Fowler's art, a drawing of herself with her parents, 
Christina and SFC Christopher Fowler, and her younger 
brother, Patrick, appears on the 1998 ASYMCA Military 
Family Week poster that has been distributed to military 
installations worldwide. 

Fowler is assigned to Co. A, 2nd Bn., 54th Inf. Regt., 
Inf. Training Bde. 

More than 2,000 military children Armywide entered 
the contest in 1998. Inthe first three years ofthe contest the 
children of more than 6,000 families have participated. 

The annual contest was supported by sponsors of the 
Vincent van Gogh exhibit. — Armed Services YMCA PAO 

EIGHT decades after he fought in the muddy, bloody 
trenches of World War I, 103-year-old Henry Mills, 
then a private, received the Legion of Honor, France's 

highest national award. 
French Ambassador 
Francois Bujon de 
I'Estang presented the 
award to Mills and 99- 
year-old veteran James 
Dunton at the French 
Embassy in Washington, 
D.C. The occasion was 
Veterans Day 1998, the 
80th anniversary of the 
signing of the armistice 
that ended the First 
World War. 

Dunton served with 
the Army Ambulance 
Service during the war. 
Mills, then a member of 
the 168th Inf., served with 

the 42nd Div., the famed "Rainbow 
Division" formed in August 1917 
from National Guard units from 26 
states and the District of Columbia. 
At war's end, Mills settled near 
Huntington, W. Va., where he 
farmed afew hundred acres of land. 
Dunton published a collection of 
short stories, entitled "C'est la 
Guerre" ("That's War"), and he 
served as a public affairs officer at 
the Pentagon for 11 years under 
presidents Truman, Eisenhower 
and Kennedy before finally retiring 
in 1961. 

"People have told me how won- 
derful they think it is that I served in 
WWI," Dunton said. "I didn't think it 
was at all wonderful at the time. The 
world needs to remember how important it is to emphasize 
friendship and unity and to avoid hatred and violence." 

"Remembering our past is important in the shaping of 
ourfuture," I'Estang said. "It's important to rememberthose 
who gave their lives to defend our common ideals. It's 
important, too, to remember that today's reconciled Europe 
was built on the ruins of war." — MSG Bob Haskell 

THE New York City Marathon may be a standard 26.2- 
mile race, but it's considered one of the world's more 
strenuous competitions because of its difficulty. 

Among 1998's 32,000 participants was 1LT Jeremy 
Sumpman, who's assigned to Patterson 
Army Health Clinic at Fort Monmouth, 

Sumpman finished the course that 
began at historical Fort Wadsworth, on 
Staten Island. In the second mile of the 
race he was over the Varrazano-Nar- 
rows Bridge, passing Fort Hamilton's 
Ainsworth Clinic, where he was formerly 

Runners then passed through the 
Gowanus section of Brooklyn, site of 
GEN George Washington's first battle of 
the American Revolution. 

From there, they crossed the Madi- 
son Avenue Bridge from the Bronx into 
Manhattan. At Central Park they had 2.5 
miles to go to the finish line. 

Throughout the day, 30 bands and 
an estimated 2 million cheering specta- 
tors greeted them. 

Finishing the race was a confirmation that working out 
to stay in shape pays off, Sumpman said. "It feels good to 
know you're physically fit to meet such a challenge." — 
Joan Vetter, Fort Monmouth, N.J. 

"The world 
needs to 
how impor- 
tant it is to 
and unity 
and to avoid 
hatred and 
violence. " 

Sumpman: New York marathoner. 

March 1999 


Sharp Shooters 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

Photos From the Field 


HOWITZERS, helicopters, 
tanks and horses are all part 
of the rich fabric of Army 
history — a fabric strengthened 
by the pride, competence and 
spirit of soldiers. 

Soldiers of Co. A, 3rd Bn., 8th Armd., 1st Cav. Div., 
stand guard under the Kuwaiti sky. — Photo by PFC 
Drew Garrett Rodgers 

Indiana Army National Guard artillerymen sight-in a 1 05mm 
howitzer. — Photo by SGT John Schneiderbeck 


A cavalry re-enactor leads his mount off the battlefield 
during a re-enactment of the battle of Antietam, the 1 35th 
commemoration of one of the bloodiest battles of the Civil 
War. — Photo by Renee Shawn McElveen 



SPC Israel S. Rivera, a UH-60 
Black Hawk crew chief with the 
1st Bn., 149th Avn., in Houston, 
Texas, prepares his aircraft for 
a firefighting sortie. — Photo by 
SSG Brenda Benner 

'• - r 



March 1999 


A Hard Lesson 
to Learn 

Story by LTC Michael C. Chisick 
Photos by SSG John Valceanu 

THREE to four people are newly 
diagnosed and one person dies 
from oral cancer every hour in the 
United States. 

Oral cancer isn't the most common 
form of cancer, but it strikes more 
Americans annually than many of the 
better-known forms of cancer. 

According to national statistics, 
more than 90 percent of oral cancers 
occur after age 45. But that doesn't 
mean that young, healthy soldiers 
should forget about oral cancer until 
they hit middle age. The primary way 
age influences oral cancer rates is 
through the impact, over time, of poor 
health habits — primarily excess 
alcohol and tobacco use. The repeated 
assaults of toxins on healthy tissues 
eventually take their toll. 

LTC Michael C. Chisick is the chief of the Outcomes and 
Evaluations Directorate of Health Promotion and 
Wellness at the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion 
and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md. 

Smokers and alcohol 
abusers have more to 
worry about than lung 
cancer and liver prob- 
lems. They're also at 
risk for potentially lite- 
threatening oral can- 
cer. Even successful 
treatment of the dis- 
ease can leave victims 
physically and emotion- 
ally scarred for life. 

When oral cancer strikes, it 
strikes hard. Barely half of all 
patients survive the disease, 
because more than half of the 
oral cancers go undetected until 
they are at an advanced stage. 
And in the advanced stage, 
patients frequently have 
chronic pain, lose the ability 
to eat and speak, and suffer 
irreparable disfigurement to 
the face. 

Another reason young, 
healthy soldiers shouldn't 
dismiss oral cancer is because 
the devastating disease can and 
does strike at any age. Soldiers might 
also have an increased risk because of 
the high use of tobacco and alcohol in 
the military. 

And individuals who drink heavily 
and smoke are 24 times more likely to 
develop oral cancer than those who 
don't drink. 

According to national cancer 
statistics, oral cancer is more common 


in blacks than in whites and more 
common in men than in women. But 
the ratio of oral cancers in men versus 
women has narrowed from six to one in 
1950 to two to one today. The increase 
is due, in part, to an increased use of 
alcohol and tobacco by women. 

The warning signs and symptoms 
of the disease include red or white 


Research shows that smok- 
ers are up to 18 times more 
likely to develop oral cancer 
than nonsmokers. 

toms and you could soon face a more 
serious and less treatable stage of 

The five-year survival rate for 
early-stage oral cancers is 80 percent, 
which is far better than the 19 percent 
five-year survival rate for advanced- 
stage oral cancers. 

Since alcohol and tobacco account 
for about 90 percent of oral cancer 
deaths in the United States, your best 
defense is to reduce or eliminate 
alcohol and tobacco use. 

The next step you can take is to 
visit the dentist regularly for an oral- 
cancer examination. Dentists are 
highly trained specialists in oral 
diseases and are the health-care 
practitioners of choice for detecting 
oral cancers. For more information 
about oral cancer, visit the American 
Cancer Society's website at http:// □ 

patches inside the mouth and loose 
teeth. Most oral cancers occur on the 
tongue or floor of the mouth, but they 
can also occur on the roof of the 
mouth, tonsils, salivary glands and 
back of the throat. Ignore the symp- 

Warning Signs 

LEARNING the warning signs and 
symptoms of oral cancer is the first 
line of defense against the disease. 
Here is what to look for: 

• A swelling, lump or growth that 
doesn't heal. 

• White or red patches in the mouth 
that don't go away. 

• Loose teeth for no apparent rea- 

• Pain when swallowing. 

• Persistent sore throat. 

• Difficulty swallowing or opening 
your mouth. 

• A nagging cough or persistent 

• Unusual bleeding in the nose or 

• Numbness or tingling on the lips or 

— LTC Michael C. Chisick 

1998 Oral Cavity 

And Pharynx 

Cancer Statistics 

New Cases: An estimated 30,300 new 
cases in 1998. Incidence rates are 
more than twice as high in men as in 
women and are greatest in men who 
are over age 40. 

Deaths: An estimated 8,000 in 1998. 
Mortality rates have been decreasing 
since the early 1980s. 

Risk Factors: Cigarette, cigar, or pipe 
smoking; use of smokeless tobacco; 
excessive consumption of alcohol. 

Early Detection: Cancer can affect 
any parts of the oral cavity, including 
the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. 
Dentists and primary-care physicians 
have the opportunity, during regular 
checkups, to see abnormal tissue 
changes and to detect cancer at an 
early, curable stage. 

Treatment: Principal methods are ra- 
diation therapy and surgery. In ad- 
vanced disease, chemotherapy may 
be useful as an adjunct to surgery. 

Survival: Eighty-one percent of oral 
cavity and pharynx cancer patients sur- 
vive one year after diagnosis. For all 
stages combined, the five-year relative 
survival rate is 53 percent. The 1 0-year 
rate is 43 percent. — American Cancer 

March 1999 





new, high- 
tech medical 
based on the 
UH 60 Black 
Hawk is 

the way the 

Army locates, 

transports and 



THE 300-pound hiker had 
fallen off a 200-foot cliff. 
Badly battered, he lay in a 
state of semi-conscious- 
ness. He alternated 
between bouts of delirium, anger 
and plaintive pleas for help. The 
park rangers assisting him 
weren't able to safely hoist him 
out of the ravine. So they called 
for help. 

Enter a Combat Enhanced 
Capability Aviation Team from 
the Tennessee Army National 
Guard and their UH-60Q medical 
evacuation helicopter. Based in 
Chattanooga, Tenn., the team 

Story by 

SSG John Vaiceanu 

flew into the Smoky Mountains, 
near the town of Gatlinburg, 
Tenn., to rescue the hiker. 

The helicopter was unable to 
land on the ravine's jagged rocks. 
Instead, it hovered 140 feet 
above the injured man as SGT 
Tracy Banta, a CECAT medic, 
was lowered on the UH-60Q's 
jungle penetrator. It took the 
medic 40 minutes to prepare the 
patient for flight, after which 
medic and patient were pulled up 
to the helicopter for transport to a 
nearby hospital. 

The hiker has fully recovered 
since the accident, which took 

place in mid-September. 

"If we hadn't shown up, it 
could have taken another day for 
rescuers to get him out and to the 
hospital," Banta said. "The 
helicopter's new hoist let me get 
down to him and let the team 
bring him up into the helicopter 
without any problem. This 
mission was a real milestone for 

The Tennessee Guard cur- 
rently owns and operates the only 
four UH-60Qs in the Army 
inventory. "We've been flying 
them since February of this 
year,"' Banta said. 

In addition to the external 
hoist and the ability to carry six 
litters instead of four, Banta said, 
the new helicopter is full of other 
features flight medics will love. 

"Because there's a built-in. 
on-board oxygen system, we 
don't have to carry tanks or 
bottles. There's also an on-board 
suction system, an environmental 
control system and lots of other 
great stuff," he said. "It has 
features like a great night vision 
device-compatible lighting 

UH 600 





1553 BUS- 








The helicopter's new features and improvements may someday save lives on a future battlefield. 

SGT Tracy Banta was lowered on 
the UH-60Q's jungle penetrator to 
rescue an injured hiker. 

system and compartments for 
stowing medical gear that make 
life a lot easier for a medic 
working on it." 

The aircraft drew unanimous 
praise not only from its medic, 
but also from the mechanic and 

"There's a lot more to work 
on, maintenance-wise," said SPC 

Michael Jones, a CECAT 
mechanic. "But it's nice to work 
with cutting-edge technology." 

Jones said that even though 
there is more equipment for him 
to maintain, working conditions 
are actually better. 

"The hoist is much more 
dependable, so I have to do less 
work on it. In addition, I've got 
much more space inside the 
helicopter and it's designed much 
better. I can be strapped in 
anywhere in the aircraft, and 
everything I need is within 
reach," he said. 

CW3 Charles Nabors, a 
CECAT pilot, said he also 
appreciates the new helicopter's 

"It's much more capable," 
Nabors said. "The enhanced 
ability to do a flight plan, the 
computerized visualization 
features and the ability to tune 
the radio with hands-off are great 
for pilots." 

The active Army is scheduled 
to receive eight UH-60Qs by 
fiscal year 2003. 

LTG Ronald R. Blanck, the 
Army's surgeon general and 
commander of the U.S. Army 
Medical Command, said the 
improved version of the helicop- 
ter is very important to Army 

"The UH-60Q is the Army 
Medical Department's top 
medical-modernization priority," 
Blanck said. "That's because it's 
going to help us take better care 
of wounded soldiers. First, it lets 
us go further forward to move 
them off the battlefield. While 
we have them in the air, we can 
do much more to treat them than 
we could in predecessor helicop- 

Blanck said the many im- 
provements made to the aircraft 
will help in transitioning aero- 
medical evacuation medicine in 
today's Army into the 21st 

"The UH-60Q brings the 
'dustoff tradition to the modern 
battlefield and to humanitarian 
assistance deployments," Blanck 
said. □ 




March 1999 


Sharing the Amy 

With the World 

George S. Patton Jr. once said, 
'To be a successful soldier you 
jimst know history." 

"If I'm a corporate giant and 
make a mistake, I may cost the company- 
lots of money,'' said Jeb Bennett, 
Museum DivisioJ£ct|ief at the U.S. Army 
Center of Military History, located at 
Fort McNair, in Washingtol^D.C. "If 
I'm a genera] officer and haven* t learned 
lessons from the past, my soldiers get 

It's CMH's mission "to collect, 
preserve, record, study, interpret and 


" , 

"*# r '' 


% ^ 

*— w ^ 


publish military history 
for the Army, the nation, 
and the world." 

CMH historians 
research and write the 
Army's official history 
and publish volumes that document its 
role in war and contingency operations, 

The center traces its lineage to the 
work of Secretary of War historians 
who compiled the "Official Records of 
the Rebellion," a Civil War history 
begun in 1874, and to a similar work 
on World War I prepared by historians 
in the Historical Section of the Army 
War College. 

"The 131 volumes of Civil War 
documents and maps published 
between 1880 and 1901 remain an 
essential source for the 
great national conflict,' 
historian Dr. Terrence 

CMH recently celebj 
tion of "the most ambitMs U.S. 
official history project «r." Gough 
said, describing the pubHation of the 
78th volume in the "Un^H States 
Army in World War II" series, also 
known as the "Green Book" series, 

CMH shares artifacts, equipment 
and military art with installation 
museums and senior-level offices to 
help tell the Army story 


begun in 1947. 
The authors 
were primarily 
recruited, trained 
and deployed 
historians — 
civilians with academic history creden- 
tials — sent to overseas theaters to 
supervise the gathering and preserva- 
tion of necessary documents, Gough 

They gathered information from 
unit journals, official reports, inter- 
views, orders and other sources. 

The center's professional staff is 
currently involved in some 50 writing 
projects that cover everything from the 
Army and media relations to procure- 
ment issues and peace-keeping mis- 
ions. Among thenvis a book on the 

y Corps of Engineers' reconstruc- 
tion of Kuwait after Operation Desert 
Storm. ;^jjgg^^^^ 

Other Hjiications 

"Disaster ori Green Ramp." And, for 
the first time. CMH has issued a book 
D, a three 

Besides writing and publishing, 
CMH is responsible for numerous 
programs that enhance understanding 
of U.S. military history. 

Its professional staff currently leads 
the way in planning the creation of a 
national-level U.S. Army Museum to 
showcase the Army's contributions 
throughout its history [see accompany- 
ing stories]. 

CMH's staff coordinates efforts of 
all elements of the Army's historical 
program, including the work of 
historians at major commands and 
those at the Military History Institute at 
Carlisle Barracks, Pa.; at the Combat 
Studies Institute at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kan.; and the History Department at 
the U.S. Military Academy at West 
Point, N.Y. 

CMH historians supervise com- 
mand history programs in the field and 
develop leaders by taking them on 
narrated staff rides through the sites of 
great battles. 

They monitor the work of the 
Army's military history detachments; 
determine official unit designations and 
inscriptions on unit colors and stream- 

^pr^PT'i^" 1 "^pj.- 

James Walker's sweeping painting of a 
Mexican War battle is just one of the 
many artworks in the CMH collection. 

March 1999 

ers; oversee the Army Art Program 
and the Army's 60 active-duty 
field museums; and account for all 
the Army's historical property, 
both inside and outside Army 

The latter includes items like 
an artillery piece located on Fort 
McNair's parade field that's 
alleged to be the "Dictator" used at 
the Siege of Petersburg, said CMH 
curator Terry Dougherty. 

"We probably have the largest 
property book in the Army, with 
about 750,000 unique items," 
Bennett added. CMH maintains a 
clearinghouse of items at Anniston 
Army Depot, Ala., which includes 
many items obtained from installa- 
tions that have closed. 

CMH shares artifacts, equip- 
ment and military art with installa- 
tion museums and senior-level 
offices to help tell the Army story 
while the center concentrates on U.S. 
Army history, "we do collect foreign 
equipment and materiel, to draw 
comparisons and illustrate lessons 
learned in battles on foreign fronts," 
Dougherty said. 

A newly acquired, WWII German 
assault gun pulled from a pond in 
Russia is an example. It's now on 
display at the Patton Museum at Fort 
Knox, Ky. 

The weapon, fresh off a 
production line in Germany, 
had been shipped directly to 
the Eastern Front during the 
war. Under fire and in 
darkness, the driver drove 
it into the pond, where it 
remained for 50 years. 

Curators were 
thrilled to obtain the 
like-new piece of 
equipment that had 
logged less than 88 
kilometers, still had gas 
in its tank and included 

John Elsberg, CMH's editor in chief for production 
services, reviews a CMH-designed Gulf War poster 
depicting the actions of allied and Iraqi units. 


remnants of its original anti-mine 
protection, a cement-based applique 

CMH's central collection, which 
consists mostly of smaller artifacts 
located at its Collection Branch in 
Washington, D.C., includes an early 
congressional gold medal. Issued for 
valor during the War of 1812, a similar 
medal was first presented to GEN 
Winfield Scott. 

Other items in the Army 
Historical Collection include flags 
captured from the British at 
Yorktown. possessions of GEN 
Ulysses S. Grant, signal flags used 
at Little Round Top during the 
Civil War battle at Gettysburg, Pa., 
and the carbine used by Audie 
Murphy in WWII. 

GEN George Marshall said, 
while serving as chief of staff of 
the Army in 1942, "Our citizen- 
soldiers need certain elements to 
fight and win." 

"They need the right equip- 
ment, the right training and a 
fighting spirit," Bennett said. 

CMH provides all three by 
preserving records of early tech- 
nology to help developers produce 
the best new technology; publish- 
ing histories and working closely 
with the Army school system to 

ensure that officers and NCOs receive 
proper military history education; and 
documenting and publicizing unit 
lineages and honors. 

But it's the stories CMH shares 
with the world — about soldiers from 
the past and what the Army and the 
equipment was like then — that spark 
in many a desire to know more, 
Bennett said. 

CMH recently exhibited the art- 
work of Charles Johnson Post, a New 

A mannequin models the 
standard equipment carried 
by a World War I U.S. infan- 

A soldier-artist completes a drawing that will be added to CMH's extensive holdings of 
military art, much of it produced under fire during the nation's wars. 



The stories CMHs 

spark in many people a desire to know 
more about the Army and its history. 

York Journal illustrator who served as 
a private with the 71st New York 
Volunteer Infantry's Company F 
during the Spanish-American War. 

A display case contained period 
artifacts from the Army Museum 
Collection, along with Post's book, 
"The Little War of Private Post." 

CMH's work offers countless 
insights into the Army's history, not 
only through preserved artifacts and 
official accounts of battles and cam- 
paigns, but through on-site interviews 
with the people who experienced the 
times that shaped America. □ 

CMH curator Les Jensen checks the con- 
dition of a historic flag. Preserving such 
artifacts is among the organization's 
many responsibilities. 

A long-planned tribute to the American 
soldier, it's getting closer to becoming a reality: 

The Army Museum 

Stony by HeikeHasenauer 
Photos courtesy of CMH 

ANATIONAL-level museum to 
showcase the U.S. Army's contri- 
butions to America and the world 
— it's been a dream of historians at the 
Center of Military History for years, 
said CMH Museum Division chief Jeb 

"We're the only nation in the 
civilized world that doesn't have a 
national army museum," Bennett said. 
CMH is the proponent for the long- 
planned, $80 million museum to be 
located on or near Monument Court in 
Washington, D.C. 

March 1999 

To be built solely with donated 
funds, the 300,000-square-foot facility 
will be a "world-class museum similar 
to army museums in Great Britain and 
Russia that were established shortly 
after World War II," said chief mu- 
seum planner Walter Bradford [see 
accompanying story]. 

The Army Museum will not only 
teach soldiers about military history, 
but will enlighten civilians from the 
United States and abroad about what 
the U.S. Army has done for America 
and the world, Bennett said. 

This drum is among the histori- 
cally important artifacts slated 
for display in the new museum. 

"The Wright 1903 Flyer wows 
visitors to the Smithsonian's National 
Air and Space Museum," said CMH 
operations officer MAJ James 
Goldberg. "We hope to have that kind 
of impact on people who visit the 
Army Museum." 

"There's a definite gap today 
between the Army and the American 
public," Bennett said. "A national 
museum devoted to the Army is one 
way to close that gap." 

Except for America's sporadic 

(continued on page 46) 

'The national museum will trace 

the evolution of the Army and 

attempt to explain how we got 

where we are today. ..." 

The Army Art Collection includes such recent artworks as this 
self portrait of a combat artist painted during the Gulf War. 

I continued from page 45) 

support for the Army, such as during 
the buildup for Operation Desert Shield 
and the deployment and redeployment 
of troops during Operation Desert 
Storm, "Americans have lost track of 
what the Army does," Goldberg said. 

"An Army museum would educate 
the public," Goldberg said. "It will 
incorporate the best of the Army's 
individual museums — which focus on 
particular branches or units, like 
aviation, armor and infantry — and tell 
the story of the Army as an institution. 

"Museum exhibits would trace the 
Army's evolution, not from June 14, 
1775, but from the early 1700s, to 
include the militia, the National Guard 
and Reserve," said CMH acting 
commander COL Steve Wilson. 

"When the first settlers formed 
Jamestown and the other colonies, 
there were no standing armies," Wilson 
said. "The citizen-soldier concept is a 
bedrock; people knew they were 
expected to defend the colony if they 
chose to belong to the colony." 

"The national museum will trace 
the evolution of the Army and attempt 
to explain how we got where we are 
today; what happened, for example, 
when artillery got mobility?" Bradford 

When the three-story museum is 

completed, visitors 
will be able to 
walk through 
Army history with 
one overriding 
theme, that 
America has never 
^^ had a big, perma- 

^■r nent Army, 

M mi i Bradford said. "It's 

always been built 
up in preparation 
for war and then 

disbanded. Ultimately, soldiers become 

civilians again. 

"We're going to help the public 

understand what soldiers do," Bradford 

continued. The national museum will 

also benefit the 

Army by providing 

classrooms and 

laboratories. On- 
site resources will 

allow researchers to 

study "material 

culture," actual 

objects from the 

past, to make 

improvements in 

the future. 

Although the 

museum and its 

exhibits are still in 

conceptual design 

phases, Bradford 

anticipates three 

main galleries, plus 

a large auditorium. 

The three will 

respectively trace 

the Army's evolu- 
tion, display the 

Army ait collection and serve as a special 

exhibits area enhanced by movies and 

lectures on particular topics. 

Bradford would like to see a walk- 
on exhibit that allows visitors to board 

a troop ship, squeeze through the rows 
of double bunks and experience the 
total darkness as they move out onto 
landing craft. 

The Army Museum will focus on 
the people in uniform. Exhibits will 
explain what it was like to be drafted, 
to be shipped overseas, to fight in the 
cold Belgian snows of 1 945 and return 
home wounded. 

CMH curators are working closely 
with museum staff at the Smithsonian 
Institution, which displays military 
artifacts in its own armed forces 
exhibit, said CMH curator Terry 

"The Smithsonian has a large 
collection of Army materiel from the 
1920s and 1930s, 
mi.. 1 ..M» l >mmv m mww m . a ti me when the 

Army didn't want 
any of its own 
museums." he 

"The Army's 
been trying to 
build a national 
museum since 
1814, when 
Congress agreed 
that War of 1812 
relics should be 
properly dis- 
played," Bradforc 

Planners chose 
the nation's capital 
as the site because 
tourists annually 
flock to its historic 
monuments and 
other museums, 
the Army's headquarters is located in 
Washington, D.C., and resources 
necessary to support the museum, such 
as the National Archives and Library of 
Congress, are nearby. □ 



This painting of native officers of the Punjab Fron- 
tier Force is one of the many artworks in the National 
Army Museum's "Soldiers of the Raj" exhibition. 





Story by Steve Harding 
Photos courtesy NAM 

THE long-planned U.S. Army 
Museum owes much of its 
inspiration to an institution 
tucked away on a quiet London 
street — Britain's National Army 

Established in 1960 adjacent to the 
sprawling Royal Hospital in Chelsea, 
the museum chronicles the colorful and 
sometimes controversial history of the 
British Army and the armies raised by 
Britain overseas. Not surprisingly, the 
museum's purpose and 
organization closely 
parallel those of its 
planned U.S. Army 

"The primary 
purpose of the Na- 
tional Army Museum 
is to give an overview 
of the activities of the 
British Army through- 
out its existence," said Julian 
Humphrys, the museum's senior 
information officer. "While the Impe- 

March 1999 




rial War Museum presents an all- 
services view of the nation's military 
history, it also covers social and 
political topics that are beyond the 
scope of the individual service muse- 
ums. The army, Royal Navy and Royal 
Air Force museums thus offer indepen- 
dent, specialist views of specific 
aspects of that history. 

"Moreover, the National Army 
Museum presents a broader, more 
inclusive story of the entire Army than 
that offered by the more than 1 00 
museums that deal with the history and 
traditions of the Army's individual 
regiments and corps," Humphrys 
added. "So it is our task to present the 
story of the entire organization and the 
ways in which wars affect the army and 
its soldiers." 



History on Display 

The primary way the museum tells 
the British Army's broader story is 
through permanent and rotating 
exhibits chronicling more than five 
centuries of history. The earliest 
displays cover the 15th century, while 
the most recent deal with operations in 
Bosnia. Artworks, photographs, 
uniforms and equipment are combined 
with reconstructions and life-sized 
models to show how Britain's soldiers 
have lived, fought and died. 

Though the museum includes state- 
of-the-art exhibits incorporating video 
or audio components, many of the most 
enduringly popular displays are 
decidedly low-tech. These include 
collections of swords and military 
medals, uniform-clad mannequins, 
replicas of centuries-old helmets that 
visitors may try on, captured enemy 
flags, the skeleton of Napoleon's 
favorite horse, and a full-sized World 
War I trench, complete with sandbags 
and barbed wire. 

"Museums are about real things and 
historical truths," Humphrys said, 
"things with dramatic and important 
stories. And 'hands-on' exhibits are 
always popular, because they allow 
people to interact with history in a 
personal and concrete way that com- 
puter screens and push-button exhibits 
can't provide." 

Another museum mission is to 
locate, collect and preserve the histori- 
cally important artifacts that are 
ultimately brought together in the 

Education and Remembrance 

The ability to bring people into 
direct contact with historically impor- 
tant artifacts aids in another of the 
museum's key roles: education. 

Britain's military history is a 
required topic in the nation's schools, 
and each year some 30,000 pupils visit 
the National Army Museum to further 
their understanding of the role the army 
has played in shaping their society. 
And they don't just tour the facility; 
they are taught by members of the 
museum's education staff. 

Staff educators don't limit their 

The museum employs a variety of diora- 
mas to give visitors a ciose-up view of 
British military uniforms and equipment. 

exhibits. And the museum doesn't 
just seek out items from past con- 
flicts, Humphrys said, for it's just as 
important to find and preserve those 
things that will be significant in the 

"It's as important to get a British 
soldier's boots or United Nations 
beret from Bosnia as it is to obtain 
uniforms from the Napoleonic 
Wars," he said. "In years to come 
such seemingly mundane items will 
help us tell a more complete and 
accurate story of the ways in which 
today's soldiers lived and worked." 
Humphrys has himself traveled to 
Bosnia to collect items relating to the 
British Army's current operations in 
the Balkans. 

activities to school children, however; 
they also travel to the Catterick 
Infantry Training Centre to lecture new 
soldiers on the army's history. This 
complements the information the 
troops receive on the history and 
traditions of their own regiments or 
corps, thus giving them a better 
appreciation for the values, accom- 
plishments and importance of the 
entire service. 

Perhaps most importantly, the 
museum is also a memorial to those 
who have served. By presenting 
exhibits, undertaking educational 
programs and responding to requests 

Among the National Army Museum's more o 
unusual — and popular — exhibits is the 
skeleton of Napoleon's favorite horse. 

for historical information — some 
40,000 in 1997 alone — the museum 
teaches the nation about its military 
heritage. In so doing, it honors all those _ 
who have answered the bugle's call. 



Now on Show 

Independent and Informative 

The National Army Museum 
undertakes its various tasks with 
funding from Britain's Ministry of 
Defence. The museum's operations are 
supen ised by an independent council 
o\' trustees and are not directed or 
influenced by the army itself. 

"We are not pressured by the army 
in any way," Humphrys said, "nor are 
we directed to do specific things or 
forbidden to do other things. We strive 
to present a balanced and objective 
view of history, and let visitors draw 
their own conclusions." 

Though the museum has no overt 
public relations mission, its does 
indirectly help the army to get its 
message out to the public, Humphrys 
said. For example, the British Army's 
director of public relations is currently 
sponsoring an exhibit on the modern 
army, which will be seen by thousands 
of people, many of whom are what 
Humphrys called "influential opinion- 

"We keep the army in the public 
eye," he said, "and we also give the 
tax-paying public a very clear picture 
of what the army has done and contin- 
ues to do." 




THE National Army Museum chronicles the campaigns 
battles fought by Britain over the past 500 years — and offers 
a unique insight into the lives of Britain's soldiers from Tudor 
times to the present — through a range of permanent and 
rotating exhibits. These currently include: 

• "Redcoats: The British Soldier From 1 41 5 to 1 792," a permanent gallery telling the 
story of the British Army from the Battle of Agincouri through the American Revolution. 

• "The Road to Waterloo," which fol- 
lows the story of the soldiers in 
Wellington's army. One of the most popu- 
lar exhibits in this gallery is a 420-square- 
foot diorama that uses some 70,000 
model soldiers and an audiovisual pre- 
sentation to tell the story of the pivotal 
1815 battle against Napoleon. 

• "The Victorian Soldier," a gallery 
describing the army's role in the 19th- 
century expansion and defense of the 
British Empire. 

• "Soldiers of the Raj," a major special 
exhibition examining the armies raised 
by Britain on the Indian subcontinent 
from the 17th century through 1947. 

• "The Nation in Arms" gallery cover- 
ing World Wars I and II. 

• 'The Cut, Thrust and Swagger" 
gallery, the most detailed display of British military swords in the United Kingdom. 

The National Army Museum is located on Royal Hospital Road in London's Chelsea 
district. It is open from 10 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. daily, except for major national holidays. 
Admission is free. — Steve Harding 

The many exhibits portray the soldiers and 
commanders who shaped Britain's histoi 


"The Death of Colonel Morehouse at the Siege of Banga- 
lore" is also part of the "Soldiers of the Raj" exhibit. 

Museum planners from the U.S. 
Army Center of Military History have 
visited the National Army Museum to 
get a first-hand look at how the British 
institution is organized and operated. 
Many of their observations have been 
incorporated into the planning of the 
proposed U.S. Army museum, which 
can only benefit from the National 
Army Museum's example. 

"Things will certainly be done 
differently in the U.S. Army Mu- 
seum," Humphrys said, "given the 
differences in our histories, traditions 
and priorities. Yet there will also be 
many similarities, for each nation is 
dedicated to telling its army's story in 
the most interesting, honest and 
informative way. We wish you the 
best of luck." □ 

March 1999 

United States Army 

A Heritage of Honor^§ 

Panama 1 989 

oriega declared Panama's 
national elections invalid in October 1 989 and threatened 
violence against Americans living there. Unrest throughout the 
country grew as American soldiers were harassed and one 
killed, leading President George Bush to order troops to 
Panama to arrest Noriega on charges of drug trafficking. 

Operation Just Cause began as troops landed Dec. 20 and set to 
work to neutralize the Panama Defense Forces, secure the central 
Canal Zone and conduct an extensive manhunt for the dictator. 
Surrounded after taking refuge in the Vatican diplomatic mission, 
Noriega surrendered on Jan. 3, 1990, and was later tried and con- 
victed in the United States of the charges against him. 

GEN Maxwell Thurman 

"Be All You Can Be" 

IrJCll llrirJU 

Principal architect of the "Be All You Can Be" cam- 
paign to attract high-quality recruits earlier in his career, 
Thurman was set to retire when he was appointed 
commander in chief of U.S. Southern Command. His 
invasion plan combined conventional and special- 
operations forces to overwhelm Noriega's forces. 

CPT Linda Bray 

Commander, 988th Military Police Company, 
Fort Benning, Ga. 

The first female to command U.S. troops in battle, Bray 
gave her assault team orders to fire on Panama Defense 

Forces troops who refused to surrender their position at a 
PDF dog kennel. Her team crashed through trie facility's 
gate and secured the area as the defenders withdrew. Her 

unit captured more than 1 50 automatic weapons in addition 
to hand grenades and thousands of rounds of ammunition. 


The Official U.S. Army Magazine 

m J 

- JS 

A Message from the Secretary of Defense and 
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 

Fifty years ago leaders on both sides of the Atlantic grappled with the challenges of 
a Europe ravaged by war and faced with the threat of a communist state bent on 
extending its domination in Europe. As the Iron Curtain descended on Eastern Europe, the 
hot war of World War II gave way to a new, but still exceedingly dangerous, Cold War. 

The giants of those dark times — Truman, Marshall, Vandenberg, Eden, Schuman 
and many others — surveyed this situation and made the bold decision to link the 
security of Western Europe and North America. The formation of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization was one outcome of this decision. 

In the five decades since the formation of the Atlantic Alliance, American leader- 
ship and the U.S. military presence on the continent have contributed enormously to 
NATO's remarkable success. Throughout this period, none have done more to 
strengthen and sustain the alliance than the men and women of America's armed forces. 
Indeed, America's pledge to defend Western Europe has, in large measure, been borne 
on the shoulders of those who served on the frontiers of freedom in Europe. 

Last month, three former members of the Warsaw Pact — Poland, Hungary and the 
Czech Republic — were welcomed as members of NATO. This month the leaders of 
the alliance will hold a summit in Washington to celebrate 50 years of peace, democ- 
racy and prosperity, and chart the direction the alliance should take in the 21st century. 

Some changes to NATO's strategic concept will be necessary. We live in dangerous 
times of ethnic turbulence and regional conflict, and the alliance faces new threats such 
as terrorism and the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Regardless of the changes 
that result, however, one aspect of NATO will doubtless remain the same for the 
foreseeable future: America's military will remain essential to the trans-Atlantic 

The men and women for whom Soldiers is published can be justifiably proud of the 
role the U.S. Army has played, and continues to play, in the incredible success story 
called NATO. Moreover, we are confident that when the leaders of the alliance gather 
for the 100th anniversary of NATO in 2049 they will salute the commitment and 
resolve of the American soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines who selflessly served our 
nation and history's most successful and enduring alliance. 


in ■■ 

a i mi ik? 

Ill 1H ■ ■ «* 

Henry H. Shelton 

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Stal 

nlliam S. Cohen 
Secretary of Defense 

■ inn 


A Message from the Secretary and 
the Chief of Staff of the Army 

This month the member nations of NATO are meeting in Washington, 
D.C., to commemorate the 50th anniversary of this historic alliance. As 
the world looks on, the alliance will celebrate five extraordinary decades 
of safeguarding freedom, welcome three new members, and extend its 
hand to other nations that share a common desire for freedom and democ- 
racy, peace and security. 

The United States Army is proud to serve as the Department of 
Defense executive agent for the NATO summit, helping to ensure that all 
the behind-the-scenes work necessary to make the conference run 
smoothly gets done. For half a century the Army has been an integral part 
of America's contribution to NATO, the most successful military alliance 
in modern history. 

American soldiers of yesterday, today and tomorrow embody the spirit 
of commitment and sacrifice that has enabled NATO to thrive and be 
strengthened through the years. For forty years, American soldiers stood 
ready on the edge of the Iron Curtain. When the Berlin Wall fell, Ameri- 
can soldiers — many the sons and daughters of Cold War veterans — 
were there to reach out and support fledgling democracies through the 
Partnership for Peace program. When conflict in the Balkans threatened 
stability on the continent, American soldiers led the NATO movement 
across the frigid waters of the Sava River to bring peace and stability to 
the war-torn region. 

As it has for the first 50 years, the United States Army will continue to 
provide strength and support to the United States' participation as NATO 
moves to face the challenges of the 21st century. 

Dennis J. Kelmer 

General, United States Army 

Chief of Staff 

/ouis Caldera 
Secretary of the Army 

April 1999 Volume 54, No. 4 

The Official 

U.S. Army Magazine 

Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: GEN Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: MG John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Information Strategy: William R. Drobnick 

Soldiers Staff 

Editor in Chief: LTC Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSG John Valceanu 
Photojournalism Heike Hasenauer 
Associate Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T. Marsden 

Soldiers (ISSN 0093-8440) is published monthly under super- 
vision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide the Total 
Army with information on people, policies, operations, technical 
developments, trends and ideas of and about the Department of 
the Army. The views and opinions expressed are not necessarily 
those of the Department of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest 
to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is autho- 
rized to Editor, Soldiers, 9325 Gunston Road, Suite S108, 
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581. Phone: DSN 656-4486 or com- 
mercial (703) 806-4486. Or send e-mail to soldiers® ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for 
"by permission" and copyright items), material may be reprinted 
provided credit is given to Soldiers and the author. ■ All 
photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. 
■ Military distribution: From the U.S. Army Distribution Opera- 
tions Facility, 1655 Woodson Road, St, Louis, MO 631 14-6181 , 
in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 050007 
subscription requirements submitted by commanders. ■ The 
Secretary of the Army has determined that the publication of this 
periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business 
as required by law of the department. ■ Use of funds for printing 
this publication was approved by the Secretary of the Army on 
Sept, 2, 1986, in accordance with the provisions of Army Regu- 
lation 25-30. Library of Congress call number: U1.A827, ■ 
Periodicals postage paid at Fort Belvoir, VA, and additional 
mailing offices. ■ Individual domestic subscriptions are available 
at S24 per year through the Superintendent of Documents, P.O. 
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call (202) 512-1800 or FAX (202) 512-2250. ■ To change 
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Washington, DC 20402 ■ POSTMASTER: Send address 

' • .:<:'!■ , ", lh.. I VI I!'.' /',.• I'M" ' .III', /' 


H A Half-Century of Support: 
The Army and NATO 

For five decades the U.S. Army 
has been an active partner on the 
NATO defense team. 

8 NATO: 50 Years of 
Common Defense 

Formed in 1949 to counter Soviet 
expansionism in Europe, NATO 
remains a force for peace. 

When NATO Was Born 

The birth of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization was one of 
several significant events in a 
tumultuous year. 



I / Standoff in Berlin 

One Sunday in 1961 — just two 
months after the construction of 
the Berlin Wall — American and 
Soviet troops and armored 
vehicles faced each other in a 
tense, 1 6-hour standoff at 
Checkpoint Charlie. 

A N ATGs^Speci* 

Timeline 23 

cU Building a Better Bastion 

These huge, dirt-filled cubes 
protect soldiers from enemy fire 
and seem certain to replace 
traditional sandbags. 

28 COBs: 

The Civilian Element 

Civilian role-players lend an air 
of realism to training at the 
Combined Maneuver Training 
Center in Hohenfels, Germany. 

The 15-Second 



The 1 5-Second Rumble 

At Fort Benning, Ga., boxing is 
helping to introduce ranger 
candidates to the in-your-face 
realities of hand-to-hand combat. 

More Than "Officer U" 

Since 1882 the Command and 
General Staff College at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kan., has been 
teaching Army leaders the 
profession of arms. 


1 2 Feedback 

14 What's New 

16 Around the Services 

36 Postmarks 

38 Focus on People 

40 Environmental Front 

44 Sharp Shooters 


4c Army Earth Day 

Want to know how you can 
contribute to the Army's environ- 
mental-protection efforts? Here 
are a few timely tips. 

4b Best Medics in the Field 

The Army's top medics put their 
skills to the test during the 
challenging Expert Field Medical 
Competition at Camp Bullis, 

Front cover: 

Paul Henry 
Crank's photo 
montage honors 
the 50th anniver- 
sary of NATO and 
the five decades of 
support the Army 
has provided to the 

A Half-Century of Support: 







1- ^iis! feau; 



. ^S"^ ' 







0«few. .,-• 

_. i.«a3SSUKB^ 

. 1 

; » s 


A U.S. S^fttar Zonal Reconnaissance Rltfttt^ J 
moves to its next observation point during * 
a 1988 patrol along the Berlin Wall. 

Gil High 






Story by Vincent Demma 

OR a half century, from 1949 to 
1999, the North Atlantic Treaty 
Organization has been the 
bulwark of freedom and democ- 
racy in Europe. 

Throughout that 50 years, the 
Army has been an active partner on 
the NATO defense team, and Army 
forces assigned to U.S. Army, 
Europe, and Seventh Army have 
stood on the front line of that defense 

Senior Army officers also have 
served in key military leadership 
positions in NATO. GEN Dwight D. 
Eisenhower was the alliance's first 
supreme allied commander, Europe, 
■"1 was succeeded bv GEN Matthew 


That support has also been a total 
Army effort, with National Guard and 
Reserve forces making vital contribu- 

The Army's commitment to 
NATO began with the 1st Infantry 
Division in 1950. Soon the buildup of 
Army combat forces in Europe grew 
to two corps headquarters (V and VII 
Corps), five divisions (2nd Armored 
and 1st, 4th, 28th and 43rd Inf. Divs., 
the last two being National Guard 
units mobilized during the Korean 
War), and three armored cavalry 

From a strength of approximately 
79,000 in 1950, Army forces in 
Europe expanded to nearly 257,000 
in mid-1952. The Army was part of 
the military shield behind which the 
war- weary nations of Western Europe 
rebuilt their shattered economies. 

For almost 50 years the Army 
maintained infantry, mechanized 




ifi SS mm 


]"■■'■'•■ x 




Mm m 

infantry and armored units in 
Europe, supporting NATO 
against the threat posed by the 
numerically superior Soviet-led 
military alliance of East Euro- 
pean armed forces, the Warsaw 

Throughout NATO's exist- 
ence, the Army has explored new 
strategic and tactical concepts to 
best undertake its role as a NATO 

In an era when the American 
participation in NATO centered 
on the strategic deterrent of 
massive retaliation, front-line 
Army forces in Europe were there 

of Western Europe's first line of 
defense. In essence they were 
relegated to a "trip-wire" role. 

Soviet observers kept a 

wditmui eye um iim i \j uui- 

ing the Cold War, even at- 
tending exercises con- 
ducted by NATO members. 

Military History in Washington, D.C. 

From 1 969 through the 1 980s, REFORGER exercises tested the ability 
of U.S.-based units to rapidly deploy to Europe. 

Lrf AMP 

■■ * 


During the Cold War, American units manned observation posts and undertook patrols 
along the borders separating West Germany from East Germany and Czechoslovakia. 

To enhance its role, the Army 
spurred the development of tactical 
nuclear weapons that could be 

Army's post- Vietnam War modern- 
ization of armored, mechanized and 
field artillery forces heightened its 

adapted to artillery and missiles. The support of NATO. 

Army's re-evaluation of concepts of 
how to fight on an atomic battlefield 
eventually led to NATO's adoption 
of a strategy of flexible response in 
the mid-1960s. 

Later, in response to a marked 
strengthening of Warsaw Pact 
armored forces in the 1970s, the 
Army and Air Force espoused a new 

This support has always de- 
pended on the rapid reinforcement 
of the alliance with active and 
reserve forces in the United States. 

Programs such as the GYRO- 
SCOPE unit rotation in the 1950s 
and large-scale REFORGER 
exercises from 1969 to 1988 showed 
America's commitment to the 

As tensions in Europe eased 
after the Korean War, the Army 
concentrated on working with its 
European partners to improve 
roads, ports, depots and communi- 
cation networks to support the 
NATO coalition. In the wake of the 
dissolution of the Warsaw Pact and 
the collapse of the Soviet Union in 
the early 1990s, the Army progres- 
sively reduced its strength in 
Europe to a level that today ap- 
proximates its 1950 strength. 

As the Soviet threat to central 
Europe waned, NATO's strategic 
outlook changed profoundly. The 
alliance's new focus was on out-of- 
NATO security problems that had 
a potential for regional destabiliza- 
tion. Initiatives focused particu- 
larly along NATO's southern flank 
and on expanding membership to 
former Warsaw Pact nations. 

Reduced to one corps with two 
divisions, USAREUR has taken a 
leading role in NATO's initiative to 

doctrine, AirLand Battle, to exploit a alliance, as did the mobilization and 

newer breed of more accurate and 
longer-range "smart" weapons and 
attack helicopters to conduct a deep- 
attack battle to disrupt and destroy 

deployment of thousands of reserve- 
component soldiers to Europe 
during the Berlin crisis of 1961-62. 
By prepositioning huge stocks of 

enemy follow-on and rear-area equipment and supplies in Europe 


The doctrine also exploited the 
production of a more heavily armed 
and faster Ml Abrams main battle 
tank to destroy forces that breached 

the forward defense line. Much of the support 

the Army also increased its rapid- 
reinforcement capability. The 
maintenance of this equipment has 
provided extensive on-the-job 
training to reserve-component 

Though it also undertook ceremonial du- 
ties, the Berlin Brigade's primary task for 
nearly four decades was the defense of 
the divided and surrounded city of West 








/?49 - \W 

create combined joint task forces as a 
step toward greater multinational 
integration of forces. The Army's V 
Corps, the only forward-deployed 
Army corps with divisions, and the 
1st Inf. Div. and 1st Armd. Div. have 
become partners in two U.S.-Ger- 
man corps. Army units also support 
the Allied Command, Europe, Rapid 
Reaction Corps — NATO's "fire 

Army forces in Europe, elements 
of the U.S.-based 1st Cav. Div. and 
2nd Armd. Cav. Regt., and numer- 
ous Guard and Reserve units have 
supported the NATO-led Stabiliza- 
tion Force in Bosnia. The Army's 
role in Operation Joint Forge, the 
current name for peacekeeping 
operations in Bosnia, continues to 
signal U.S. commitment to security 
and peace in the Balkans. 

Soldiers also serve on joint 
contact teams that conduct confi- 
dence-building and cooperative 
efforts in Central and Eastern 
Europe and the former Soviet Union 
through NATO-sponsored Partner- 
ship for Peace exercises. 

As it did in the past, the U.S. 
Army continues its commitment of 
forces to assure our European allies 
that their security is a vital American 
concern. The Army continues to 
provide people, materiel and leader- 
ship in support of NATO's new 
missions. □ 

USAREUR has taken a 

leading role in 

NATO's initiative to 

create combined joint 

task forces as a step 

toward greater 



/~x*L± Jkis^ 


jr - - 


Partnership for Peace exer- 
cises allow NATO and non- 
NATO soldiers to share tech- 
niques and prepare for pos- 
sible joint action. 

K2& F: l*5?5 




*• -,~ 


FjC» *■• v, ? " t VJa 



T.T. r.i ft i iT-IHm [• li riBMiMiim HT* WM imTT-T* (T J.l * v7i »' Y.T.Tii f»] ■ 1 1 [ 7 

in frequent training involving both NATO and former Warsaw Pact militaries. 

April 1999 


Common Defense 

Story by Linda D. Kozaryn 

THE North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation celebrates its 50th anniver- 
sary this month. 
Since NATO's inception, U.S. 
service members have worked side-by- 
side with their alliance counterparts to 
guard international borders during the 
Cold War, to improve interoperability 
during countless multinational training 

Linda D. Kozaryn works for the American Forces Press 
Service in Alexandria, Va. 

exercises and, most recently, to bring 
peace to the troubled Balkans. 

Today nearly 7,000 U.S. troops 
serve as part of the NATO-led Stabili- 
zation Force in Bosnia. U.S. Army 
units took the lead when NATO's 
peace implementation force first 
crossed the Sava River in December 
1995, and tens of thousands of Ameri- 
cans have since served in the Balkans. 

U.S. active duty and reserve 

personnel can count on being part of 
future NATO peace efforts in the days 
ahead, working with forces from 
NATO member nations plus countries 
working with NATO through its 
Partnership for Peace agreements. 

NATO is expanding in the wake of 
the Cold War, opening the door to new 
members and taking on more partners 
to meet the defense needs of a new era. 
The alliance was born after World War 

NATO exercises, conducted from 1953 onward, brought a cooperative spirit to member nations and honed the joint-combat effi- 
ciency of each country's armed forces while strengthening traditional ties of international friendship. 

' Soldiers 

II. basically for the same reason. 

Having withstood Hitler's aggres- 
sion. 12 western European and North 
Atlantic nations joined to defend their 
freedom and independence from future 
foes. They recognized that even though 
the war was over, a new threat lurked 
on the horizon. 

Unlike the United States and other 
nations that had cut military forces 
after the armistice, the Soviet Union 
maintained full military might. Soviet 
forces blockaded Berlin and repressed 
democracy, freedom and civil rights in 
Central and Eastern European countries 
under their control. 

Eventually the Soviets' aggressive, 
expansionist policy led to what became 
know n as the Cold War. It also served, 
in part, as the impetus for the Brussels 
Treaty of March 1948. To counter the 
Soviet threat, Belgium, France, Luxem- 
bourg, the Netherlands and the United 
Kingdom agreed to develop a common 
defense system. Their treaty's goal was 
to strengthen international ties to resist 
ideological, political and military 
threats to their common security. 

A year later the United States and 
Canada agreed to form a North Atlantic 

NATO is 

expanding in 

the wake of the 

Cold War, 

opening the 

door to new 

members and 

taking on more 

partners to meet 

the defense 

needs of a 

new era. 

The first Return of Forces to Germany ex- 
ercise was conducted in 1 963. By the 1 980s 
REFORGER troops were a common sight 
throughout the German countryside. 

alliance with the five European nations. 
Officials of the fledgling alliance also 
invited Denmark, Iceland, Italy, 
Norway and Portugal to participate. In 
April 1949 the 12 new allies signed the 
Treaty of Washington, and the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization was born. 

Greece and Turkey joined NATO in 
1952, followed by West Germany in 
1955, and Spain became the 16th 
member nation in 1982. The total will 
reach 19 when Poland, Hungary and 
the Czech Republic officially join the 
alliance at the April anniversary 
summit in Washington. Other nations 
such as Bulgaria, Romania and 
Slovenia also seek membership, and 
future accession rounds are planned. 

Once accepted within NATO's 
protective circle, each nation shares the 
risks, responsibilities and benefits of 
collective security. If one member's 
territory is threatened, all have pledged 
to come to the rescue. When it comes 
to defense, the NATO motto is still: 
'One for all and all for one." □ 

Though many earlier exercises were char- 
acterized by large troop movements 
through urban areas, the last REFORGER 
was largely a computer-driven event. 

April 1999 


HARRY Truman was in the White 
House, having staged what was 
arguably the biggest election 
upset e\er in presidential politics. 
Junior congressmen and future presi- 
dents John Kennedy and Richard 
Nixon started their second terms. 
Joseph Stalin was still absolute ruler of 
the Soviet Union. 

The year 1 949. when the North 
Atlantic Treaty Organization was born, 
was tumultuous. Nothing ruled Ameri- 
can and Western foreign policy as 
much as the oncoming freeze of the 
Cold War, and NATO was just one of 
the outcomes. To understand NATO 
and what it has come to mean, it helps 
to look at the world of 1949. 

After building the world's most 
powerful war machine for World War 
II, the United States dismantled its 
military when the shooting stopped. 
The Soviets had 10 million men under 
arms in Europe. The U.S. Army had 
about two-and-a-half divisions. 

Britain's Winston Churchill said 
after the war that over half of Europe 
was behind an "Iron Curtain," referring 
to the Eastern and Central European 
nations under Soviet domination. The 
continent was in ruins and faced 
economic and political chaos. 

To counter the Soviet threat on 
their eastern flank, five Western 

Jim Garamone works for the American Forces Press Ser- 
vice in Alexandria, Va. 

Though much of Europe still lay in ruins in 
1949, NATO's founding members hoped to 
build a brighter and more secure future. 

European nations penned a defense 
treaty in 1948. Within 13 months 
representatives of the original five 
members, the United States, Canada 
and five other nations gathered in 
Washington to sign a pact creating an 
expanded, North Atlantic alliance. 

Even as the treaty ink dried, Europe 
was celebrating the first anniversary of 
the Marshall Plan, the aid program 
named after U.S. Secretary of State 
George C. Marshall, the Army's 
wartime chief of staff. 

Western Europe was using the 
Marshall Plan to feed its millions and 
to rebuild its shattered infrastructure. 
The plan gave Western Europeans hope. 
Ernest Bevin, then British foreign 
minister, said it had "saved Europe." 

As the Soviet threat continued, 
Americans feared communist influence 
at home. Congress investigated allega- 
tions that Alger Hiss, a senior official 
in the Roosevelt administration, was a 
Soviet spy, and New York Gov. 
Thomas Dewey signed a bill to "elimi- 
nate from the public school system 
teachers and other employees who are 
communists or fellow travelers." 

By the time the Russians' Berlin 
blockade ended in May 1949, U.S., 
British and French fliers were deliver- 
ing 8,000 tons of supplies daily to the 
beleaguered German city. The Western 
allies had started the airlift, an unprec- 
edented lifeline for 2.5 million people, 
soon after the Russians sealed off the 
city in June 1948. 

Mao Zedong's communist forces 
drove the Nationalists from mainland 
China to the island of Formosa in 1949. 
Israel survived a war with its Arab 
neighbors and joined the United 
Nations. The Soviets detonated an atomic 
bomb in September. West Germany and 
East Germany became nations. 

GEN Dwight Eisenhower would 
soon be named NATO's supreme 
commander, and GEN Douglas Mac- 
Arthur was still the "viceroy" of Japan. 

Few Americans had ever heard of 
Korea, and Vietnam was an obscure 

Both GEN Dwight Eisenhower (at left) and 
President Harry Truman (at right) played 
major roles in NATO's early years. 

French colony in Southeast Asia. 
Hawaii and Alaska were still exotic, 
remote U.S. territories. The flags of 
only four independent nations flew in 
Africa; Europeans still held sway over 
much of it and Asia. The United 
Nations met in Lake Success, N.Y. 

In 1949 the national military 
establishment of the United States 
became the Department of Defense. 
The Air Force B-50 bomber Lucky 
Lady II circled the globe nonstop, 
refueling four times. Army privates 
made $75 a month. The enlisted ranks 
stopped at E-7. Ensigns and second 
lieutenants made $213.75 a month. 

When the 12 charter nations signed 
the NATO Pact, they had hopes for 
deterring aggression. An attack on one, 
they agreed, would be an attack on all. 

Fifty years later, the alliance 
readies to admit three more members 
— nations that were on the other 
ideological side during the Cold War. 
The alliance strives to reinvent itself 
with the end of the conflict. But its 
main purpose continues to be fulfilled: 
Europe is enjoying its longest period oi' 
peace in modern times. □ 

April 1999 



From the Editor 

THIS special issue of Soldiers 
commemorates the 50th an- 
niversary of the North Atlan- 
tic Treaty Organization. This 
month 16 member nations of 
NATO come together in Wash- 
ington to mark the occasion, 
look to the future and wel- 
come three new members. 
The Onited States Army 
has played a key role in pro 

to NATO throughout the 
alliance's first 50 years. Many 
of our grandfathers stood on 
the banks of the Elbe River as 
World War II ended and the 
Cold War era dawned. In the 
'60s and 70s, our fathers 
and mothers took their places 
in Europe along the Iron Cur- 
tain, watching and guarding 
freedom's frontier. And in the 
'80s and '80s we stood 
proudly as freedom, democ- 
racy andfree markets spread 
into areas where communism 
had failed. 

We hope you enjoy read- 
ing about the alliance and the 
Army's role in it over the 
years. NATO has been and will 
remain an important part of 
the Army's mission. Soldiers 
is proud to salute the soldiers 
who have contributed so much 
to what is probably the most 
successful alliance in modern 

Cover Correction 

THE back cover of the February 
issue of Soldiers states that MG 
Leonard Wood got his Medal of 
Honor for actions against the 
Apaches in the summerof 1 898. 
The DOD MOH book says he 
received the medal in 1898 for 
actions in 1886. 

Ron Still, AMEDD Historian 
via e-mail 

YOU are correct. 1LT Leonard 
Wood served in the Arizona 
Territory as both medical and 
line officer and, in the summer 
of 1886, distinguished himself 
in battle with the Apaches. He 
was presented the MOH in 1898. 

Likes New Format 

I LIKE the new format in your 
February issue. I also like the 
mix of Guard/Reserve and ac- 
tive articles. As an AGR soldier, 
it's nice to see news from a broad 
spectrum of our Army. From time 
to time, I would like to see ar- 
ticles on historical topics, such 
as why the dress blue uniform is 
two different colors, where the 
different branch colors come 
from, etc. 

Name Withheld 
via e-mail 

Silver vs. Gold 

I HAVE a question about officer 
rank insignia, sparked by ongo- 
ing correspondence with a re- 
tired British soldier. He asked 
why the rank insignia of U.S. 
Army majors is a gold-colored 
oak leaf and a lieutenant 
colonel's is silver. The same 
question pertains to lieutenants' 
insignia, with the rationale that 
gold is a more precious metal 
than silver. 

I also want to congratulate 

you on your revamped format - 

it's very readable. 

SSG Stephen ft Sandberg (Ret.) 

via e-mail 

New Face of Basic 

I WOULD like to commend you on your 
February coverage of the new basic, 
am a new recruit who will be shipping 
out to basic training very soon. Your 
coverage of basic helped me see 
what to expect when I go. I am look- 
ing forward to testing myself to the 
limits — and beyond! Thanks for the 
article. I think you should keep it on 
your website for all new recruits to see. 

PV1 Paul Aubin 
Fort Belvoir, Va. 

THANK you so much for running the Fort Jackson basic training 
story. Our journalist is so proud of her story in Soldiers, and 
Jonas Jordan's pictures were so good. I'm glad you could use 
them. We appreciate your cooperation in making this happen. 

Karen Soule, Assistant PAO 
Fort Jackson, S.C. 

IT was our pleasure. It's easy when you are working with great 
photography and strong writing. 

THE Institute of Heraldry at Fort 
Belvoir, Va., notes that the pre- 
cedence of silver over gold in 
military officer rank insignia 
arose from a desire to avoid 
unnecessary changes, not as 
the result of deliberate intent. 
The short version of the story is 
that silver stars for general offic- 
ers were the first rank insignia 
used in the U.S. Army. In the 
early 1800s infantry colonels 
wore gold eagles on silver ep- 
aulettes and all other colonels 
had silver eagles on gold epau- 
lettes. In 1851 the colonel's 
eagle was prescribed in silver 
only — apparently because 
there were more colonels wear- 
ing silver eagles than gold ones. 
At that time, lieutenant colonels 
wore an embroidered silver leaf 
while majors wore gold ones. In 
1872 epaulettes were abolished, 
and the bars for captains and 
first lieutenants were changed 
from gold to silver. The gold bar 
for second lieutenants was 
adopted in 1917, following the 
precedent established for the 
major's gold insignia. 

Almanac's Great 

WELL done to all of the Soldiers 
staff on the outstanding January 
almanac issue. The Army should 
ensure every soldier in the ac- 
tive, Guard and Reserve force is 
given one. It's that good! 

The pullout poster has al- 
ready been put up all over our 
Reserve center and is much 
appreciated. It is a great tool to 
help soldiers with their uniforms 
and insignia. How about another 
issue devoted to the Army's his- 
tory and traditions? Yes, you 
carry occasional articles on these 
topics, but this would allow you 
to go into more depth and present 
the subject in a meaningful way 
to today's soldiers. You could 
even include some more great 
pullout posters. Too many sol- 
diers have only the vaguest ideas 
of what the Army's traditions, 
insignia and customs mean. 
There are many great stories to 
tell to inspire and teach our sol- 

MAJ Charles Chelseth, USAR 
Fort Sheridan, III. 



Uniform Questions 

SOME of us were wondering who 
are the soldiers on the almanac 
poster insert and how they got all 
of those awards. Many NCOs 
here have commented that it 
might not be possible for some 
of those soldiers to have earned 
some of the awards they are 

RFC Sean Barlow 
Fort Sill, Okla. 

THE soldiers who modeled uni- 
forms for the almanac poster 
were selected from dozens of 
candidates from across the 
Army. Each soldier is wearing 
his or her own authorized indi- 
vidual awards - we neither 
added nor subtracted any -and 
some of them reflect enlisted 
service prior to being commis- 
sioned. Soldiers in Class A uni- 
forms are (left to right): 2LT 
ConreauL. Williams, Landstuhl, 
Germany; 2LT Mark S. Leslie, 
Fort Drum, N.Y.; SSG Samuel 
A. Burns, Fort Lee, Va.; and 
SSG Anna M. Eubanks, Fort 
Bragg, N.C. Joining these sol- 
diers and modeling Class B uni- 
forms are 1LT Leslie N. Smith, 
Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.; 
and SPC Melinda A. Kennedy, 
Fort Ritchie, Md. 

YOUR 1999 poster was great, 
but my unit cannot hang it on the 
bulletin board due to incorrect 
appearance. One soldier, SSG 
Burns, appears to be wearing 
driver and mechanic badges on 
his Class A uniform. AR 670-1 
says that when wearing two 
badges from category 4 (air as- 
sault and airborne) no badges 
from category 5 (driver and me- 
chanic) are authorized for wear. 
SFC B.J. Rich 
Fort Meade, Md. 

A DEPARTMENT of the Army 
message dated November 1994 
states "three badges from group 
4 and two badges from group 5 
may be worn if the total number 

April 1999 

of badges does not exceed five. " 
The message was a change to 
AR 670-2, paragraph 28-1 7b, 
and took effect immediately. 

The Soldiers Almanac hit the 

spot with the Situation Report 
and the Post Information articles, 
but the uniform insert missed a 
step on male footwear. What 

CSM Robert J. Bush 
via e-mail 

THANKS for your comments. 
While we didn't forget about foot- 
wear, we just figured it a given 
that low-quarters are generally 
the only authorized style of shoe 
for men. We mentioned foot- 
wear for females because more 
than one style of shoe is autho- 
rized for them. Also, we cov- 
ered the wear of boots with the 
Class A uniform for all soldiers. 
We'll take your question into 
account for the 2000 almanac. 

YOUR January almanac issue is 
a great reference for all soldiers. 
We love it. But I have one ques- 
tion about your "Symbols of Ex- 
cellence" poster: Can the over- 
seas service bar be worn on the 
right sleeve and do you have to 
be in a combat zone for six 
months or more to qualify? 

SSG Tim Mercer 
via e-mail 

AR 670-1, chapter 27, para- 
graph 26(d) explains who may 
wear the service bar and under 
what conditions. The list is far 
too long to publish, but each 
subparagraph requires soldiers 
to have served for at least six 
months in a specific location for 
each service bar worn. 

Missing Elements 

UNDER subordinate units for 
MDW in your January almanac 
issue, there is also a Meade 
Garrison that was not included. 
Donna Flurry 
Fort Meade, Md. 

THANKS for the correction. We 
rely on MACOM Public Affairs 
Offices for that input, and your 
element was omitted. 

GREAT job on the '99 almanac. 
And thanks for including some of 
our photos; Sara Underhill was 
thrilled with the photo credits. 
Unfortunately, the U.S. Army 
Soldier Systems Center, also 
known as Natick Labs, in Natick, 
Mass., was not included in your 
list of active Army installations. 
I'd appreciate it if you'd make a 
note so we're included next year 
(Phone: (508) 233-5340, ZIP 

Jerry Whitaker, PAO 
Natick, Mass. 

THE January issue of Soldiers 
is very well done with one excep- 
tion: the pullout map is missing a 
very important Army unit — the 
1 1 th Armored Cavalry Regiment 
here at the National Training 

I am mystified how you, as 
an official Army publication, can 
make such a glaring mistake. 
You have done the soldiers at 
NTC a great disservice. 

MA J John E. Taylor 
Fort Irwin, Calif. 

WE couldn't agree more about 
the importance of the 11th A CR. 
Here's the story on the unit's 
non-listing: We checked with 
FORSCOM to include all the 
major active Army maneuver 
units, but FORSCOM did not 
include the 11th ACR because 
the unit does not mobilize; how- 
ever, we will explore ways to 
recognize the 11th ACR in the 
next almanac. 

Soldiers is for soldiers and DA 
civilians. We invite readers' views. 
Stay under 150 words — a post- 
card will do — and include your 
name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire 
and may condense your views be- 
cause of space. We can't publish 
or answer every one, but we'll use 
representative views. Write to: 
Feedback, Soldiers, 9325 Gun- 
ston Road, Ste. S108, Fort Bel- 
voir, VA 22060-5581, or e-mail: 

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Important: Please include this completed order form with your remittance. 

Thank you for your order! 

What's New 

Compiled by SFC John Brenci 


The National Symphony Orchestra (above) and distinguished actor and World War II veteran Ossie 
Davis (right) will be among those appearing in the 1999 National Memorial Day Concert on PBS. 

Washington, D.C. 

Concert on 
Memorial Day 

VETERANS across the nation 
will have a special opportunity 
to remember their comrades 
during the 1999 National Me- 
morial Day Concert broadcast 
live on PBS from the grounds of 
the U.S. Capitol at 8 p.m. May 

The 90-minute special will 
blend archival footage, musical 
performances and dramatic 

This year, the concert will 
celebrate its 10-year anniver- 
sary with segments on World 
War N's Battle of Okinawa, the 
last and bloodiest fight in the 
Pacific, and a special tribute to 
lasting friendships forged dur- 
ing the Vietnam War. 

April Events Timeline 

Distinguished actors and 
World War II veterans Ossie 
Davis and Charles Durning are 
returning to host the concert. 
They both view their participa- 
tion in the annual concert as a 
personal salute to their com- 

Ossie Davis was part of an 
elite medical team that in 1942 
built and operated the first Army 
hospital in West Africa. 

Charles Durning was 
awarded three Purple Hearts 
and a Silver Star for his heroism 
in WW II. He is the only survivor 
of a unit that landed on Omaha 
Beach on D-Day. Sustaining 
many injuries, he fought in the 
Battle of the Bulge and was 
taken prisoner. Durning now 
spends much of his time visiting 
veteran's hospitals, where he 
shares experiences and helps 
ease the suffering of others. 

The holiday special features 
distinguished guest artists in 
performance with the National 
Symphony Orchestra underthe 
direction of premier pops con- 
ductor Erich Kunzel. — Devillier 
Communications, Inc. 

Arlington, Va. 

New Horizons Mission 

DEVASTATION from two hurri- 
canes last fall has the potential 
to significantly expand the Na- 
tional Guard's horizons in Cen- 
tral America this year. 

A force of 2,500 Guard 
troops originally pledged for 
New Horizons '99 nation-build- 
ing projects in Honduras is in- 
creasing to four times that num- 
ber for rebuilding and humani- 
tarian-aid missions in Hondu- 

ras and the Dominican Repub- 
lic, said Army Guard officials in 
Arlington, Va. 

Some 10,000 Guard sol- 
diers from across the country 
will help Latin American nations 
recover from the widespread 
damage of Hurricanes Georges 
and Mitch. 

The timetable for doing this 
work has been expanded from 
the first half of 1 999 through the 
end of August to give Guard 
engineer units time to rebuild 
roads and construct schools and 

Five additional Central 
American joint task forces em- 
ploying troops from most of the 
United States' military reserve 
components are being orga- 
nized thanks to an additional 
$56 million in funding, said MAJ 
Glenn Hagler, the ArmyGuard's 
Central American project officer. 

Engineer battalions from 
South Carolina and Mississippi 
will direct Task Force Sula, con- 
centrating on constructing four 
schools and three clinics and 
digging wells in northern Hon- 
duras through May. 

Louisiana, Missouri and 
Nebraska will send the largest 
groups of Guard soldiers into 
the north-central region. Be- 
tween 450 and 550 troops will 
be on duty most of the time. 
They will focus on rebuilding 
roads and bridges during the 
first, dry half of the year and 
then build schools and clinics 
when summer brings the rainy 

Twenty-member National 
Guard medical teams from five 
states and from the Air Force 
have already stepped up to con- 
duct a half-dozen medical readi- 


r — April 4: U.S. Daylight 
Savings Time begins. 

April 1 : Battle of Okinawa begins in 1 945. The largest amphibious enterprise staged in the 
Pacific during World War II. it set the stage for the planned invasion of the Japanese mainland. 

[-April 9: Groundbreaking ceremony for the Army 
Women's Museum, Fort Lee, Va. 

April 12: In 1861, Confederate troops fire on Fort 
Sumter, S.C., heralding the start of the Civil War. 



ness exercises in remote areas 
of Honduras, Hagler said. 

Doctors, dentists and 
nurses will provide basic medi- 
cal care — from inoculations to 
pulling decayed teeth. Army 
Guard teams from Illinois, Iowa, 
Puerto Rico and Minnesota, and 
an Air Guard team from Minne- 
sota will conduct the medical 
missions, Hagler added. 

Alabama will lead a 3,500- 
member task force that will be 
rotated to the Dominican Re- 
public, where Hurricane 
Georges killed at least 200 
people last summer and left 
thousands of others homeless 
and without food and water. — 
National Guard Bureau Public 
Affairs Office 

Hot Websites 

NATO Website 

Washington, D.C. 

NCO, Officer 
Retention Okay 

MID-CAREER noncommis- 
sioned and commissioned of- 
ficers are staying in the active 
Army, keeping retention rates 
at a steady level, said Army 
military personnel officials. 

According to SGM Jerry 
Pionk, the active-duty retention 
sergeant major at the Penta- 
gon's Office of the Deputy Chief 
of Staff for Personnel, there is 
no current "hemorrhage" of mid- 
careerenlisted soldiers. Norare 
mid-career officers stampeding 
to leave the Army for civilian 
jobs, said COL Karl Knoblauch, 
vision chief. 


There are about 400,000 
enlisted soldiers and 78,000 
commissioned officers currently 
on active duty, according to 
ODCSPER documents. Those 
documents listed about 1 71 ,000 
soldiers holding sergeant 
through sergeant major rank. 
The retention rate of mid-ca- 
reer NCOs — usually defined 
as sergeants and staff ser- 
geants on their second enlist- 
ment and having less than 10 
years' of active service — is 
currently at 74 percent, Pionk 
said. This percentage, he said, 
compares favorably with his- 
toric mid-career retention rates. 

The Army expects to meet 
its authorized, budgeted com- 
missioned officer strength for 
fiscal year 1999, with some 
grade imbalances, principally at 

SOLDIERS is featuring a website every month 
that has useful and important information per- 
tinent to soldiers, government employees and 
their families. 

In honor of NATO's 50th anniversary, this 
month's featured website is the alliance's 
homepage at The site 
offers many useful areas, such as a media 
library with a large collection of photographic 
and video material available free of charge. A 
photographic database depicting NATO his- 
tory has some 900 high-resolution images. 

An explanation of NATO's organization 
and 16 member countries is also available. 
This section is helpful to those who don't know 
much about NATO's history or the role the 
United States plays in the organization. 

If you think you've found a "missing link" 
that would be of interest to soldiers, federal 
employees or their families, send an e-mail to 

captain rank, Knoblauch said. 
As such, he said, personnel of- 
ficials are keeping an eye on 
the number of captains in the 
force, along with their continua- 
tion rates. 

Captain is the rank at which 
officers most often make career 
decisions, having completed 
their initial active-duty service 
obligations, Knoblauch said. 
Since 1990, the Army down- 
sized by more than 25,000 of- 
ficers during the drawdown pe- 
riod. Many of those officers were 
mid-career captains who took 
early-outs through various in- 
centive programs. 

With the drawdown now 
over, Knoblauch said, the Army 
needs to shift its focus as it 
manages a steady-state Army 
compared to the earlier, down- 
sizing force. 

Pionk said there is no doubt 
that some mid-career NCOs 
with highly marketable skills, like 
some mid-career officers, are 
leaving the Army earlier than 
eitherthey orthe Army had origi- 
nally planned, to snag a job in 
today's "hot" economy. 

Soldiers "may see a few 
good NCOs leave the Army," 
Pionk said, and conclude there 
is a trend. Plenty of other good 
NCOs remain in the force, but 
"the perception may exist in 
certain units that everyone is 
getting out," he said. 

Proposals to significantly 
raise soldiers' pay and benefits 
in the president's FY 2000 de- 
fense budget, if approved, will 
go a long way to help retain 
quality officers and enlisted 
troops, Pionk and Knoblauch 
acknowledged. — Army News 

- April 1 3: George C Marshall ROTC Awards, 
honoring top cadets, Lexington, Va. 

- April 1 9: Oklahoma City bomb- 
ing kills 168 people in 1995. 

April 18: Bataan Memonal March kicks off at White Sands 
Missile Range, N.M. Professional Secretaries Day. 


April 30: Best Ranger Competition • 
begins, Fort Benning, Ga. 

April 22: Earth Oay. 

April 1999 

Around the Services 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

A marine prepares to enage the 
"enemy" during recent TRAP 
training on Okinawa. 

Marines Set 
a TRAP on Okinawa 

Central Training Area, Oki- 
nawa, Japan — When marines 
rescued Air Force Capt. Scott 
O'Grady from hostile territory 
in Bosnia in 1994, the nation 
viewed the feat as an uncanny 
act of valor. The secret behind 
this bravery, however, wasn't 
some sort of supernatural 
power, and the marines in the 
rescue didn't possess some 
magical touch in order to com- 
plete the mission. 

"In a Tactical Recovery of 
Aircraft and Personnel, or 
TRAP, mission, you have to 
provide security to keep a look- 
out for possible enemy snipers, 
enemy units moving forward or 
anything that could stop liftoff," 
said Sgt. Charles V. Strong, 
assistant operations chief, 2nd 
Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment. 

The 2/7 Marines recently 
honed their infantry skills by 
practicing a TRAP mission at 
the Central Training Area as 
part of Exercise Beachcrest '99. 

Strong said marines ex- 
ecute TRAPs for various pur- 

"A TRAP is a mission to 
force the enemy into a limited 
advance, and to grab a foot- 
hold on a position," Strong ex- 

An infantry unit could ex- 

ecute a TRAP to divert enemy 
attention from their true objec- 
tive. In an ideal scenario, the 
enemy would see the TRAP 
taking place and move their 
forces toward the activity as 
another group of marines 
closed in on the point where the 
enemy was in the first place, 
according to Strong. 

According to Cpl. Jayson 
D. Kenny of Co. E, 2/7 Marines, 
it was important for the marines 
to understand the fundamen- 
tals of a TRAP mission because 
of its frequent use. 

"Just from recent history 
alone, when marines rescued 
Capt. O'Grady, we know we 
could end up having to conduct 
a TRAP mission in a wartime 
environment," he said. "This 
training can help us in the fu- 
ture, because we'll know what's 
going on and what our job is 
when it's the real thing." — Cpl. 
Matt S. Schafer, Camp Butler 
Public Affairs Office 

Advanced Weapons 
at White Sands 

White Sands Missile Range, 
N.M. — A $2. 5 million telescope 
and dome have been installed 
at an Air Force research labo- 
ratory here. The telescope will 
improve the Air Force's ability 
to track missiles 
and use laser 
energy to de- 
stroy them. The 
addition to 8,000 
-foot-high North 
Oscura Peak 
was developed 
by the Directed 
Energy Director- 
ate at Kirtland Air 
Force Base, N.M. 
The 1 -meter 
telescope will be 
used to send and 
receive laser 
light between 
the site and Sali- 

The $2.5 million telescope 
and dome installed on 
North Oscura Peak will 
help measure the atmo- 
spheric distortion of light. 

nas Peak, another White Sands 
site about 35 miles away. In- 
struments will be used to mea- 
sure the extent to which the 
Earth's atmosphere distorts the 
light. That information will be 
used to make compensations 
for the distortion, to make the 
laser light more accurate. 

Built by Contraves 
Brashear Systems in Pitts- 
burgh, the telescope is on a 
mount that can move down five 
degrees and revolve 360 de- 
grees. It can be used with mov- 
ing targets to simulate more 
realistic wartime conditions. 

By June the Air Force will 
be able to test the system by 
firing nondestructive lasers at a 
variety of missiles being 
launched at WSMR. 

During atest, North Oscura 
Peak and Salinas Peak will be 
in constant communication. A 
laser will not work unless sev- 
eral fail-safe measures are in 
force at both locations. These 
are among the safety precau- 
tions in place to ensure eye- 
safe operations. 

Research conducted here 
is expected to also benefit the 
airborne laser — a large cargo 
aircraft equipped with a high- 
energy laser that can destroy 
ballistic missiles hundreds of 
miles away. Although the air- 
borne laser is 
designed to op- 
erate at alti- 
tudes above 
40,000 feet, la- 
ser accuracy 
data collected 
here — in the 
8,000- to 9,000- 
foot elevations 
— will be scale- 
able to the high- 
er altitudes. Re- 
search at the 
site may be ap- 
plied to the first 
three production 

airborne laser aircraft or on tac- 
tical aircraft as advanced weap- 
onry. — Air Force News 

Aegis Destroyer 

Pascagoula, Miss. — The 

Navy christened the guided mis- 
sile destroyer USS Roosevelt 
here in January. The ship was 
named for President and Mrs. 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 

Mrs. Nancy Roosevelt Ire- 
land, granddaughterof the ship's 
namesakes, served as ship's 
sponsor and, in the time-hon- 
ored Navy tradition, broke the 
bottle of champagne across the 
bow to formally name the ship. 

Roosevelt is the 30th of 51 
Arleigh Burke-class destroyers 
currently authorized by Con- 
gress. These multi-mission 
ships are equipped with the 
Navy's modern Aegis combat 
weapons systems, which com- 
bines space-age communica- 
tion, radar and weapons tech- 
nologies in a single platform for 
unlimited flexibility. 

The destroyer carries 
Tomahawk cruise missiles, as 
well as Standard missiles to 
intercept hostile aircraft and 
missiles at extended ranges. 
Both Tomahawk and Standard 
missiles are launched from for- 
ward and aft Vertical Launch- 
ing Systems. 

Roosevelt is also equipped 
with the Phalanx Close-In 
Weapons System, Harpoon 
anti-ship cruise missiles, a 57 
.54-caliber gun, sophisticated 
antisubmarine location and 
tracking systems and two SH- 
60B Seahawk undersea-war- 
fare helicopters. 

Following the ship's 2000 
commissioning, it will be 
homeported in Mayport, Fla., 
with a crew of 340 officers and 
enlisted personnel, as a mem- 
berof the U.S. Atlantic Fleet.— 
Navy Office of Information 



Story by 

Renita Foster 

W 1 ^* ^^^ 

A ^Lj 


3 , 

CPT John M. Kirk com- 
manded Co. E during 
the face-off in Berlin. 

"So now we 've 

got Russians 

glaring at 

Americans and 


glaring at 

Russians, and 

that's the way it 

stayed for the 

rest of the day, 

through the 

night and into 

the next 

morning. " 

On a Sunday in October 
1961, American and Soviet 
tanks and troops faced 
each other in a tense, 16- 
hour standoff at Berlin's 
Checkpoint Charlie. 

IT'S one of those "There I was"' 
Army incidents known only to the 
participants. But for the nearly 200 
soldiers who lived it, the '"stand- 
off," as they came to call it. is as 
real today as it was 38 years ago in the 
then divided cities of East and West 
Berlin, just two months after construc- 
tion of the Berlin Wall. 

Retired BG John Kirk was a captain 
that October in 196 1 and had been in 
command of Co. E, 2nd Battle Group, 

Renita Foster is a feature writer for her post newspaper, 
the Fort Monmouth Message. 

6th Infantry Regiment, for nearly four 
months. One of his first priorities had 
been to change the company's ap- 
proach to alerts. 

Kirk wasn't satisfied with the time 
it took to pass out weapons, ammuni- 
tion and other combat items. To speed 
up the process, he ordered his men to 
keep vital equipment in their armored 
personnel carriers, "so when an alert 
was called the only thing we had to do 
was put on fatigues and mount the 
tracks," he recently explained from his 
home in Tacoma, Wash. 

pril 1999 

Kirk remembered that his company 
was out the gate in just minutes when 
the siren blasted through the compound 
that October afternoon. 

"We were already more than a 
quarter of a mile down the road when 
the operations officer called on the 
radio and wanted to know how soon 
we could move," Kirk said. "1 told him 
'We're gone!"* 

The company arrived at Templehof 
Airport, its designated assembly area, 
and after what seemed like endless 
waiting and no answer to his persistent 
questions as to the whereabouts of the 
Russians, Kirk was ordered back to 
McNair Barracks. 

When the company started to pull 
out, however, they were met by 
soldiers from Co. F, 40th Armor, 

"Friedrichstrasse is a very narrow 

street. Both sides had tanks two to 

three abreast, and eight to ten 

deep, at point-blank range. " 

commanded by MAJ Tom Tyree, who 
had orders to occupy Checkpoint 
Charlie, one of the last remaining open 
border crossings between East and 
West Berlin. 

Before leaving the assembly area, 
the two companies "cross attached" to 
give each unit a complement of 

infantry and armor platoons. Just 
minutes after reaching the checkpoint, 
the Americans spotted a Russian tank 
company lining up directly across from 
their positions. The "standoff' had 

"The Russians came down 
Friedrichstrasse and lined up right in 
front of us," Kirk said. "So now we've 
got Russians glaring at Americans and 
Americans glaring at Russians, and 
that's the way it stayed for the rest of 
the day, through the night and into the 
next morning." 

Recognizing that the force of 
Russian T-54 tanks facing him was just 
company size, Kirk spent an intense 
afternoon wondering where the main 
Russian battalion was. There had been 
few communications with the Berlin 

Brigade since setting 
up at Checkpoint 
Charlie. But when 
Kirk's driver tuned 
his personal transistor 
radio to Armed 
Forces Network, 
Berlin, Kirk got his 

"I was set up by 
this billboard advertising some kind of 
soap, when a newscaster named Dick 
Rosse came on and announced that 
there was a Soviet tank battalion in 
Kaiser Platz, which was less than a 
mile away," Kirk said. "I thought, this 
was just great. Somebody finally got 
me the information I needed!" 

Rosse, who now lives in Washing- 
ton, D.C., had been the first reporter on 
the scene when the communists started 
erecting the Berlin Wall on Aug. 1 3. 
He was also at Checkpoint Charlie that 
day in October to cover the American- 
Russian tank confrontation. 

"Friedrichstrasse is a very narrow 
street. Both sides had tanks two to 
three abreast, and eight to ten deep, at 
point-blank range," Rosse remem- 
bered. "Never before had I experienced 
a showdown between Russian and U.S. 
tanks like that!" 

Rosse said one of his most endur- 
ing memories was weaving in and out 
between the American tanks and 
talking with a young corporal sticking 
his head out of the turret of one of the 
M48 Pattons on the front line. "I 
presumed that he was just bluffing, that 
there were no rounds in his weapon, 
and no one was loaded. But he assured 
me everyone was, and that all he had to 
do was pull the trigger." 

Kirk remembers his only emotion 
that day was anger. The escalating 
accounts of atrocities told by East 
Germans crossing into the west, the 
sudden appearance of the Berlin Wall, 
and now Russian tank guns pointed 
directly at him and his company had 
pushed his temper to the limit. 

"I wanted to kill Russians that 
day," Kirk said plainly. "It was a 
feeling that I had not felt before, and in 
a way I was dangerous. I never felt that 
way again until Vietnam." 


American M48 tanks take up positions near the Berlin Wall on the day of the standoff. 

The weaponry of the two U.S. 
companies included M48 tanks, 81mm 
mortars. 106mm recoilless rifles and 
such basic infantry weapons as 3.5-inch 
rocket launchers, light machine guns, 
Browning automatic rifles and hand 

But one ingenious soldier Kirk 
remembers only by his last name 
decided his comrades needed more. 
Displaying what can only be described 
as "GI ingenuity," SSG Maier, an E 
Co. squad leader, began soliciting 
donations from door to door, and the 
local Berliners provided him with more 
than 50 wine bottles. The Americans 
then mixed a concoction of gas and oil. 
After each Molotov cocktail was 
poured, pieces of cloth were stuffed 
into the necks of the bottles, and the 
homemade weapons were distributed 
through the ranks. Maybe they weren't 
good for much more than noise and 
smoke, but they helped to lift soldier 

When morning arrived, the "stand- 
off was still firmly in place. Then at 8 
a.m. a parade of young East Berlin girls 
in Communist Youth blue shirts 

arrived. Smiling broadly and sur- 
rounded by photographers, they passed 
out flowered bouquets to the Russian 
tank crews. 

City officials were also a prominent 
part of the East German 
procession, and after all 
the honors were passed 
out and pictures taken 
the girls departed. A 
few hours later the 
Russian tanks also fired 
up and left, leaving the 
Americans standing at 
their post. 

Kirk said that as the 

two companies contin- 
ued standing, he could 
sense a feeling of pride 
and triumph begin to 
take hold through the 
ranks. Here was an 
incredibly challenging 
mission these young 
soldiers had faced, and 
they had triumphed. 
And the fact that, 
during those 16 long 
and tedious hours, not 

After each 


cocktail was 

poured, pieces 

of cloth were 

stuffed into the 

necks of the 

bottles and the 





through the 


one tank, mortar, rifle, hand grenade or 
even a Molotov cocktail had been used 
was nothing short of soldier profes- 
sionalism at its best. Kirk said. 

"That's what makes this standoff so 
significant," he said. 
"The winners of this 
extraordinary confron- 
tation were two 
American companies, a 
city and the world. 

"There could be no 
higher tribute to the 
toughness, discipline, 
and sense of honor of 
those American 
soldiers who were there 
that day. We had every 
tank gun loaded, 
mortars in position, and 
the Russians wore 
driving around 
Friedrichstrasse. All we 
needed was one sense- 
less incident and World 
War ill would have 
been on its way. It was 
those great soldiers 
who held it together." □ 

April 1999 







Story by Steve Harding 



HEY look like huge dirl-fillcd 
cubes, protect soldiers from 
enemy fire and seem sure to 
replace sandbags lor large-scale 
field fortifications. They're Ilesco 
bastions, and if you've served in the 
Middle Kast, Bosnia or almost any 
other world hot spot, you've seen them 
at work. 

First used by British forces in 
Saudi Arabia during the Gulf War, the 
bastions — dubbed "Concertainers" 
by their manufacturer — are built of 
connected, fabric-lined wire-mesh 
boxes that fold flat for storage and 
shipment. Once in the field they can be 
expanded accordion-like and filled 
with sand, rubble or virtually any 
other material to form blast-resistant 
walls, barriers, revetments and a range 
of other structures. The Army adopted 
the bastions for perimeter-defense 
tasks after extensive tests, and they are 
now in use in the Balkans, western 


■'-*: W'&f, W$B 

K , : 

^'■yW-^'f ' '-^wL 




Wk ■■-■ 

: -: 


*" $ 




A cordon of Hesco bastions surrounds an M 1 09 self- 
propelled howitzer and an M992 field artillery am- 
munition support vehicle in Bosnia. * 

-a * 

Kurope and at certain Forces Com- 
mand facilities. 

"The bastions are great protective 
barriers," said Jerry L. Edwards, 
manager of research and development 
in the office of the Program Manager 
for Physical Security Equipment at 
Fort Belvoir, Va. "And they are very 
user-friendly. The troops love them 
because they're easy to put up, you can 
fill them with a skip loader and they 
eliminate the need for thousands of 
sandbags. They work well, they've 
been well-tested and they do a great 
job for troops in the field." 

The bastions are the creation of 
James Heselden, a former coal miner 
and Hesco's owner and director, who 
came up with the design in 1991 when 
faced with the need to put in a retain- 
ing wall at his firm's Leeds, England, 

"We had some land that was on an 
incline," Heselden said, "and we had to 
dig it out in order to get large vehicles 
into the workshop. We put in a 
revetment made of old railway ties and 
steel girders. But the sheer weight of 
the earth behind it buckled it, and we 
had to tear it down. 

"I'd bought lots of wire mesh and 

Hesco bastions — here helping to secure the front gate at Tuzla Air Base — 
have seen extensive United Nations and NATO service throughout the Balkans. 

geo-textiles at a bankruptcy auction," 
he said, "so I made some wire-mesh 
boxes and my sisters made some bags 
to go inside them. I joined the boxes 
together and sprayed them with a 
fiberglass product of ours." When the 
bags were filled with dirt, the wire- 
mesh boxes formed a revetment far 
stronger than the one built of railroad 

The success of the experiment 
gave Heselden an idea: Why not use 

the new structures for such engineer- 
ing uses as seaside erosion control? He 
approached several coastal erosion 
engineers with his idea, but none 
wanted to be the first to try it. So 
Heselden bought a small, partially 
eroded piece of land on England's 
Yorkshire coast and, after securing the 
required permissions, installed the 
bastion units. 

(Above) The Concertainers 
can be stacked to form air- 
craft revetments superior to 
structures built of sandbags 
or sheet metal. (Right) The 
bastions' sturdiness and ease 
of construction also make 
them popular for protecting 
troop billets, field hospitals 
and similar "soft" buildings. 

The innovative structure proved 
immediately successful, and after a 
picture of the project ran in a local 
newspaper Heselden received a 
telephone call from Britain's Ministry 
of Defence. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait 
had prompted a full-scale coalition 
buildup in Southwest Asia, and the 
caller thought the structures might be 
useful for various field-engineering 
uses. He asked Heselden for a demon- 
stration of a unit built to fit on standard 
military cargo pallets. 

Two days of round-the-clock work 
produced a prototype Concertainer unit 
that used the same collapsible wire- 
mesh box structure and textile lining as 
the erosion-control prototype. The new 
unit so impressed the MOD representa- 
tives that they quickly placed an initial 
order for 10 kilometers' worth. 

The bastions sent to the Gulf 
proved ideally suited for use in struc- 
tures ranging from aircraft revetments 
to bunkers. More substantial and stable 
than stacks of sandbags, the 
Concertainers were also easier and 
quicker to erect. Two men using a 
small skip loader could build a wall 
one meter high, one meter wide and 10 
meters long in just 20 minutes, a job 
that would take 10 men approximately 
seven hours using sandbags. Moreover, 
the Concertainer units could be stacked 

to virtually any height and filled with 
any available material — sand, gravel, 
rubble or rocks. That the Concertainer 
units also offered significantly better 
protection than sandbags against direct 
weapons fire and blast effects was an 
added bonus. 

Though several armies got a first 
look at the Concertainer system during 
the Gulf War, it was the British army's 
use of the bastions in Bosnia that 
sparked widespread interest. 

"The British army hadn't used all of 
its bastions in the Gulf, so it sent the 
remainder to Bosnia," Heselden said. 
"We didn't know about it until we 
started getting inquiries from other 
armies that had troops in the Balkans. 
We started getting orders from Holland 
and the Scandinavian countries, then 
from United Nations agencies. And 
after NATO took over, we got orders 
from IFOR and SFOR." 

The Concertainers quickly became a 
common sight in Bosnia. Stacks of them 
protected civilians along Sarajevo's 
infamous "Sniper's Alley," others were 
used to build bunkers, revetments, 
vehicle barriers and command posts. 
They became especially familiar to 
American personnel when, after exten- 
sive testing at Tyndall Air Force Base, 
Fla., they were adopted for Army use 
throughout the former Yugoslavia. 

Now in use by armies around the 
world, Hesco's Concertainer systems 
continue to evolve. There are currently 
10 sizes, ranging from 2-foot-square 
units to ones eight feet by seven feet. 
The latter size is especially popular, 
said Tricia Laidler, Hesco's marketing 
manager, because a third of a mile of it 
will fit into a standard 20-foot-long 
cargo container. 

"That way, if you have to quickly 
build a fortification," Heselden said, 
"you simply open the doors on the 
container, pull out the first segment and 
fill it. That anchors the whole section, 
so you can then drag the container 
along and the remaining segments pull 
out and open almost automatically. 
Then you just fill them." 

The bastions' popularity keeps 
Hesco's 25-member workforce hop- 
ping, and additional employees are 
often brought in to help with large 
orders. One of the busiest areas is the 
firm's shipping department, where the 
completed bastion sections are packed 
for shipment by standard cargo pallet, 
airlift pallet, in shipboard cargo 
containers or as bulk cargo. The pallet 
loads are shrink-wrapped and come 
complete with necessary tools and 

And how's the feedback from 
troops in the field? 

"We get a lot of letters from 
soldiers saying they like the 
Concertainer units," Laidler said, "and 
we like hearing from them all. But the 
best letters are the ones saying 
somebody's life was saved because he 
was protected by one of our units. 
Those are the ones that make it really 
worthwhile." D 

Now in use by 
armies around the 

world, Hesco's 


systems continue 

to evolve. 

Units that wish to obtain the bastions 
should contact their local contracts or 
procurements office and request De- 
fense Logistics Agency line item SP- 
0700-98-D-3001. The items are 
handled by the Defense Supply 
Agency in Columbus, Ohio. 



June- August 1945: 

The end of World War II. Great Britain, France, the United States and the 
Soviet Union occupy Germany, with each country controlling a zone. They 
also occupy Berlin, which is surrounded by the Soviet zone, and divide the 
city into four sectors. Seven weeks after Germany surrenders, and six weeks 
before the bombing of Hiroshima, 51 nations sign the United Nations 
Charter. At the Potsdam Conference outside Berlin, the Soviet Union makes 
territorial demands regarding Europe and Asia. Unlike the Western democ- 
racies, the Soviet Union does not fulfill pledges to demobilize after the war 
and retains far more men under arms than either the United States or Great 


r ji 

Jan. 1947 -March 1948: 

Soviet expansionism results in that country's domination of Eastern Europe and 
communist pressure on nations in other parts of the world. The Western powers 
create a separate West German government in their zones. The Soviets retaliate 
by hampering Western traffic to and from Berlin. 

Feb. 1947: 

The danger of a Soviet 
takeover of Greece 
and Turkey, and Great 
Britain's concern that 
it will be unable to pro- 
vide economic and 
military aid to the So- 
viet-threatened coun- 
tries, causes the U.S. 
Congress to appropri- 
ate $400 million and 
dispatch American 
military and civilians to 
Athens and Ankara. 


March 1947: 

A stalemate at the 
Moscow Conference, 
held to discuss the 
drafting of peace trea- 
ties with Germany and 
Austria, ends the war- 
time cooperation 
among the USSR and 
the Western democra- 
cies. The Soviet Union 
consistently uses its 
veto to block effective 
action by the U.N. Se- 
curity Council. 

June 5, 1947: 

U.S. Secretary of State 
George C. Marshall initiates 
the idea of a program for Eu- 
ropean recov- 
ery. The Mar- t 
shall Plan is 
also offered to 
the Soviet 
Union and all ~ < 
countries be- * 
hind the Iron I . .. ■ a . 
Curtain, but is 

refused by the USSR and its 
satellite governments. 

Sept. 1947: 

Soviet dictator Joseph 
Stalin sets up the 
Cominform, whose 

members are leaders 
of various European 
communist parties. 
The group's aims in- 
clude fighting the 
Marshall Plan, which 
they call "an instru- 
ment of American im- 


March 17,1948: 

Belgium, France, Luxem- 
bourg, the Netherlands and 
Great Britain sign "The 
Brussels Treaty of Eco- 
nomic, Social and Cultural 
Collaboration and Collec- 
tive Self Defense," the first 
multilateral regional ar- 
rangement for the security 
of Western Europe under 
the U.N. Charter. 

June 11, 1948: 

The U.S. Senate adopts the 
Vandenburg Resolution 
recommending "the asso- 
ciation of the United States, 
by constitutional process ... 
in the defense organization 
of the free countries of Eu- 

June 24, 1948: 

The Soviet Union begins the 
blockade of West Berlin, 
preventing food, fuel, medi- 
cine and other suppliesfrom 
entering the city. 

June 1948-May 1949: 

The western allies fly more 
than 278,000 missions dur- 
ing the Berlin Airlift, bringing 
critical supplies to West Ber- 

Sept. 1948: 

The Western Union Defense 
Organization is created 
within the framework of the 
Brussels treaty. Command- 
ers in chief are named for 
land, air and naval forces. 

March 18, 1949: 

The text of the North Atlantic Treaty 
is published. 

April 4, 1949: 

Ten European countries, the United 
States and Canada sign the North At- 
lantic Treaty — the political framework 
for an international alliance — in Wash- 
ington, D.C. Article 51 stipulates the 
right of members to defend against pos- 
sible armed attack. 

May 9, 1949: 

The Soviets lift the Berlin blockade. 

1949 195 

Sept. 1949: 

The North Atlantic 
Council meets in Wash- 
ington, D.C, to build a 
civilian and military 
framework. The council 
creates a defense com- 
mittee and establishes 

permanent military bod- 
ies, including chiefs of 
staff and the military 
committee executive 
body. France, Great 
Britain and the United 
States become respon- 
sible for strategic guid- 
ance in areas where 
NATO forces operate. 

Dec. 19, 1950: 

The council announces 
its appointment of the 
first supreme allied 
commander, Europe, 
GEN Dwight D. Eisen- 

April 2, 1951: 

Eisenhower's command, 
Allied Command Europe 
(ACE), and Supreme 
Headquarters Allied Pow- 
ers Europe (SHAPE) are 
set up near Paris. The staff 
and facilities of the land, 
sea and air commands are 
placed at Eisenhower's 

Feb. 1952: 

Greece and Ti 
join NATO. Co 
deputies becom 
permanent Nort 
lantic Council. 


June 19, 1951: 

Establishment of new civil and mili- 
tary bodies results in an agreement 
among the members of the North At- 

their forces. 

Sept. 1951: 

The "Agreement on the Status of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization" — 
covering the civilian side of NATO 
is signed. 

Dec. 1951: 

A report by representatives of the 12 
member nations provides the first com- 
prehensive review of the peacetime 
military capacity of the member coun- 
tries. It is the forerunner of the Annual 
Review, which remains a fundamen- 
tal part of the Alliance's defense plan- 
ning procedure. 


Some 100 NATO exer- 
cises are conducted to 
improve the combat effi- 
ciency of member nations' 
military forces. While most 
countries exercise the 
fighting forces them- 
selves, indoor exercises 
are conducted at SHAPE 
to study the major prob- 
lems confronting the 
higher command. Among 
the largest exercises is Ex- 
ercise Mariner. Nine coun- 
tries, almost 50 types of 
ships and 20 types of air- 
craft participate over 19 

May 9, 1955: 

The Federal Republic of 
Germany joins NATO. 


The United 
States, Great 
Britain and the 
Soviet Union 
nuclear test 

1953 1954 1955 1956 1958 

Dec. 1954: 

By this time, the anomalous 
situations that had faced 
Western Europe as a result of 
WW II have been largely re- 
solved. NATO takes on the 
role of an organization politi- 
cally dedicated and militarily 
structured to meet the needs 
of collective defense in the 
spirit of Article 51 of the U.N. 


The second phase in the his- 
tory of the Alliance begins 
when the North Atlantic 
Council adopts the "Report 
on Non-military Cooperation 
in NATO." It requires politi- 
cal consultation between 
member countries on all as- 
pects of relations between 
East and West. Member na- 
tions continue to consult be- 
fore developing national poli- 
cies. It opens doors for the 
introduction of new initiatives, 
such as cooperation in the 
scientific field. 


Between January 
and June, following 
Soviet premier Nikita W 
Khrushchev's threat ^ 

to increase the ^ 
strength of the So- 
viet army on the 
Western frontiers 
and call up reserves, 
more than 100,000 
East Germans escape to West Ger- 

On the night of Aug. 13,1 961 , 

the East German regime barricades 
the Soviet sector of Berlin and starts 
building the Berlin Wall. 

*sa nRfj 

' I •!"■■■■ ^H 

Aug. 31,1961: 

The Soviets resume nuclear 
testing on an unprecedented 


Deterioration of the Berlin situ- 
ation results in the creation of 
a mobile force of units sup- 
plied by six nations to demon- 
strate NATO solidarity. 


The United States 
learns the Soviet 
Union has offen- 
sive ballistic mis- 
siles in Cuba. The 
crisis brings the 
world to the verge 
of war. . 


', , 

May 1963: 

NATO ministers meeting in Ottawa as- 
sign Great Britain's V-bomber force and 
three U.S. Polaris submarines to 
SACEUR and appoint to his staff a 
deputy for nuclear affairs. 



The first strategic arms limitation 
agreement, SALT-1, and accompa- 
nying agreement on the limitation of 
anti-ballistic missile systems, the 
ABM Treaty, are signed. 






Spain remains in tl 
Alliance but opts 
withdraw from pj 
ticipation in the int 
grated military cor 
mand structure. 


France withdraws from 
NATO's integrated military 
structure and requests that 
NATO headquarters leave 
French soil, but remains a 
member of the Alliance. 


NATO troops continue to maintain a 
high state of readiness throughout 
the 1970s. 

u *^ 'iiUJlht 


The era of detente be- 
gins following aseries 
of negotiations and 
treaties between West 
Germany and its 
neighbors in Eastern 

1963 1966 1967 1969 1972 1974 1977 1982 1986 


The first REFORGER (Return 
of Forces to Germany) exer- 
cise designed to prove U.S. 
ability to move conventional mili- 
tary forces rapidly from the con- 
tinental United States to Cen- 
tral Europe takes place. 

1967: ' 

NATO moves to its per- 
manent headquarters in 

May 30, 1982: 

Spain becomes the 16th 
member of NATO. 

August 1963: 

The United States, Great Brit- 
ain and the Soviet Union sign a 
treaty banning nuclear weapon 
tests in the atmosphere, outer 
space and under water. 

Dec. 1967: 

The third phase in the Alliance's de- 
velopment begins with the council's 
approval of the "Report on the Future 
Tasks of the Alliance." The 1 5 mem- 
ber governments vow to pursue ad- 
equate military capabilities for defense 
and deterrence and work to resolve 
tensions between East and West. Dis- 
armament studies intensify. 


The 25th Anniversary of NATO 


The NATO-led Implementation 
Force deploys following signa- 
ture of a Bosnian peace agree- 


sBL. ^» 

The Berlin Wall falls. 

4£ ; . *\VJ 


; " i¥ 

The Warsaw Treaty Organi- 
zation is dissolved. The 


The NATO Summit in 

NATO Summit in Rome 

Brussels launches 

adopts a new strategic con- 
cept. The North Atlantic Co- 
operation Council is created. 

the Partnership for 
Peace program, and 
the first PFP exer- 
cises take place. 

May 29-30, 1997: 

The final meeting of the North 
Atlantic Cooperation Council 
takes place, followed by the 
inaugural meeting of the Euro- 
Atlantic Partnership Council. 

July 8-9, 1997: 

The Czech Republic, Hun- 
gary and Poland are invited 
to begin accession negotia- 
tions and a charter is signed 
with Ukraine on a distinct part- 
nership with NATO. 

w^wt ■ 

■ ; / 1 WKm 

1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1999 


The NATO Summit in London 
extends the hand of friendship 
to Central and Eastern Eu- 
rope and proposes coopera- 
tion. East and West Germany 
are reunited. 

April 1993: 

mere shadow of the 
original, includes only a 
part of one unit from the 
United States. It is a lo- 
gistical exercise, largely 


fc," ^^^H 

April 1999: 

NATO conducts its 
50th anniversary 
summit in Wash- 
ington, D.C. The 

' Czech Republic, 

Jan. 5, 1996: Hungary and Po- 

Russia's parliament endorses the land are inducted 
deployment of Russian forces to into NATO. 
Bosnia to join the NATO-led peace- 
keeping force. 

Dec. 20, 1996: 

The NATO Stabiliza- 

tion Force replaces the 

IFOR in Bosnia. 

(Compiled by Heike Hasenauer from "The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation Facts and 
Figures," published by the NATO Information Service, and information furnished by U.S. 
Forces Command public affairs and the U.S. Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pa.) 


(Above) The "village" of "Ubungsdorf" is the largest MOUT site at CMTC, containing 31 structures. (Below) "Villagers" prepare 
to assume the role of an angry mob. 

The Lilian Element 

Story and Photos by 
SFC Richard Henricks 

EVERY workday morning, retired 
SFC Timothy L. Good dresses in 
blue jeans and a work shirt, drives 
20 miles to his office and prepares to 
go about his daily routine. 

For others working at the Combat 
Maneuver Training Center in 
Hohenfels, Germany, that might mean 
making repairs to unit vehicles, 
maintaining the maneuver ranges or in 
some other way supporting the thou- 
sands of soldiers who train here each 

But for Good and the 15 other 

SFC Richard Henricks is assigned to Operations Group 
S-3, CMTC, Hohenfels, Germany. 

Army civilians who comprise the role- 
playing "Civilians on the Battlefield" 
team at CMTC, the day's activities 
usually include something a little more 

"Our specialty is inciting a no- 
notice, out-of-control riot," Good 

Civilians on the Battlefield, or 
COBs — "Pronounce it 'cob' as in 
'mob,'" Good said — have been used 
at CMTC since the early 1990s to 
portray civilian ethnic groups and 
organizations that Army units might 
encounter when deployed. 

The COB's mission is to add 

realism to situations where units might 
have to deal with civilian populations 
while conducting military operations. 

The majority of COB employees 
are retired Army personnel, many with 
combat experience. One member is an 
ex-Navy SEAL. All speak a second 
language, and they can draw on other 
skills to confuse or mislead even the 
most highly trained units. 

"With the right background infor- 
mation," Good said, "the COBs at 
CMTC can portray any ethnic group, 
civilian population or paramilitary 

As a result, units rotating through 



th the right background information the COBs at 

can portray any ethnic group, civilian 
mlation or paramilitary organization. " 

training at CMTC encounter some 
tough scenarios, including dealing with 
'thieves" entering their base camp, 
"snipers" hiding among the population, 
angry mobs and bomb-toting "terror- 

Soldiers and observer/controllers at 
CMTC refer to the DA civilians as 
"professional" COBs, or "pro-COBs." 
To assist in populating the CMTC 
"battlefield," pro-COBs are often 
augmented with soldiers from other 
units or from visiting reserve compo- 
nent units. 

The augmentees receive role- 
playing instruction, rules of engage- 
ment and civilian or military clothing, 
and then occupy the six urban-warfare 
training "villages" spread throughout 
the 40,000-acre maneuver-training area 
and extended training area at CMTC. 

The COBs who occupy the training 
villages, or MOUT sites, live in the 
buildings for the duration of an exer- 
cise. In recent years, major improve- 
ments have been made to the five 
MOUT sites located in the main 
maneuver area, to protect the occupants 
from the harsh German winters. 

Although the MOUT sites are 
where the COBs are most often seen 

performing their duties, inhabiting 
training villages is not their sole 
function. Pro-COBs provide training 
support for units throughout 
USAREUR and in the United States. 

CMTC Pro-COBs have been 
observed being chased by military 
police during force-protection exercises 
at posts all over Germany. And the 
COB team has an archive of video 
tapes and photographs that show COBs 
being body-slammed, handcuffed and 
carted off to MP jail cells. They are 
adept at aggravating situations that 
involve security personnel: There's 
nothing like a "civilian" in a vehicle 
search pit screaming in a foreign 
language to make an MP's day. 

Recently renewed worldwide 
terrorist threats have made it too 
dangerous to conduct force-protection 
exercises around actual guard posts or 
security elements, so planners have 
worked out other training solutions. 

Located in a vacated Cold War-era 
missile site in the CMTC maneuver 
box, an area is being renovated to 
represent a United Nations compound 
— complete with security berm, guard 
towers and concertina-wire fence. This 
"tactical operations site" is enclosed 

Four small MOUT sites within CMTC were constructed on or near pre-World War II 
German villages. The four sites are being expanded and improved to provide heat and 
shelter for the "villagers" who inhabit them. 

Soldiers from Southern European Task 
Force, deployed from Vicenza, Italy, pre- 
pare to assault a building in the "village" 
of "Raversdorf." 

within an earthen berm and gates that 
can be manned by "armed" guards. The 
office buildings, billets and mainte- 
nance facilities in the site can be used 
to stage secure force-protection 
exercises or other complex battlefield 
operations. The benefit is that the 
exercise can be contained within the 
site so the exercise won't be confused 
with an actual terrorist threat or 

While current military planning 
continues to emphasize operations in 
urban terrain, wherever soldiers are 
sent to fight or enforce peace there will 
be civilians milling about, either 
seeking protection or loudly protesting 
the soldiers' presence. 

That may just be a good reason 
why, the next time you're accosted by 
a crazy-eyed, scruffy civilian ranting in 
a foreign language or asking you for 
MREs, you may want to thank him for 
doing such a good job. 

The CMTC Civilians on the 
Battlefield can be contacted at (DSN) 
466-4854/4855, commercial (01 1) 49- 
9472-83-4854/4855, by e-mail at, or through 
the CMTC website at http://www. □ 

April 1999 


Fort Benning's Ranger School teaches students how to fight the 
close-in battle by applying basic skills and aggressiveness during ... 




A ranger student winces as he trades blows with a fellow soldier during training at Fort Benning. The ring is 12 feet square, a size 
that ensures that battle is unavoidable. 


NE of the most important 
lessons taught at the Ranger 
School at Fort Benning, Ga., 
is that when a soldier con- 
fronts his enemy "up close 
and personal," the winner is usually 
the one who reacts first, with as much 
deadly force as possible. 

And nowhere is that essential 
aggressiveness emphasized more than 
in the boxing portion of the school's 
hand-to-hand instruction. 

Before climbing into the ring ranger students run through a series of exercises to warm SFC Larry Lane a (ormer Soldiers staffer , is the us . Army 
up. Here they do flutterkicks, watched by their instructors. infantry center Public Affairs office ncoic. 



Story and Photos 
by SFC Larry Lane 

"Boxing is probably the sport that 
best represents what rangers need to 
be," said CPT John Hanson of the 4th 
Ranger Training Battalion, Ranger 
Trng. Brigade, who wrote the school's 
program of instruction for boxing. 

In gathering background informa- 
tion, he and other rangers studied the 
program at the U.S. Military Academy 
at West Point, N.Y. 

"Boxing is a perfect tool to teach 
rangers what can and does happen in 
close, hand-to-hand combat," Hanson 
said. "A ranger needs to operate under 
duress and be in outstanding physical 
condition. He has to implement simple 
battle drills to defend himself and 
defeat an opponent." 

Early on, rangers are taught bayo- 
net-assault techniques and com- 
plete several classes in hand- 
to-hand combat. During the 
boxing portion they learn the 
typical moves — jabs, upper- 
cuts and blocking methods — 
that could be considered 
boxing battle drills. 

All of this is applied on a 
final morning of ranger- vs- 
ranger bouts. 

In a bout, two students 
box for only one 15-second 
round in a 12-foot-square 
ring. The small area forces 
them to confront each 
other, but the short round 
prevents them from fighting long 
enough to cause any serious injuries. 

"We're trying to build aggressive- 
ness," said SSG Jay Carter, a ranger 
who helped create the boxing instruc- 
tion. "That's why we have the small 
ring, so they have no other option but 
to actually get in and take part." 

Carter said that instead of pairing 
boxers by weight, they are paired by 
height, and soldiers are medically 

screened to identify injuries or condi- 
tions that should exclude anyone from 
participating. Students with prior 
boxing experience are matched to 
avoid unbalanced bouts. 

Prior to pairing off and entering 
the ring, the rangers are given a short 
"smoke session," a series of exercises 
including push-ups and flutter kicks. 
"The session is designed to warm 
students up so they don't pull or 
rip a muscle," Hanson said. 
"And we do a lot of upper- 
body stuff to put them at a 
level of fatigue so they won't 
really be able to 'crank' a 
Safety is a key concern, 
so continuous medical checks 
are done throughout the boxing. 
A 15-second bout may seem 
short, but it's long enough to give 
students a taste of what it's like 
to confront an opponent with 
nothing but their fists, some 
hand-to-hand techniques and 
individual aggressiveness. 
Ranger student John 
Gianelloni said he boxed pretty 
well, for his first time in the 

"I loved boxing — it cleared out 
the cobwebs," he said. "Battle drills 
seem mundane after doing them 10 or 
12 times. This gives you a fresh 
perspective. It makes you work faster 
and harder, to take action." 

Ranger student Robert Heber said 
the time of the bouts should be in- 

creased, and that the training helped 
ready him for the ring. 

"We were trained to do this and we 
were actually able to execute the 
training," Heber said. "It's always fun 
to execute, instead of train, train, train 
and then nothing." 

While the rangers have incorpo- 
rated more technology into today's 
missions, they will always need hand- 
to-hand fighting skills, said battalion 
commander LTC Eric Hutchings. 

"Recent military experience in 
Somalia illustrated that a lot of 
engagements are point-blank," 
Hutchings said. "We had a cunning 
enemy that was smart enough to draw 
us into the close confines of his home 
turf. We can expect other opponents to 
get us into urban areas, trenchlines 
and bunkers. That negates the techni- 
cal superiority of our weapon systems 
and forces us to come to grips on a 
man-to-man basis." 

In the short duration of the hand- 
to-hand classes, a ranger can't be 
turned into a professional boxer, 
Hutchings said, but the instruction 
helps to develop aggressiveness. 

"In the occupation we have chosen, 
we're going to see the enemy at point- 
blank range," he said. "If we work in 
the trenchline, we're going to run full 
steam into the enemy and we need to 
win that fight." □ 

April 1999 

More Than 

(Top) CGSC's general instruction facility and the Combined Arms Research Library 
were dedicated in 1 994. (Above) The library includes study centers, assigned carrels 
for individual study and comfortable seating for group study. 


COL Henry Leavenworth and 
188 soldiers of the 3rd 
Infantry Regiment forded 
the Missouri River into 
Kansas on May 8, 1827. 
There they established an Army 
outpost as headquarters for troops that 
would explore the West and protect the 
wagon trains that opened the new 

Today Fort Leavenworth serves as 
home for the Command and General 
Staff College, a modern headquarters 
dedicated to educating officers who 
will lead the Army into the next 
century. The CGSC is a fully accred- 
ited institution that serves a student 
body of approximately 30,000 Army 




Story and Photos 
by Gil High 

and other service officers. Department 
of Army civilians and officers from 70 

The school has been around since 
1882, when it was established as the 
"School of Application for Cavalry and 
Infantry." But over time the CGSC 
mission grew to encompass much more 
than officer development. 

"Most people around the Army, if 
they try to define the CGSC, would say 
it's the thousand or so majors who are 
here studying to be command and 
general staff officers," said COL 
Douglas L. Tystad, the dean of aca- 

"But when you look at what we're 
doing here, it's a whole lot more. In 

April 1999 

reality, we're the engine that will 
power the future Army," Tystad said of 
the school's myriad initiatives. 


Still, educating Army leaders in the 
practice of the profession of arms is the 
reason the school was created, and 
that's where LTC Oren L. Hunsaker, 
chief of operations, begins when he 
describes the CGSC's current mission. 

"Our job is to provide our officers 
with the tools they need, so they can be 
successful at whatever we ask them to 
do," he said. 

"But educating officers isn't 
CGSC's only mission, nor are we 
solely responsible for an officer's 
development. Every institu- 
tion that a military officer 
participates in, in some 
setting of formal educa- 
tion, is part of that 
development process," 
he said. 

Describing the U 
CGSC's role, X3» 

Hunsaker explained that 
the typical officer would 
first come to the 
college shortly after 
completing the branch- 
specific Officer Ad- 
vanced Course. 

That first assignment 
at Fort Leavenworth is the 
Combined Arms and Services Staff 
School, which prepares junior officers, 
mostly captains and senior lieutenants, 
for assignments at the battalion- or 
brigade-staff level. CAS3 is the first 
opportunity most officers have to work 
together with officers of other 

Next is the course most people 
associate with the college: the Com- 
mand and General Staff Officers 
Course, which prepares officers for 
division and corps assignments. The 
typical CGSOC student is a major or 
lieutenant colonel with about 13 years 

of service, Hunsaker said. 

While attending CGSOC, students 
may request to be considered for the 
School of Advanced Military Studies. 
Students who complete SAMS often go 
on to planning assignments with 
division, corps or joint staffs. 

The common setting for most 
courses, especially CAS3 and 
CGSOC, is the seminar group that is 
periodically reshuffled so each student 
is exposed to a cross-section of class- 
mates with different experiences and 

Hunsaker said this shuffling is 
because students learn as much from 
their classmates as they do from the 
formal curriculum, and in many ways 
the curriculum is merely a vehicle for 
extended intellectual exchange 
among professionals. The 
relationships students 
establish during these 
courses often continue 
long after they leave the 
academic environment 
| and as they take on 
progressively more 
responsible and difficult 
assignments, he said. 

Another characteris- 
tic of longer courses such 
as CGSOC and SAMS is 
their family-friendly 
atmosphere. These PCS 
assignments allow people 
to bring their families with 
them, and since they're away from the 
demands of troop and staff duty, the 
officers have more time with their 
families for recreation, sports and other 

The next time an officer might 
return to the CGSC would be to attend 
the School of Command Preparation 
after being selected for battalion or 
brigade command. Those who are later 
selected to become general officers 
return to Fort Leavenworth to attend 
the Brigadier General Training Confer- 

The college also runs a nonresident- 



studies program, which serves approxi- 
mately 15,000 students each year, and 
the school trains Army civilians 
through the Civilian Leadership 

Engine of Change 

Hunsaker also explained that the 
CGSC serves as executive agent for the 
Army's leader-development program. 

"This is done through our Center 
for Army Leadership, and it impacts 
across all of Training and Doctrine 
Command's schools. It's a building- 
block approach to an officer's entire 
20-plus years of military education," he 

"We also develop corps and 
division doctrine here within the 
college. Our focus is on staff opera- 
tions, which is in addition to doctrine 
development within the branch 
schools. We combine branch doctrine 
and build it into division-level doctrine. 
We also develop the FM- 100-5, which 
is the Army's capstone document, 
'Army Operations,'" Hunsaker ex- 

One CGSC initiative that goes well 
beyond the plains of Kansas is the 
school's outreach program. 

MAJ John Nordrum, the acting 
chief of the International Student 
Division, said the program brings 
international officers to the school to 
acquire a balanced understanding of 
U.S. society, institutions and way of 
life, and to emphasize to students the 
American ideals of human rights and 

elected government. 

To explain the impact of the 
program, Nordrum said that of 6,05 1 
officers from 142 countries who have 
attended the CGSOC since the initia- 
tive started, 23 have become heads of 
state and another 305 have held 
important positions in their govern- 

Hunsaker said that another part of 
the CGSC mission is to integrate and 
improve current and future battle 
command-and-control systems. 

"We have to look forward into the 
21st century, to look at 
future weapons 
systems, at the Army 
battle command 
system and at all the 
associated technol- 
ogy," Hunsaker 
explained. "And we 
have to envision how 
to improve our 
current curriculum 
and how to change 
how we teach, so that 
when our students 
depart they have the 
tools they need to 
work in that kind of 

CGSC's profes- 
sional journal. 
Military Review, 

The Digital Leader's Development Center 
includes mock-ups and classrooms equip- 
ped with interactive simulation systems. 

plays an important role in the school's 
mission to promote the advancement of 
military arts and science worldwide. 
Published in English, Spanish and 
Portuguese, the journal provides a 
forum for the open exchange of ideas 
on military affairs, focusing on con- 
cepts, doctrine and warfighting at the 
tactical and operational levels. 

The college also shares ideas 
through worldwide conferences, 
assistance visits to other countries and 
through exchange visits. And the 
college faculty itself is an example of 
that exchange: Current faculty mem- 
bers include members of the other U.S. 
services and officers of the Australian, 
Canadian and German armies. 

CGSC initiatives even reach into 
the local community, in the form of 
partnership with industry. 

Several participating companies in 
the Kansas City area regularly come to 
the college with ideas for business 
scenarios or with problems that could 
have military applications, Hunsaker 
explained. Students in the CGSOC and 
SAMS courses may then be assigned to 
a problem and make recommendations. 

It's been a win-win effort, 
Hunsaker said, because industry has 



developed tremendous respect for the 
officers' approach to problem solving, 
and the officers have gained valuable 
anal\ tic and problem-solving skills. 

Which is why Tystad insists that 
the school is such a powerful instru- 
ment for change. 

"What we're trying to do is to 
capture the imagination of our students 
and faculty, to help the Army move 
forward." he said. 

"We are a university, and should be 
thought of as such," he continued. 
"Universities do research, write for 
publication and perform a valuable 
service for the community. We do all 
of that. too. We're not just educating 
students. And more than that, we're 
making our student's educational 
experience part of the larger develop- 
ment of the Army as a whole." □ 

For more information about Command 
and General Staff College initiatives 
and programs, including course sched- 
ules and a link to back issues of Mili- 
tary Review, visit CGSC's website at 

CGSC courses bolster students' commu- 
nication skills and understanding of Army 
operations and procedures. 

The Army's Leadership University 


SAMS student MAJ Kent 
Marquardt uses a study carrel 
in the Eisenhower Hall library 
to prepare for an upcoming 

"HE Command and General Staff College 

impacts on the future Army in many ways, 
but its one area of concentration remains the 
education of the Army's future leaders. 

Here's a look at the courses and academic 
programs run by CGSC. 
• Combined Arms and Services Staff School 

CAS3 trains captains from the active and 
reserve components to function as staff officers 
with the Army in the field. 

The course is six weeks long and integrates 
active- and reserve-component students. Last 
year 4,300 students completed CAS3. 

Students are taught to solve military prob- 
lems, interact and coordinate as a staff, improve 
theircommunications skills, and understand Army 
operations and procedures. 

The result is better leaders, mentors, think- 
ers, commanders, staff chiefs and soldiers. 

• Command and General Staff Officers Course 

CGSOC educates officers, usually majors and lieutenant colonels between their 
1 1th and 15th year of service, in the values and attitudes of the profession of arms 
and in the conduct of military operations during peace, instability and war, with 
emphasis at division and corps levels. 

The course is 10 months long and includes active-duty and reserve-component 
students. Of the 1 ,053 officers who completed the course last year, 1 2 percent were 
from the other services, and the class included 91 international students from 77 

The course focuses on regional and global military operations; preparing for war, 
mobilization, deployment contingency planning and force tailoring; and joint and 
multinational operations. 

• School of Advanced Military Studies 

SAMS educates selected CGSOC graduates to plan and execute military 
operations in peace and war. The school includes the AMSP and AOASF. 

The Advanced Military Studies Program lasts one year and focuses on division 
and corps planning. Average class size is 50 students. 

Instead of attending the Army War College, eight or so lieutenant colonels and 
colonels may request to become Advanced Operational Arts Studies Fellows and 
will study for two years to become joint planners. 

• School for Command Preparation 

The SCP coordinates and conducts battalion- and brigade-level pre-command 
courses for command selectees and their spouses, and provides opportunities for 
simulation-enhanced tactical training. 

The three-week curriculum includes a pre-command course focused at battalion 
and brigade level, a tactical commander's development course that focuses on 
commander-staff relationships, and a battle commander's development course that 
focuses on the business of command. 

• Non Resident Studies 

CGSC also administers nonresident programs, which include courses for CAS3 
and CGSOC. Approximately 1 5,000 students including active and reserve-compo- 
nent Army officers, officers from the other services, DA civilians and international 
officers enroll in the nonresident courses each year. 

• Civilian Leadership Training Division 

The CLTD develops and implements a progressive and sequential leadership 
program for the Army's civilian work force. Programs include courses for interns, 
supervisors and managers. — Gil High 

April 1999 



Compiled by Gil High 

tJFS From Army Posts Around the World 


Hunter Army Airfield, Ga. 

Truscott Air Terminal 

Long waits are sometimes part 
of short-notice deployments, but 
a new building here should 
make the waiting a little more 

Combining a number of 
deployment-related functions 
into a single 72,000-square foot 
facility, the GEN Lucian K. 
Truscott Air Terminal will allow 
units from Hunter AAF and 
nearby Fort Stewart to deploy 
faster and, hopefully, in a little 
better humor. 

In the past, according to 
SGM Chalmer Yingling, deploy- 
ing units completed their activi- 
ties at a number of spots scat- 
tered around HAAF's 11,375- 
foot runway. Unit representa- 
tives often occupied confined 
facilities at different sites, ve- 
hicles were weighed and in- 
spected somewhere else, pal- 
lets were built and staged in 
another area, and troops await- 
ing flights were sent elsewhere 
to sleep or use a bathroom. 

"This brings soldiers into a 
facility where it's not as hard on 
them," Yingling said. "It's air- 
conditioned and heated, they 
can watch TV, take a shower 

and generally relax. Once 
they're ready to go, they go into 
a designated area, then mani- 
fest and go straight to the air- 

Named for the World War II 
division commander whose 
training program is generally 
credited with turning the 3rd In- 
fantry Division into one of the 
war's best, the terminal will help 
the division meet its rapid de- 
ployment missions. 

Boasting a mix of M1 
Abrams tanks and Bradley fight- 
ing vehicles, the division's im- 
mediate-reaction company can 
project American power to glo- 
bal hot spots with less than 24 
hours' notice, and a brigade 
combat team can be airborne in 
72 hours. 

As the heavy arm of XVIII 
Airborne Corps, the division is 
poised for rapid deployment, 
most recently to Kuwait early 
this year when nearly 6,000 di- 
vision troops were sent to the 
desert to deter Iraqi aggression 
in the ongoing arms-inspection 

Yingling said the new facil- 
ity should greatly improve the 
deployment process. 

"The biggest thing is clos- 
ing the communications gap," 
he said. "Everyone — Air Force, 
Army transportation people, unit 

Patient care and medical staff qualifications contributed to 
Tripler's recent "Accreditation With Commendation." 

The GEN Lucian K. Truscott Air Terminal combines a number of 
deployment-related functions into a single facility. 

representatives and various di- 
vision staff agencies — are in 
one building with the phones 
they need. If they need to coor- 
dinate with someone, he's prob- 
ably right around the corner. 
This will cut through a lot of the 
confusion and reduce stress." 
The big winners, though, 
will be the soldiers themselves. 
"This makes deployments less 
nerve-wracking and puts sol- 
diers out the door on a positive 
note," Yingling said. "It makes 
morale a lot higher." — Fort 
Stewart Public Affairs Office 

Honolulu, Hawaii 

Tripler Commended for 
Excellence in Medical Care 

Tripler Army Medical Center 
here was notified in January 
that the Joint Commission on 
Accreditation of Healthcare Or- 
ganizations has awarded the 
center "Accreditation with Com- 
mendation," as a result of 
JCAHO's survey conducted in 
December 1998. The accredi- 
tation also extends to Tripler's 
Schofield Barracks clinics. 

Tripler's grid score was 
"100, with no findings," officials 
said. Three years ago Tripler 
was awarded a "99," but as one 
JCAHO surveyor put it, "The 

difference in score between '99' 
and '100' is huge. What you 
were doing three years ago is 
not only still in place but you've 
improved upon it." 

Accreditation surveys are 
conducted every three years, 
and look at areas such as pa- 
tient rights, patient care, human 
resource management, and 
qualifications of medical and 
administrative staffs. — Tripler 
Army Medical Center PAO 

Fort Meade, Md. 

U.S. Army Field Band 
and Chorus on Tour 

Throughout Cincinnati's huge 
municipal music hall, World War 
II veterans stood shoulder to 
shoulder with service members 
who had served in Korea, Viet- 
nam or the Persian Gulf. When 
the band played their service 
songs, groups stood tall to dem- 
onstrate their pride in serving. 
But the band that sparked 
the response from veterans and 
symphony regulars had little to 
do with the men and women who 
make up the city's finest orches- 
tral talent. These musicians were 
dressed in Army blue — more 
than 100 of the most talented 
musicians and singers in the 
country, the U.S. Army Field 



Band and Soldiers' Chorus. 

"We're playing in place of 
the Cincinnati Symphony while 
they're on tour in Japan," said 
SSG Courtney Bress, the pri- 
mary harpist for the field band. 
"On all three nights we're doing 
live recordings for a CD we're 
cutting to use as a sponsor 

Many of the musicians and 
singers considered the Cincin- 
nati Music Hall a highlight of the 
tour. "I've been looking forward 
to singing in this hall since we 
first learned of it," said SFC 
Jacqueline Clarys. a member 
of the Soldiers' Chorus. "These 
walls have heard many a beau- 
tiful performance, and being part 
of that musical legacy is a high 
experience for a musician." 

Based at Fort Meade, the 
Army Field Band and Soldiers' 
Chorus is the U.S. Army's pre- 
mier traveling band. The sol- 
diers spend 100 days or more 
on the road each year, with a 
schedule that consists of six- 
week tours each spring and fall 
and a three-week tour each 
summer. Music halls such as 
the one in Cincinnati are con- 
sidered prime locations, but 
many of their stops include col- 
lege and high school auditori- 
ums, parks and civic centers. 

Most say the travel is excit- 
ing, but lugging equipment and 
luggage to a different hotel each 
night can be tiring. 

"Sleeping in a different ho- 
tel each night and sitting on a 
bus for three to six hours at a 
time can be exhausting," said 
SSG Tia Turner, a clarinetist. 
"Places start to resemble one 
another and it's easy to forget 
where we are." 

"But the experiences are 
rewarding no matter where we 
play," said SSG Sammy 
Marshall, an accompanist for 
the chorus. "We cover the en- 
tire country about every two and 
a half years, playing in many of 
the most beautiful concert halls 
in the world." 

And the band and chorus 
never fail to move their audi- 
ences. For SFC Janet Hjelm- 
gren, a chorus member, that 
experience is very personal. 

"An incredible experience 
for me is my opportunity to sing 
'America the Beautiful' at the 
finale of each concert," Hjelm- 
gren said. "I'm deeply affected 
by those beautiful and moving 
words and by the emotions they 
bring from people all across 
America." — Rich Lamance, 
Army & Air Force Hometown 
News Service 

The Army Field Band and Soldiers' Chorus sat in for the Cincin- 
nati Pops while that orchestra toured Japan. 

Grafenwohr, Germany 

Bomb Hunters Clear 
Grafenwohr Ranges 

The 21 soldiers assigned to the 
702nd Ordnance Com- 
pany here recently 
spent their training 
time setting off un- 
exploded ord- 
nance. The EOD 
soldiers were task- 
ed to clear Range 
121 to ensure a safe 
training environ- 
ment. This level of 
range clearance is 
done four or five 
times a year, or 
whenever unex- 
ploded ordnance is found. 

The first step in range clear- 
ing is to perform an on-line 
sweep and mark any unex- 
ploded ordnance that's found. 
"We do a surface clearance by 
visually looking for ordnance," 
said company commander CPT 
Kyle Nordmeyer. "When we find 
something, we identify it, mark 
it and keep a count." 

Once the sweep is com- 
plete, soldiers prepare demoli- 
tion charges that they place next 
to the unexploded ordnance. 
"Then, on order, soldiers start 
pulling the charges and return 
to the safe area to wait for deto- 
nation," Nordmeyer said. "The 
minimum setting for a charge is 
four minutes and 40 seconds." 

The team must count every 
explosion, to ensure all charges 
detonate. That process contin- 
ues until all the marked, 
unexploded ordnance has been 
cleared. Before the unit departs, 
soldiers check again to ensure 
that all the charges detonated. 

Range clearing is just one 
of the soldiers' missions. They 
also respond to emergency and 
routine calls from the provost 
marshal. "Our emergency re- 
sponse time is 10 to 12 min- 

SPC Mike Lindenberger of the 702nd Ord. 
Co. prepares a demolition charge during the 
Grafenwohr range-clearance operation. 

utes," Nordmeyer said, adding 
that response to routine calls is 
about 30 minutes. 

EOD also responds to calls 
by the host nation liaisons, to 
support recovery or disposal of 
U.S. ordnance found in local 
areas. This is normally World 
War II ordnance that was re- 
cently uncovered because of 
erosion or excavation activities. 

The 702nd Ordnance also 
has responsibility for providing 
support throughout Europe, Af- 
rica, southwest Asia and the 
former Soviet Union. 

SGT Scott Willason, an 
EOD team leader, recently re- 
turned from Mozambique, 
where he trained humanitarian 
organizations and Mozambique 
defense forces, and coauthored 
the country's national standards 
for de-mining. 

When missions like Mo- 
zambique come up, the EOD 
soldiers are put into teams that 
act independently. "We're go- 
ing to be spread thin, but it 
doesn't take a lot of command 
and control once my teams are 
out," Nordmeyer said. "These 
soldiers know what they are do- 
ing."— SGTTami Lambert, 21st 

April 1999 


Focus on People 

Compiled by Heike Hasenauer 

B ^^^ 

* i » /^^B 



'"^h*'< ^r w 


. * 

%. ■"^"I 

now and 
2000, three 
other Army 
are sched- 
uled to 
participate in 
ISS space 

Army astronaut: LTC Nancy Currie [second from left) upon 
her crew's return from space. 

ARMY astronaut LTC Nancy Currie, assigned to the 
U.S. Army Space Command, a major subordinate 
element of the U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense 
Command, soared into space for the third time recently. 

The occasion was NASA's final shuttle mission of 

Currie, who served as mission specialist during the 4.6 
million-mile journey aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, 
controlled the robotic arm that connected the Russian 
Zarya module to the U.S.-made Unity module. These 
modules make up the first components of the Interna- 
tional Space Station. 

The next shuttle assembly mission to the space 
station is scheduled for May. 

Between now and 2000, three other Army astro- 
nauts are scheduled to participate in ISS space shuttle 
launches. LTC Jeffrey Williams is scheduled for liftoff 
in August. COL William McArthur will perform a space 
walk during the fourth ISS assembly flight, scheduled for 
October. And COL James Voss will be among the crew 
for the eighth ISS assembly flight scheduled for April 

In all, 460 tons of structures, 
modules, equipment and supplies 
will be placed in orbit by 2004, NASA 
officials said. 

The ISS continues the largest 
scientific cooperative program in his- 
tory, drawing on the resources and 
scientific expertise of 16 nations. 

For more information on Army 
astronauts, visit http://www.smdc. 
html. — Johnson Space Center and 
SMDC Public Affairs Offices 

FOR a little over a year, the Torrez 
family provided foster care to 
soldiers' children from the Ansbach, 

The Torrezes: Foster parents. 

Germany, military community, offering love and atten- 
tion to victims of abuse and neglect. 

SFC Anthony Torrez, then assigned to Battery F, 
6th Battalion, 52nd Air Defense Artillery, said his family 
became involved in foster care when a soldier in his 
battery was in trouble. 

"That soldier and his wife had just had twins. They 
also had a 2-year-old," Torrez said. "The couple was 
young. They became overwhelmed. 

"I don't like to see little kids hurt or anything like that," 
Torrez said of the 2-year-old he and his wife, Frances, 
cared for for several months. "Children don't ask to be 
brought into this world, and they certainly shouldn't be 

The child's father has since gotten out of the Army, 
Torrez said. And the last he heard, the children were in 
the custody of their grandmother. 

"The Torrezes are a very special family," said 
Ansbach Family Advocacy Program Director Nancy 
McLaughlin. "A lot of people say they want to become 
foster care providers, and we ask them to fill out a survey. 
The Torrezes brought theirs back. Most people don't." 

Torrez, now assigned to Headquarters and HQs. 
Btry., 6th ADA Brigade, at Fort Bliss, Texas, said he and 
his wife recently filled out the paperwork to be foster 
parents again. The couple's two sons, Mark, 10, and 
Michael, 8, share theirparents' philosophy about helping 
children in need, Torrez said. 

"They enjoy being big brothers to the younger kids 
who stay at our house," he said. While overseas, the 
couple cared for six children, most of them for several 
weeks, until their parents could resolve difficulties. 

Calling them "real performers who know the mean- 
ing of community service," 235th Base Support Bn. 
commander LTC Stanley Sims presented the Army's 
Civilian Award for Humanitarian Service to the family 
before it departed for Fort Bliss. — Roger Teel, 6th Bn., 
52nd ADA, PAO 

TWO soldiers, both members of 
the 1998 U.S. Winter Olympic 
team, were named 1998 Army ath- 
letes of the year. 

The honors went to bobsledder 
2LT Garrett Hines and biathlete SPC 
Kristina Sabasteanski, two of nine 
soldiers who qualified for the 1998 
U.S. Olympic team that competed in 
Nagano, Japan, last February. Both 
are members of the Army's World 
Class Athlete Program based at Fort 
Carson, Colo. 

Hurtling through steep, icy chutes 
at 90 miles an hour is not everyone's 
idea of sport, Hines said, but he likes 
the rush. Hines began bobsledding 



in 1992, putting to use the 
strength and speed he de- 
veloped playing football and 
running track at Southern Illinois Uni- 

The Tennessee native enlisted in 
the Army National Guard in 1 996 and 
went on active duty when he was 
accepted into the WCAP. His strength 
and speed as a side-pusher and 
brakeman on the two- and four-man 
bobsleds helped his team earn four 
World Cup medals — including a 

The six-foot, 220-pound soldier was tapped to be the 
brakeman on the four-man sled that missed a bronze 
medal by .02 seconds in Nagano — a thrilling but painful 
moment, Hines said. "It took me a month to watch the 
tape. It was like being there all over again and experienc- 
ing the same horrible feeling. But I knew I had to keep 
watching until I could go on and put that behind me." 

Recently commissioned as an Army Reserve envi- 
ronmental science officer, Hines is pursuing dual master's 
degrees in finance and information technology, as well 
as a driver's slot on the 2002 U.S. Olympic bobsled team. 

Sebasteanski started participating in the sport that 
combines cross-country skiing and marksmanship as a 
student at Castleton State College in Vermont, where 
she was a cross-country skier. 

Sabasteanski finished seventh, one place shy of a 
trip to the 1 994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, 
then won the 15-kilometer event at the 1996 Military 
World Games held in France. 

In 1 997 she was ranked third overall in competitions 
leading to Olympic-team berths. And although an Olym- 
pic medal eluded her in Nagano, Sabasteanski was the 
highest American finisher in the women's 7.5-kilometer 
sprint and helped the women's relay team to a 1 5th-place 
finish, the highest by a U.S. biathlon team at the Winter 

The athlete of the year selection came as a surprise, 
Sabasteanski said. "It was totally out of the blue. It was 
an awesome year," said the administrative specialist. 
"Everything just all came together." 

In December Sabasteanski qualified for the U.S. 
Senior Women's team, traveled to Finland in February 
for the 1 999 Senior World Biathlon Championships and 
prepared for competition in the 1 999 Biathlon World Cup 

There's still that elusive Olympic gold, she said. "I'm 
thinking about that possibility in 2002." — U.S. Army 
Community and Family Support Center PAO 

SSG Thomas R. Krech has been selected by the 
U.S. Army Recruiting Command at Fort Knox, Ky., 
as the active Army's top recruiter for 1998. 

Athletes of the Year: Sabast 
eanski (inset) and Hines. 

Krech, assigned to the Rowland 
Heights, Calif., recruiting station, 
competed at the battalion and bri- 
gade levels to win the overall title. 
During his seven years of ser- 
vice, Krech has served as a field 
artilleryman with the 82nd Airborne 
Division and as chief surveyor for 
the 11th Air Defense Artillery Bri- 
gade at Fort Bliss, Texas. 

Now assistant commander of a 
large recruiting station, Krech "was 
selected for this position due to his 
leadership skills," said COL Gary 
Carlson, commander of the U.S. Army 6th Recruiting 
Bde. in Sausalito, Calif. "He constantly leads his peers by 
example, while consistently overachieving on the job." 
The active Army recruiter of the year is selected from 
among more than 5,900 field recruiters. Criteria for 
selection include knowledge of current events and sol- 
dier programs, leadership, general military knowledge 
and excellence in recruiting. 

Besides recruiting, Krech does volunteer work with 
a local Boy Scout troop and is pursuing a bachelor's 
degree in business administration from the University of 
Phoenix. — U.S. Army Recruiting Command PAO 

assigned to 
the Rowland 
Calif., recruit- 
ing station, 
competed at 
the battalion 
and brigade 
levels to win 
the overall 

Krech: Recruiter of the Year. 

April 1999 


Environmental Front 

Compiled by Karen Baker 

Chief of Staff's 
1999 Earth Day Message 

THE 1999 Army Earth Day theme is "America's Army — 
Sustaining the Land We Defend." This theme underscores 
the importance of maintaining the environment as we train and 
support our fighting force. Each of us — soldiers, civilians and 
family members — makes a valuable contribution to this effort 
every time we act responsibly as environmental stewards. The 
Army has a long-term commitment to environmental steward- 
ship. It is essential to sustain our 
training land and ranges — not only to 
hone our warfighting skills today and 
in the future, but also to ensure our 
children and grandchildren have a 
clean environment in the 21st cen- 

When most of us think of being 
environmentally responsible, we think 
of recycling, car pooling and picking 
up litter. The Army does all of those 
things in garrison and, wherever pos- 
sible, we make similar efforts in the 
field. Officers plan training missions 
to reduce negative impacts on the 
land; noncommissioned officers teach 
soldiers to respect endangered wildlife in the field; our soldiers 
carry out their leaders' plans and policies; and environmental 
experts monitortraining land and coordinate necessary repairs. 
By taking these extra steps, the Army maintains access to critical 
training areas while protecting natural and cultural resources. 
These proactive measures, along with a focus on pollution 
prevention, save millions of dollars that can be redistributed to 
other Army initiatives. 

Our dedication to caring for the environment has not gone 
unnoticed. Last year, the Department of Defense awarded the 
Army eight of 15 possible Environmental Security awards. 
Those award winners, and everyone who makes a concerted 
effort to protect the environment and conserve resources, 
deserve our gratitude and praise. 

Earth Day is an excellent time to renew our commitment to 
the preservation of the environment for the coming year. This 
April 22, 1 encourage you to take time to attend an Earth Day 
event, volunteer to help plan events for your installation, or 
simply look for small ways in which you can be more environ- 
mentally responsible in the course of your duties. Earth Day 
fosters a sense of community by focusing on our shared 
environment. This sense of community is crucial to soldiers who 
are spread across the globe to "sustain the land we defend." 

Soldiers are our credentials! 

snnis J/HeRnei 
General, USA 
Chief of Staff 

Soft Landings on 
Endurance Courses 

RUN through a confidence course 
at "combat speed" and the next 
day it feels like someone declared 
war on your body. Fort Leonard 
Wood, Mo., has found a way to 
take some of the pain out of physi- 
cal training — and help the envi- 
ronment at the same time. 
The installation has re- 
placed many of the saw- 
dust "cushions" on its en- 
durance courses and in its 
PT sheds with shredded, 
recycled rubber tires. The 
switch, inspired byasimilar 
setup on a local playground, 
is keeping tons of old tires 
out of landfills and soldiers 
out of the hospital. 

"We've only been us- 
ing the material for a year, 
but lost-time accidents have 
almost disappeared," said 
Joe Proffitt, a natural resource 
specialist at Fort Leonard Wood. 
Proffitt said the oak sawdust 
presented a number of environ- 
mental, health and maintenance 
issues. During summerdry spells, 
soldiers kicked up dust that af- 
fected air quality and sometimes 
made it hard to breathe. The saw- 
dust compacted quickly after 
steady use, and despite constant 
"fluffing" with rakes and shovels it 

Pea-sized pellets of shred- 
ded recycled tires has helped 
Fort Leonard Wood reduce 
training course injuries. 

felt like concrete to anyone who 
jumped or fell on it. It also began 
to compost after a few rainy peri- 
ods, and needed constant re- 
placement lest it rot the wooden 
containment pits and kill the sur- 
rounding grass. In 1 997 the post 
launched an Integrated Training 
Area Management project to find 
alternatives to sawdust as a train- 
ing medium. 

Changing to the pea-sized 
tire pellets has allowed the instal- 
lation to solve most of these prob- 
lems. At about $200 a ton the 
material costs more than saw- 
dust, but Proffitt said it lasts much 
longer and it's practically mainte- 
nance free. It creates no dust, 
can be used in any weather and 
moisture easily drains through it. 

"You don't get the basic stress 
on your body that comes from 
hitting the ground all the time," 
said SFC Johnny Sapp, platoon 
sergeant of the Drill Sergeant 
School's 1st Platoon. 

Indeed, the worn tires are 
helping to take the wear and tear 
off training troops, even during 
hand-to-hand combat exercises. 
"We had three lost-time accidents 
in the PTshed in 1997," Proffitt 
said. "We didn't have any after 
we started using the tires." 

Soldiers also seem safer on 
the confidence and endurance 
courses, where lost-time acci- 
dents dropped from seven in 1 997 
to none last year. Not long before 
the ITAM program arranged for 
the tire beds on the confidence 
course, a trainee broke her arm 
and shoulder after falling 30 feet 
from a climbing tower onto the 
sawdust. These days, thanks to 
the 24- to 36-inch layers of shred- 
ded rubber under the towers, 
hurdles and other equipment, 
even potentially serious falls can 
turn out like a kid's routine spill 
from a jungle gym. 

"It's making a difference,"said 
Gary Chick, acting chief of Fort 
Leonard Wood's safety office. "If 
we can keep trainees on the full 


cycle without injuries, then people 
have done their jobs. We also 
have a lot of problems with tires in 
the environment, so this seems 
to be helping everybody." — Mike 
Buckley, U.S. Army Environmen- 
tal Center 

Secretary of the Army 
Environmental Awards 

THE commander of a New York 
Army National Guard facility re- 
cently won the Secretary of the 
Army 1 998 Environmental Award 
for Environmental Quality in the 
Individual category. 

Secretary of the Army Louis 
Caldera recognized COL Frank 
Intini, commander of Army Avia- 
tion Support Facility 1 in 
Ronkonkoma, N.Y., for enhanc- 
ing military readiness and aviator 
qualifications through innovative 
environmental programs. 

Intini was selected by a panel 

The U.S. Army Aviation and 
Missile Command won for 
pollution prevention in 
weapon system acquisition. 

of environmental experts from the 
Army and nonmilitary organiza- 
tions for his ability to enhance 
unit readiness while promoting 
the Headquarters, 42nd Infantry 
Division Aviation Brigade, as 
stewards of the Long Island, N.Y., 
coastline and forest environment. 
As commander, Intini over- 

sees the maintenance of UH-60 
Black Hawk and UH-1 Iroquois 
helicopters at the Aviation Sup- 
port Facility. A senior pilot and 
former brigade commander, he 
also manages the training and 
qualifications of the 60 aviators, 
crews and support personnel as- 
signed to the units stationed at 
the facility. 

Intini added a new twist to 
fulfilling required mission plan- 
ning and training in sling-load and 
overflight operations. Although 
heavy military equipment is tradi- 
tionally suspended from the belly 
of a helicopter during sling-load 
training operations, Intini and his 
crews used 1,500 pound con- 
crete reef balls to complete criti- 
cal flight training over water. 

One hundred of the igloo- 
shaped objects were dropped into 
the Great South Bay of Long Is- 
land to create a 100-yard-long 
artificial reef. The submerged 
balls will provide habitat for black- 
fish, porgies, sea bass and other 
game fish common to the area 
such as striped bass, bluefish 
and fluke. 

Future plans include extend- 
ing the reef by placing an addi- 
tional 900 reef balls. The initiative 
is a cooperative effort involving 
the support facility, the New York 
State Department of Environmen- 
tal Conservation Marine Division, 
the state's Department of Parks, 
Recreation and Historic Preser- 
vation, and other sponsors. 

"In these days of tight bud- 
gets, COL Intini is to be com- 
mended for his resourceful ap- 
proach to combining environmen- 
tal activities with the Army Guard's 
helicopter training mission," said 
Fran McPoland, the White House- 
appointed Federal Environmen- 
tal Executive. 

Intini and the other Secretary 
of the Army Environmental Award 
recipients will be honored in a 
Pentagon ceremony this month. 

The recipients in the other 
categories were: 

Camp Ripley, Minn., won in the Natu- 
ral Resources Conservation cat- 
egory for its wildlife programs. 

Natural Resources 

Installation of 10,000 acres 
or less: U.S. Army Garrison, Fort 
Belvoir, Va. 

Installation of more than 
10,000 acres: Camp Ripley, Army 
National Guard Training Site, 

Team: Missouri Army Na- 
tional Guard, Environmental Man- 
agement Office. 
Cultural Resources 

Installation: Fort McCoy, Wis. 

Individual: Dr. Laurie J. 
Lucking, U.S. Army Garri- 
son, Hawaii. 
Environmental Quality 

Non-industrial installa- 
tion: Fort Bliss, Texas. 

Industrial installation: 
Radford Army Ammunition 
Plant, Va. 
Pollution Prevention 

Non-industrial installa- 
tion: Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Md. 

Industrial installation: 
Tobyhanna Army Depot, 

Individual: Dr. 
Christine Gettys Hull, 
Fort Polk, La. 

Pollution Preven- 
tion-Weapons Acqui- 
sition Team: U.S. 
Army Aviation and 
Missile Command, 
Redstone Arsenal, 

Non-industrial in- 
stallation: U.S. Army 
Training Center and 
Fort Jackson, S.C. 

Industrial installa- 
tion: Tobyhanna Army 
Depot, Pa. 

Individual: Douglas 
A. Schonberner, Fort 
Riley, Kan. 
Environmental Cleanup 

Installation: Twin Cities Army 
Ammunition Plant, Minn. 

Team: Fort Wainwright Envi- 
ronmental Cleanup Team — 
Cristal A. Fosbrook, Joseph S. 
Malem, Therese M. Deardorff — 
Fort Wainwright, Alaska 

For more information about 
the Secretary of the Army Envi- 
ronmental Awards Program, visit 
the U.S. Army Environmental 
Center's website at http://aec- — 
Cynthia Houston, U.S. Army En- 
vironmental Center 

COL Frank Intini (left) won the 
1998 Secretary of the Army 
Award for Environmental Quality. 

Please send your contributions or questions to: Karen Baker. National Outreach 
Team Leader. U.S. Army Environmental Center. Attn: SFIM-AEC-PA. Bldg 4415, 
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21 01 0-5401, ore-mail: 
Baker can be reached by phone at (410) 436-68 1 7 or (DSN) 584-68 1 7. 

*pril 1999 


Sustaining the Land We Defend 

The Army's ability to train effectively and 

meet the highest standards in 

service to America depends on 

your actions as soldiers today. 

By considering the environment 

in everything you do, you help 

sustain the Army's training 


lands, protect the nation's 
natural resources, and 
ensure a safe and healthy 
environment for fellow 
soldiers, their families and 
our civilian communities. 



As you train, follow the guidelines that protect the 
environment at ranges and maneuver areas. 

Sound environmental stewardship preserves realisflttf 
training areas and keeps them ready to use. 


Conserve resources by reusing, recycling and 
avoiding waste. 

Recycling lightens the load on America's landfills, 
decreases the Army's disposal costs and helps 
installations pay for quality of life programs. 


Properly use and dispose of paint, oil and like 
materials at home and work. 

Practicing environmental responsibility helps the 
Army preserve funds for training and readiness. 


Know your job's environmental requirements and 
where to find more information when you need it. 

Learn about environmental issues on your 
installation and ways you can help sustain the 
land we defend. 

For more ARMY EARTH DAY information, 
visit the U.S. Army Environmental Center 
/eb site at http://aec' 
or call 410*436-1272. 



Compiled by Karen Baker 



Photos From the Field 

FORESTRY workers at Fort Lewis, 
Wash., are restoring areas of native 
prairie vegetation through brush cut- 
ting, commercial timber sales, and the 
controlled burning of non-native trees 
and shrubs. 

Forester Larry Boulineau (left) and Student Conservation Association 
employee Eddie Penden use a drip torch to start a controlled fire. 

(Above, left) A yellow cactus flower adds a vivid splash of color to the 
scene. (Above, right) Steve Willard, the post's chief of environmental 
and natural resources, shares with a young soldier the hands-on edu- 
cational experience of handling a southern hognose snake. 



; * 

T *"l 



A four-man team carries a "ps 
tient" through the litter ot 
stacle course at Fort Built* 
Texas, during the Expert Fiel 
Medical Competition. 

in the Field 

Story and Photos by SSG John Valceanu 



guys are 

the best 

their units 

had to 




the best in 

the Army." 

WENTY-eight of the Army's best medics gathered at 
Camp Bullis, Texas, for the Expert Field Medical Competi- 

Ition, held during the first week of October. 
The soldiers came from a variety of backgrounds. Two 
medics represented each Army corps, division and regional 
medical command. Though they may have come from 
different places, they all had one thing in common. To be eligible 
for the competition, each soldier had to have earned either the 
Expert Field Medical Badge or the Combat Medic Badge. 

"These guys are the best their units had to send. They're prob- 
ably the best in the Army," said SFC Blair Cooper, noncommis- 
sioned officer in charge of the competition. "They all want to be 
able to say they're the best medic in the Army this year. They all 
want to be the best of the best." 

the challenge. 

"I wanted to see where I stand in comparison with the rest of the 
Army," said Fisher, a training NCO at Weed Army Community 
Hospital at Fort Irwin, Calif. "This is a prestigious competition. 
When they offered me a chance to participate, I gobbled it up." 

Fisher and his fellow competitor from Fort Irwin, 1LT Frank 
Goring, even went through EFMB training again prior to the 

"We wanted to make sure we were the best we could be before 
coming to this," Fisher said. "Though we both had our EFMBs, we 
went up to Fort Lewis, Wash., to go through it again. Those graders 
looked at us under a magnifying glass." 

For SFC Randy Ryan, radiology NCOIC at the U.S. Military 
Academy's Keller Army Hospital, leadership was the driving factor 
in his decision to compete. 

SGT Simon Day checks for 
vital signs while performing 
CPR during the competition. 

The critical eye of an EFMC grader fol- A litter team moves into purple smoke 
lows the members of a litter team as used to mark a landing zone for an 
they negotiate a wire obstacle. incoming medevac helicopter. 

pril 1999 

As grader SSG Donald Bailey looks on, SSG Mark Cornejo hurries to treat a "casualty" 
whose leg has been blown off by a land mine. 

"At 36, I'm one of the oldest 
candidates out here. I'm a firm believer 
in setting the example, and I wanted 
to show younger soldiers how 
important it is to always try to 
achieve," Ryan said. "The stuff we're 
doing out here is stuff people can use 
to save lives. I've seen firsthand how 
important field medical knowledge is. 
By going through EFMB training, and 
taking part in competitions like this 
one, you can't help but be a better 

This was the third competition for 

SGT Simon Day. The medic from the 
82nd Airborne Division's 407th Support 
Battalion at Fort Bragg, N.C., competed 
in 1995 at Fort McClellan, Ala., and 
again in 1997 at Camp Bullis. 

"I obviously really want to win this. 
If I don't get it this year, I'll keep trying 
to come back until I do," Day said. 
"This is one of those things in the Army 
that demands a lot of you. It requires a 
lot of conditioning, and I like the 

To meet that challenge, candidates 
had to excel in a grueling competition 

that was filled with "gut-checks" at 
every turn. 

The competition kicked off with a 
written test, weapons qualification, a 
litter obstacle course, a cardiopulmo- 
nary resuscitation test and an Army 
Physical Fitness Test. Then candidates 
had to complete a night land-naviga- 
tion course before being allowed to get 
some quality rack time. 

"I got about 40 minutes of sleep. 
Then they got us up and brought us out 
here for the combat medic lanes." said 
candidate SGT Jerry Miller, a medic 
from 1st Bn., 66th Armored Regiment, 
4th Infantry Div., at Fort Hood, Texas. 
"Other training I've been through can't 
touch this. This one's a smoker." 

On the combat medic testing lanes, 
each soldier had to navigate to eight 
lanes. They were tested at each site on 
two situational exercises from the 
Expert Field Medical Badge repertoire 
and a task from the CTT manual. 

The soldiers had 1 2 hours to 
complete the lanes, walking an average 
of 10 miles and spending approxi- 
mately 45 minutes at each station. For 
many participants, the lack of sleep 
was a major factor in their perfor- 

"The combat medic lanes are 
probably the toughest part of this 
competition," Cooper said. "It isn't 
easy to walk all day with a 25-pound 
rucksack and a 15-pound aid bag, or to 
maintain the mental alertness to 
perform the tasks correctly after getting 
less than an hour of sleep." 



URPRISE was the main emotion felt 

_Jby 2LT Eric Craig upon finding out he 
had won the Expert Field Medical Competi- 

"I had no expectation of winning. I was 
competing with lots of NCOs who do this 
stuff every day, NCOs who are former drill 
sergeants or MOS instructors," Craig said. 

The 25-year-old medical platoon leader 
credits his success, in part, to the fact that he 
went through testing for the Expert Field 
Medical Badge not long before taking part in 
the EFM Competition. 

"The NCOs who helped me train for the 
EFMB never let up. They were constantly 
drilling me. I feel they gave me the edge to 
win," Craig said. "Also the fact that I didn't go 

through it a long time ago, and a lot of things 
were still fresh in my mind, helped me out." 

Craig and other 1st Infantry Division 
medics earned their badges earlier last year 
in Schweinfurt, Germany. Craig said a visit 
by U.S. Senator Max Cleland(D-Ga.) proved 
very inspirational. 

Cleland lost his right arm and both legs 
while serving with the 1st Cavalry Div. in 
Vietnam. He was jumping from a helicopter 
when a grenade exploded. 

"Four medics started cutting off my uni- 
form, tearing it into tourniquets. Within min- 
utes, they had called in a chopper. They 
saved my life," Cleland said during the EFMB 
testing in Germany. "Had it not been for a 
wonderful team of medics just like these, but 



1LT Frank Goring (front) and SSG Scott 
Fisher cross the finish line of the 
competition's 12-mile road march. 

After a day on the combat medic 
lanes, participants were allowed six 
hours of sleep. They were awakened at 
4 a.m. on the last day of the competi- 
tion for the 1 2-mile road march. 
Competitors raced against the clock, 
knowing that this was their last chance 
to add points to their totals. 

The entire competition was graded 
on a system in which soldiers might 
gain or lose points according to their 
performance. On the road march, for 
example, soldiers who made it in three 
hours flat received no points. But they 
received points for every minute less 
than three hours. Thev could also lose 

points if they came in after three hours. 

The point system is set up to produce 
a winner who is good at a wide variety 
of tasks, rather than at a specific set, 
Cooper said. 

"The candidate who will come out 
on top will be a top-notch soldier who 
can do well at a lot of things," Cooper 
said. "Well-rounded soldiers will have 
more success than someone who's just a 
good medic or a jock who's really good 
at PT but will bolo the rest of the stuff." 

When the points were added up, 2LT 
Eric Craig came out on top. The medical 
platoon leader from HHC, 1st Bn., 63rd 
Armd. Regt., 1st Inf. Div., in Wiirzburg, 
Germany, scored 2,763 points. This put 
him 250 points ahead of 2nd place SSG 
Mark Cornejo of the 232nd Medical Bn., 

at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Coming 
in third was SGT Keith Gwyn, 
assigned to Winn Army Medical 
Hospital at Fort Stewart, Ga. 

"I was very surprised when they 
told me I won," Craig said. "The way 
they tallied up points, you had no way 
of knowing where you stood until the 
end. I'm surprised, and very happy." 

"This is an important competition, 
and the experiences you've picked up 
here will reverberate throughout the 
medical corps as you go back to your 
units," said MG James B. Peake, 
commander of the Army Medical 
Department Center and School, at the 
closing. "You pushed the standard of 
excellence and represented the 
standard to which we all aspire." □ 

The road march completed, Goring and Fisher receive intravenous hydration. EFMC 
competitors must demonstrate both perseverance and a range of skills to succeed. 

on the battlefield, I would not have been 
here today." 

Craig said the senator reminded him of 
"the awesome responsibility that medics 

"Sen. Cleland was an emotional and 
motivational speaker. He made you realize 
that peoples' lives depend on your ability to 
respond to any emergency," he said. "His 
life is a testament to courage and commit- 

Craig began his career as an enlisted 
man, serving three years as a laboratory 
technician with the 62nd Medical Group at 
Fort Lewis, Wash. While in that assign- 
ment, he deployed to Somalia. 

Craig left the Army under the Green-to 
Gold program and attended ROTC at 
Youngstown State University in Ohio. While 
he majored in finance in college, the lieu- 

tenant said he opted to come back to active 
duty as a Medical Service Corps officer. 

"Being able to work in a field where you 
can help people is a great thing," Craig said. 
"But the medical field also allows you to 
serve in a wide variety of assignments. I'm in 
a great armor unit now, but in the future I can 
go to aviation or anywhere else." 

Craig said a couple of factors drove him 
to compete in the competition. 

"Our tankers are among the best in U.S. 
Army, Europe. They recently won a gunnery 
competition, and I wanted to show that our 
medics are pretty good, too," he said. "I also 
wanted to see where I stood and how much 
I could endure." 

Craig said he knew he'd have to be in top 
shape for the competition, and he did what 
he could to prepare. 

"I knew this was going to be very physi- 

cally demanding, so I did a lot of PT," he 
said. "I also went to the range quite a few 

Craig's training strategy paid off. Both 
his PT and rifle marksmanship scores 
were among the highest of all the competi- 
tors. Those two, combined with one of the 
fastest times on the road march, helped 
give him the highest overall score. 

"This is the most physically demand- 
ing thing I've ever done," Craig said. "But 
I neverfelt it was really an individual event. 
We all pulled together and cheered each 
other on. If some of the NCOs competing 
hadn't kept up my motivation during the 
road march, I would have never finished 
as fast as I did. 

"All the competitors were definitely 
top-notch. I'd be glad to have any of them 
in my platoon." — SSG John Valceanu 

Xpril 1999 


United States Army 

A Heritage of Honor 

Central Europe 1 945 

FTER hard-fought victories following the invasions of Normandy a 
^southern France in 1944, Allied ground forces in western Europe sL. 
gained ground against strong German resistance. The U.S. 1st, 3rd and 91. 
armies reached different points along the Rlfrine River and pushed into 
Germany jn March 1 945. Within days, the 1 st Army had reached Leipzig, the \ 
9th Army was in Magdeburg, the 3rd Army was at the Chechoslovakian ' < 

- border and the 7th Army had reached Austria. 

As Soviet troops moved westward, the Americans and British drove eastward 
with little opposition and halted at the Elbe River, 60 miles from Berlin, on April 
1 1 . By April 25, the Soviet armies reached and encircled Berlin, then linked with 
the Americans on the Elbe. A formal surrender covering all German forces was 
signed on May 7. 

The last inter-Allied conference of World War II was held at Potsdam, outside 
Berlin, in July and August. Soviet demands to exact reparation from Germany and 
Austria, and the Soviets' unilateral decisions concerning control of Poland and the 
Balkan areas occupied by Soviet forces, were the first hints of the break between 
East and West that would eventually be known as the Cold War. 

GEN Dwight D. Eisenhower 

1 890- 1 969 . 

SupVeme Commander, Allied' Expeditionary Forces 

Eisenhower oversaw the invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the 
subsequent campaigns leading to the surrender of Germany. Much of his 
success rested on his ability as a strategist and on his capacity for harmo- 
nizing the diverging national goals of the Allies. In 1950 he was recalled 
to active duty as commander of the newly organized military arm of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 

SSG Robert H.Dietz 

19??- 1945 

Company A, 38th Armored Infantry Battalion, 7th Armd. Division 

As a squad leader on March 29, 1945, Dietz attacked and 
killed the enemy antitank teams defending two bridges 
near Kirchain, Germany. He then advanced alone under a 
hail of fire and disconnected demolition charges from the 

swnnH bridge allowing I IS firnvs In frrrtKS thp rivpr 

and advance deeper into German territory. 

101. I<2 


"he Offic 

Army l^e 



* ^ 



< ^w 





May 1999 Volume 54, No. 5 

The Official 

U.S. Army Magazine 

Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: GEN Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: MG John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Information Strategy: William R. Drobnick 

Soldiers Staff 

Editor in Chief: LTC Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSG John Valceanu 
Photojournalist: Heike Hasenauer 
Associate Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T Marsden 

Soldiers (ISSN 0093-8440) is published monthly under super- 
vision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide the Total 
Army with information on people, policies, operations, technical 
developments, trends and ideas of and about the Department of 
the Army. The views and opinions expressed are not necessarily 
those of the Department of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest 
to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is autho- 
rized to Editor, Soldiers, 9325 Gunston Road, Suite S108, 
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581 . Phone: DSN 656-4486 or com- 
mercial (703) 806-4486. Or send e-mail to soldiers® ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for 
"by permission" and copyright items), material may be reprinted 
provided credit is given to Soldiers and the author. ■ All 
photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. 
■ Military distribution: From the U.S. Army Distribution Opera- 
tions Facility, 1655 Woodson Road, St. Louis, MO 631 14-6181, 
in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 050007 
subscription requirements submitted by commanders. ■ The 
Secretary of the Army has determined that the publication of this 
periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business 
as required by law of the department. ■ Use of funds for printing 
this publication was approved by the Secretary of the Army on 
Sept. 2, 1986, in accordance with the provisions of Army Regu- 
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The Ail-Americans 

We introduce a new series on the 
Army's active divisions with the 
story of the people and mission of 
the 82nd Airborne Division. 

Training in Korea 

A Korea-based transportation 
battalion found an innovative and 
cost-effective way to provide 
comprehensive training on vital 
fixed gantry cranes. 

Special-Care Kids 

The Army's Exceptional Family 
Member Program helps families 
care for those with special needs 
and helps relieve soldiers' anx- 
ieties about their well-being. 


Bicycling for both fun and 
exercise is increasingly popular 
throughout the Army. Here's 
how to get moving. 

Joining the Home Team 

During the last year, Nevada 
National Guard tankers have 
helped NTC's OPFOR teach 
some harsh training lessons. 

Be part of 

Soldiers Almanac 2000 

6l Memorial Day 1999 

We offer this tribute to the men 
and women who have given their 
lives in the defense of the nation 
and its ideals. 

00 Caring For Kids 

Child Development Centers 
Armywide are helping ensure that 
Army kids get the best of care. 

4Z Smoothing the Path 
to School 

Changing schools frequently is a 
difficult fact of life for military 
kids. Here's how you can make 
the process easier. 

45 The Last Walk 

SSG James T. Taylor marked the 
end of his tour as an honor guard 
at the Tomb of the Unknowns 
with a somber, moving ceremony. 

48 The Old Guard: Do You 
Have What It Takes? 

If you're well-disciplined, with 
great military bearing and pride in 
serving your country, the answer 
may be "yes." 






Special-Care Kids 
Helping Families 
Cope is 
Caring for Kids 


10 Feedback 

1 2 What's New 

21 Around the Services 

26 Postmarks 

34 Focus on People 

36 Sharp Shooters 

Front cover: 

Soldiers of the 
82nd Abn. Div.'s 
Co. C, 3rd Bn., 
505th Inf. Regt., 
conduct a trench- 
clearing "walk- 
through" before 
using live ammuni- 
tion. — SGT Blake 
R. Waltman 



"When you talk 

about contingency 

operations and 

responding to 

the world's 


quickly with 


combat power on 

the ground, you're 

talking about the 

82nd Airborne 

Division. " 


■ n 

AW \ 

(Left; Exercise CENTRAZBAT '97 saw 82nd 
Airborne Division troops jumping into 
Kazakhstan from an Air Force C-17 trans- 
port. (Above) Division soldiers prepare to 
enter and clear a building during MOUT 
training at Fort Bragg. 

May 1999 



whether this is a training exercise or a 
real-world mission. 

Readiness has always been the one 
constant throughout the 82nd' s history. 
The paratroopers' training regimen, 
physical -fitness level and the way they 
live their daily lives revolve around 
one thing: being ready to deploy with 
little or no notice. 

"When you talk about contingency 
operations and responding to the 
world's emergencies quickly with 
overwhelming combat power on the 
ground, you're talking about the 82nd 
Abn. Div.," said GEN. Thomas A. 
Schwartz, commander of U.S. Army 
Forces Command. 

This high state of readiness is an 
integral part of the 82nd's ability to 
deploy from Fort Bragg, N.C., to 
anywhere in the world within 18 hours 
of notification. 

"Our mission, simply put, is to 
conduct a parachute assault, take and 
hold an airfield, receive follow-on air- 
land forces, expand and secure a 
lodgment, and from there conduct 
additional combat operations," said 

MG Dan K. McNeill, the division 

To accomplish this mission, the 
division keeps one infantry battalion 
and its accompanying support elements 
on alert at all times. Soldiers assigned 
to these units are required to report for 
duty within two hours of the unit's 
initial notification. These are the 
division's Ready Force One. 

All DRF-1 unit equipment is rigged 
for air-drop and is pre-staged for 
loading onto Air Force aircraft in the 
event of an alert. The standardized 
preparation is customized during the 
18-hour sequence to meet individual 
mission requirements. 

Division units not on as high a level 
of alert or supporting status are in an 
intensive training cycle. These units 
train rigorously on mission-essential 
tasks to sustain a high level of readi- 

"We have to keep our units trained 
to high standard because when we get 
the call to go there is no time for 
training," said McNeill. "Between 
home-station training and the training 
we do at the combat training centers, 
we are able to maintain a good fighting 
edge on our units." 

The division's paratroopers rou- 
tinely train at the Joint Readiness 
Training Center at Fort Polk, La., the 
National Training Center at Fort Irwin, 
Calif., abroad with other nations, and 
extensively at Fort Bragg. Emergency 
deployment readiness exercises and 
operations such as Purple Dragon '98 
constantly hone paratroopers' skills as 
well as those of the command ele- 

Anywhere in the World 

Although the division's mission is 
similar to that of other units within the 
Army, the 82nd is unique among 
infantry divisions because of its global 
orientation and speed of deployment. 

Most divisions, including the three 
of the Marine Corps, are limited to the 
distance they can deploy large forces 

The division conducts mass tactical air- 
borne operations to ensure its soldiers are 
ready to perform their wartime missions. 

Constant realistic training — as here at the 
Shughart-Gordon MOUT center — helps 
sharpen the division's combat skills. 

without the pre-staging of equipment, 
supported by ground or sea transporta- 

"Many of the other forces with 
forced-entry capabilities must have 
additional time to get into position," 
McNeill said. 

Additionally, most divisions focus 
their training around operations within 
specific geographical regions. 

"We have established that we can 
go anywhere in the world," said 
McNeill. "The 82nd can do it cold- 
start from the United States. We are 
trained to do that and to fight the 
minute we get there." 

In September 1997, the 82nd 
conducted a monumental training 
exercise demonstrating the long arm of 
a parachute assault force. More than 
500 division soldiers boarded six C-17 
Globemaster transports at Pope Air 
Force Base, N.C., for the farthest- 
reaching airborne operation in history. 

During the 19-hour flight, which 
required three in-flight refuelings, 
paratroopers performed an in-flight rig- 
up to ready for the jump. After more 
than 8,000 miles, soldiers wearing the 
"AA" shoulder patch jumped into the 
skies above Shymkent, Kazakhstan. 

"We have the strategic ability and 
deployability to establish a foothold 
anywhere in the world, anywhere the 
national command authority asks us 
to," said COL Karl P. Horst, corn- 


mander of the 504th Infantry Regi- 

A Force of Persuasion 

The ability of the 82nd to respond 
anywhere in the world, quickly and 
with a significant amount of firepower, 
has also proved to be an effective 
national tool. 

Such was the case in 1994, when it 
seemed all peaceful avenues were 
exhausted to restore democracy to 
Haiti. The 82nd was alerted and was 
quickly in the air with a brigade-size 
task force. However, they were called 
back before reaching their destination. 
The 82nd's eminent arrival influenced 
Haitian government leaders to agree to 
a peaceful resolution. 

Responding to National Crisis 

The division's unique abilities, espe- 
cially the ability to respond quickly, 
have on occasion been put to use in 
noncombatant roles as well. 

When Hurricane Andrew blasted 
through southern Florida in August, 
1 992. paratroopers were some of the 
first disaster relief workers to arrive on 
the scene. They brought with them the 
generators, field kitchens, and water 
purification and engineering equipment 
needed to make a difference. "Al- 
though disaster-relief missions nor- 

PFC Brendon Ernest of the division's Co. A, 
325th Inf. Regt., fires a Javelin antitiank 
missile during training. 

mally fall under the domain of the 
Army National Guard, the 82nd was 
sent because it could get there fast," 
said Horst. "We had the ability to go 
quickly, with equipment, people and 
the resources to make a difference." 

Into the 21st Century 

As the century draws to a close, 
advancements in war-fighting tech- 
nologies continue to shape the future 
Army and improve the 82nd Abn. 
Div.'s effectiveness. 

"The firepower of this divisior 
never been better," McNeill said. "And 
it is getting better every day, as new 
technology is developed." 

Over the last few years the division 
has incorporated numerous new 
weapons into its arsenal. Among them 
are the M-4 carbine, the fire-and-forget 
Javelin man-packed anti-armor weapon 
and the TOW Improved Target Acqui- 
sition System. 

As for the 82nd' s future role in 
military advancements, its leaders say 
that the division will lead the way in 
equipping light fighters. "In terms of 
readiness and the fielding of equip- 
ment, the division will be the leading 
edge as we go into the 21st century," 
Horst said. 

In an age of stealth aircraft and 
smart bombs, some have questioned 
the effectiveness of an airborne 
division and its mission. Yet, the 82nd 
continues to answer the questions by 

training for and executing its mission 
around the globe. 

As Schwartz said after observing 
paratroopers in training on a recent 
visit to Fort Bragg: "It can simply be 
put like this. We couldn't have the 
great Army we have without the 
tremendous capabilities of this division 
and these airborne soldiers." □ 

SGT Rhonda Kernwright checks the static 
line of a Task Force 505 trooper during a 
jumpmaster inspection. 

May 1999 


The 82nd Airborne in History 

Stnnu hu HPT Minhapl Slnniim and MXR Raumnnri Hnprifill w 

Story by CPT Michael Slocum and MSG Raymond Cordell 

An 82nd soldier raises the American flag 
atop a building in Cologne, Germany, in 
the spring of 1945. 

THE 82nd Division was formed Aug. 25, 
1917, at Camp Gordon, Ga., and, since 
its members came from all 48 states, the 
division was nicknamed 'The Ail-Americans." 
The famed "AA" shoulder patch was created 
by soldiers serving during World War I. 

The division deployed to France in the 
spring of 1918, fought in three major cam- 
paigns that helped to break the fighting spirit 
of the German army and was demobilized 
after the Allied victory. 

With the outbreak of World War II, the 
82nd was reactivated March 25, 1942, at 
Camp Claiborne, La., under MG Omar N. 
Bradley, and on Aug. 15 became the Army's 
first airborne division. 

The division deployed to North Africa 
under the command of MG Matthew B. 
Ridgeway in April 1943, then made para- 
chute assaults into Sicily and Salerno, fol- 
lowed by participation in the invasion of 

As part of the Normandy invasion on 
June 6, 1 944, the division dropped into Nazi- 
occupied France with three parachute regi- 
ments and a reinforced glider regiment. 

By the time the Ail-Americans pulled 
back to England, they had seen 33 days of 
combat and suffered 5,245 soldiers killed, 
wounded or missing. 

The division next became part of the 
newly organized XVIII Airborne Corps, which 
included the 17th and 101st Abn. divisions, 
then made its fourth parachute assault dur- 
ing Operation Market Garden in September. 

The Germans launched a surprise of- 

CPT Michael Slocum Is commander of the 49th Public Af- 
fairs Detachment, and MSG Raymond Cordell Is the NCOIC 
of the 82nd Abn. Dtv. PAO. 

A mortar team from the 325th Glider Infan- 
try Regiment prepares for a fire mission 
near Normandy in June 1944. 

tensive Dec. 16, 1944, and two days later 
the 82nd was fighting in the Battle of the 

Division soldiers were ordered to Berlin 
for occupation duty after the war, then re- 
turned to the United States Jan. 3, 1946, 
stationed at Fort Bragg, N.C. 

Formed in 191 7, 

the division was 

nicknamed the 


because its 

members came 

from all 48 states. 



Soon after the D-Day landings in Nor- 
mandy, soldiers of the 505th Parachute 
Inf. Regt. patrol the streets of St. Mere- 
Eglise, France, on horseback. 

The division deployed in 1 965 to restore 
peace and stability to the Dominican Repub- 
lic after the outbreak of civil war there, and in 
1 968 deployed to Vietnam. Division soldiers 
served there for the next two years, fighting 
in the Mekong Delta, the "Iron Triangle" and 
along the Cambodian border. 

Recent deployments include task forces 
sent to Grenada in 1983, an airborne inser- 
tion into Panama during Operation Just 
Cause in 1989 and deployments to Saudi 
Arabia at the onset of Operations Desert 
Shield and Desert Storm in 1990. 

In September 1994 the division was in 
the air and ready to respond to deteriorating 
conditions in Haiti when leaders there agreed 
to terms. The division returned to Fort Bragg 
where it continues to train and prepare for 
future contingencies. □ 

MG James M. Gavin, the division's com- 
mander, chutes up before the Septem- 
ber 1944 jump into Holland. 


World War 

LTC Emory J. Pike of 

Columbus City, Iowa, 82nd 
Division machine-gun officer, 
for action near Vandieeras, 
France. While on a front-line 
reconnaissance mission, his 
unit received heavy artillery 
shelling, disorganizing ad- 
vancing infantry units. He re- 
organized the units, secured 
the position against attack, 
and was se- 

verely wounded by shell fire when he 
went to the aid of a wounded soldier. 

CPL Alvin C York of Fentress 
County, Tenn., Company G, 325th In- 
fantry, for actions near Chatel-Chehery , 
France. He took command of his pla- 
toon after three noncommissioned of- 
ficers had been wounded or killed. He 
fearlessly charged a machine-gun nest, 
capturing four German officers, 128 
men and several weapons. 

World War II 

PFC Charles N. 
DeGlopper of Grand Island, 
N.Y., Co. C, 325th Glider Inf. 
Regiment, for action at La 
Fiere, France, on the 
Merderet River. Although 
wounded several times, he 
voluntarily placed himself in 
front of a large force, drawing 
heavy automatic-weapons 
fire while covering the with- 
drawal of an encircled pla- 
toon establishing the first 

bridgehead across the river. 

PVT John R. Towle of Cleveland, 
Ohio, Co. C, 504th Parachute Inf. Regt., 
for action near Oostrehout, Holland. 
Armed with a rocket launcher, he single- 
handedly broke up a German counter- 
attack of 1 00 infantrymen supported by 
two tanks and a half-track before he 
was mortally wounded by a mortar shell. 

1SG Leonard Funk Jr of 

Braddock Township, Pa., Co. C, 508th 
Parachute Inf. Regt., for action at Holzhein, Belgium. 
After Funk led his unit in the capture of 80 German 
soldiers, an enemy patrol, by means of a ruse, captured 
the four American guards, 
freed the prisoners and pre- 
pared to attack the Ameri- 
cans. Funk, returning from a 
mopping-up operation, 
walked around a building and 
into the enemy's midst and 
had a machine pistol thrust 
into his stomach by a Ger- 
man officer. Pretending to 
comply with a surrender de- 
mand, he slowly unslung his 
submachine gun and riddled the officer and led his men 
in resisting the enemy, killing 21 in the process. 

May 1999 

Fixed gantry cranes are essential to the Army's war-sustainment effort, 
but few soldiers are trained to use the equipment. Now one unit has 

found a way to get ... 


MISSION-essential training at a 
bargain basement price and 
closer relations with South 
Korea's business community 
— that's what the Army is 
getting out of an initiative by the 837th 
Transportation Battalion. 

The unit has worked out an agree- 
ment with the Korean Port Training 
Institute in Pusan to train soldiers to 
operate gantry cranes, said battalion 

commander LTC Tom Harvey. 
Gantry cranes are used in ports 
to move cargo containers on or 
off ships. 

Harvey said the first to 
benefit from the training were 25 
soldiers deployed to Korea from 
k Fort Eustis, Va., and six Korean 
^ Augmentees to the U.S. Army, 
k or KATUSAs. 

"The need for this type 
South' of training was first identi- 
fied during Operation Desert 
Storm, when we suddenly 
had 50,000 containers to off- 
load in Saudi Arabia, but no soldiers 
trained to use the cranes," Harvey said. 

Back then, the Army had to send 
people to Virginia for the training, 
costing an initial $20,000 to shut down 
a crane to use for the training and then 
$ 1 25 an hour for 40 hours of training 
per student, he said. 

When soldiers from Fort Eustis' 
10th Trans. Bn. were scheduled to 
deploy to Korea for an exercise, 
Harvey saw an important opportunity, 
he said, because he knew the soldiers 
hadn't received gantry-crane training. 

The course wasn't taught at Fort 
hustis because there was no crane 
available and civilian operators were 
unwilling to train the soldiers because 
of union restrictions, Harvey said. 

SSG Jim Hughes is command Information NCOIC for U.S. 
Forces, Korea 



So he assigned a 
team to find available 
training in Korea. What 
came next was a sur- 

"During negotiations, 
we brought up the cost, 
and the institute told us 
to name a price," Harvey said. "They 
weren't interested in making money." 

The training cost the Army nothing 
up front because the Pusan facility 
already had a training crane available, 

and the training itself 
cost only $125 per 
student for all 40 hours 
of training. 

"There isn't much in 
it for the Koreans ex- 
cept fostering good 
relations with our 
government," said Harvey. "As far as 
we know, this was the first time 
something like this occurred. It was a 
great operation, and we received train- 
ing from a world-class port facility." 



Story by 
SSG Jim Hughes 

(Main photo) SPC Nelson McHenry of 
the 10th Trans. Bn. operates a gantry 
crane under the watchful eyes of a 
KPTI instructor. (Inset) Using the Pu- 
san training crane saved the Army both 
time and money. 

"It was our pleasure to train the 
American soldiers and build on our 
Strong friendship,** explained KPTI 
president Dr. Cho Yeong-Tark. "They 
were such good students. 

"This course will increase opera- 
tional capabilities for the U.S. and 
Korean armies, and I hope it will make 
a great contribution to your Army's 
whole operation."" Cho said. 

But getting things started wasn't 
easy, said 837th Trans. Bn. SGM 
Davey Flores. 

May 1999 

"We had to convince the Korean 
labor union to allow us to do this," he 
said. "At first, their concerns were the 
same as the Americans', that we might 
be taking jobs away from them. And 
with the Korean economy the way it is 
right now, they weren't really excited 
about that possibility." 

Flores said Harvey wrote the union 
a letter and then visited union officials 
to assure them that the Army would not 
be taking jobs from port workers. 

"We would only use the cranes if 
there was a deployment of cargo to a 
place where we could get no host- 
nation support," Harvey said. "We 
didn't use the cranes during Foal 

SPC Nelson McHenry, a 10th 
Trans. Bn. cargo specialist, believes in 
the value of the program. 

"I think it's very good training 
because it's something I may need one 
day," he said. "It's something I've 
never done before, and it's been quite a 
learning experience for me. There's a 
lot you have to know before you can 
operate one of these cranes." 

The students received classroom 
instruction before getting hands-on 
experience on the training crane. 
McHenry said they had to learn how 
much the crane could lift, different 
mathematical formulas the crane 
operators use, how power flows 
through the crane and the controls of 
the crane. 

"It was a little confusing the first 
time I operated the crane, but by the 
second time I was used to it," McHenry 

One thing complicating instruction 
during the course was that the instruc- 
tors at KPTI are Korean, which meant 
there was a language barrier. 

To get around that, six of the 837th 
KATUSA soldiers attended the class a 

week earlier so they would have an 
understanding of the course. The 
KATUSAs then helped the Ameri- 
cans by translating what the instruc- 
tors were teaching. 

"Sometimes it was difficult to 
understand things when the instruc- 
tors were teaching, but the transla- 
tors were always right there to 
explain it. I don't think this could 
have been done without them. It's 
been a great experience," McHenry 

And future soldiers will get that 
"great experience," too, said 

"Dr. Cho brought up the idea of 
continuing this training during major 
exercises where there will be port 
operations," he said. "So we can 
look forward to continuing this great 
cooperation between the American 
and Korean governments and the 
training institute, and continue 
getting mission-essential training for 
our soldiers to use in future opera- 
tions." □ 

CPL Kim Do Hyung (right) translates as an 
instructor explains the gantry crane con- 
trol panel to 10th Trans. Bn. soldiers. 



From the Editor 

THIS month we begin a series 
on the basic building block of 
the active-duty Army: the divi- 
sion. The profile of the 82nd 
Airborne is the first of 10 pro- 
files we'll bring you over the 
next year or so. They will fea- 
ture the operations and his- 
tory of the units around the 
world, each with unique mis- 
sions and personalities. 

Also in this month's issue 
are three stories on family and 
child-care issues. We believe 
you will find these articles 
helpful and informative. 

We recognize Memorial 
Day this month with a tribute 
by Production Editor Steve 
Harding and Associate Art Di- 
rector Paul Henry Crank on pp. 
32-33 and with a great story of 
dedication and honor in "The 
Last Walk," which details the 
final tour of a sentinel at the 
Tomb of the Unknowns. 

And finally, if it's May, it 
means we're beginning work 
on The Soldiers Almanac. 
Photo Editor SSG John 
Valceanu is asking for your 
best photos to help make the 
January 2000 almanac the 
best one yet. Check out our 
call for photos and uniform 
models on pp. 24-25. Help tell 
the world what this great Army 
is doing. 

Jumpers and Artists 

YOUR March story on airborne 
engineers, "Into the Rough," 
included a photo of a second 
lieutenant and a specialist who 
were identified as afirst lieuten- 
ant and sergeant, respectively. 
Moreover, landing in trees isn't 
new to the Army: the 555th Para- 
chute Infantry Battalion was a 
predominantly-black unit during 
World War II that never got into 
combat but wound up fighting 
fires as "smokejumpers" for the 
U.S. Forest Service. 

My other question is how 
does a soldier get to become a 
combat artist? Who runs this 
program for the Army? 

211 lee D. Bishop 
Fort Lewis, Wash. 

THE two soldiers were pro- 
moted after the photo was 
taken, and the information we 
received included their new 
ranks. We've taken steps to re- 
store WYSIWYG (what you see 
is what you get) treatment of 
photo IDs in the future. For more 
on the 555th, see "Triple Nickel: 
An Airborne Legacy, "in the Feb- 
ruary 1998 issue of Soldiers. 

As to the Army's combat 
artist program, that's run by the 
U.S. Army Center of Military His- 
tory. For more information con- 
tact Mary Gjernes at (202) 76 1 - 
5373 or by e-mail at gjernmk 
@ ' 

Dead RATT 

YOUR Postmarks item in the 
March Soldiers was interesting 
but had some factual errors. 
Radio teletypewriter (RATT) 
telecommunications circuits 
existed well before 1968. 

RATT was a facility when I 
was assigned as a communica- 
tion section chief in 1959 at 
Verdun, France, where we used 
radio sets AN/GRC-26A and 
AN/GRC-26D. I instructed on 

DEOMI Update 

THANKS for the wonderful March ar- 
ticle by Heike Hasenauer on the De- 
fense Equal Opportunity Management 
Institute, "Teaching Equal Opportu- 

There is one minor change that 
I should have caught when I re- /^ 
viewed the article: the DSN phone 
number listed for a point of contact is 
actually for our Directorate of Research. Anyone inter- 
ested in learning more about DEOMI can check our website 

Soldiers interested in attending a DEOMI course should 
first contact their branch managers. Additional information is 
available through the DEOMI Public Affairs Office at (DSN) 

SFC John Pennell 
Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. 

Mentoring Women 

IN your March article "The Army's EO Climate" LTC Kathleen 
Seith is quoted as saying: "Males won't mentor. They treat 
women paternalistically," adding "And they won't enforce 
standards on female soldiers." 

As an equal opportunity advisor, I know that DEOMI 
teaches EOAs to speak for themselves and not others. LTC 
Seith appears to be saying "all men" practice that behavior, 
but I believe an equal or greater number of men practice 
equality on all levels. Categorizing all male soldiers in the 
same negative way only fuels issues between the sexes. 

SFC Patrick E. Minney 
Fort McClellan, Ala. 

RATTatthe Infantry Centerfrom 
1960 to 1964; managed RATT 
communications in the 8th In- 
fantry Division from 1964 to 
1 966; and taught RATT opera- 
tions at the U.S. Army Signal 
School from 1 966 to 1 969. 1 am 
currently chief of enlisted train- 
ing development at the U.S. 
Army Computer Science 

TRI-TAC did not replace 
RATT equipment, nor did the 
SINGARS radio family. RATT 
became obsolete as a result of 
modern data communications 
and automation on the battle- 
field, beginning with the fielding 


of the Mobile Subscriber Equip- 
ment (MSE) system in 1988. 
Jesse H. Patton 
Fort Gordon, Ga. 

Courier Update 

RECENT changes in manning 
requirements have limited De- 
fense Courier Service (Febru- 
ary "What's New") applicants to 
only PMOS 71 L. Other require- 
ments include obtaining a final 
TS/SCI security clearance 
within 60 days of arrival for DCS 
school, be in pay grade E-5 to 
E-7, have a GT score of 1 00 or 
higher and be a member of the 


active Army (not reserve com- 
ponent or AGR). For details call 
(DSN) 923-6011, extension 
2130, or e-mail jharrisl @ 

SFC James P. Harris 
Fort Meade, Md. 

Hero Remembered 

THANK you for "A Hero Re- 
membered" in the February 
Soldiers. I commend SGT Ja- 
son Dulberg for his research and 
effort in proposing PVT Fitz 
Lee's name for the Fort Leav- 
enworth theater. However, I feel 
there should have been a pic- 
ture of Lee on page 31 instead 
of just his tombstone. 

Golden Giddings 
via e-mail 

SINCE we wanted to com- 
memorate Lee along with an- 
other Spanish-American War 
hero, MG Leonard Wood, on that 
issue s back cover, we used the 
only photo we could find of Lee 
there instead of on page 31. 
Incidentally, several military or- 
ganizations are seeking better 
copies of this and other Fitz Lee 
photos. If you know where such 
photos can be found, please 
contact us. 

Female Pathfinder? Pay Charts Missing This Is Our Army 

Hit Hot Spots 

WOULD it be possible for Sol- 
diers to do a special edition to- 
tally dedicated to active and 
reserve units deployed to hot 
spots the world over? If you need 
photographers or journalists, 
you could send out a call for 
volunteers from various units to 
assist in this project. 

I really enjoy reading all the 
way through Soldiers when- 
ever I receive it; this was just an 
idea suggested by some fellow 
soldiers in my unit, the 24th Mili- 
tary Intelligence Bn. 

SPC Robert E. Riley 
Staten Island, N. Y. 

May 1999 

UPON review of the awards and 
uniform poster in The Soldiers 
Almanac I have two questions: 
(1 ) the female NCO is wearing a 
Pathfinder badge; are females 
allowed to attend that course? 
and (2) the male officer is show- 
ing his regimental crest left of 
center; is that on the correct 
side? Also, why aren't sweaters 
shown; almost nobody knows 
how to correctly wear things on 
the sweater. 

LJC Michael E Ellis 
via e-mail 

THE female NCO, currently 
assigned to U.S. Army Special 
Operations Command, is an 
airborne-qualified soldier who 
a ttended Pa th finder School and 
is authorized to wear the badge. 
The male officer wears his regi- 
mental crest off-center because 
the position of his foreign jump 
wings and unit awards cause the 
crest to be otherwise hidden 
behind the lapel (he had prior 
enlisted service). AR 670-1 al- 
lows for this in paragraph 27- 

We will take your sugges- 
tion for including the wear of 
sweaters under consideration 
for next year's almanac. 

TWO questions about the 1 999 
almanac: Why was the U.S. 
Army Civil Affairs and Psycho- 
logical Operations Command, at 
Fort Bragg, N.C., not included 
in your chart of Army organiza- 
tions? It carries a two-star com- 
mand billet and has more than 
7,000 Reservists assigned — 
not to mention it's the only Re- 
serve command with both Re- 
serve and active-Army units 
assigned to it. 

And question number two 
is about the pay charts — why 
are they not included in the al- 

Tim L. Winkler 
via e-mail 

UNITS listed on the poster were 
limited to major maneuver and 
support commands, but obvi- 
ously special operations forces 
area key part of the Army's force 
structure. We'll consider a 
change for next year, as we 
believe their contributions 
should be better recognized. As 
to pay charts, we no longer try 
to run them in January due to 
availability and printing lead 
time. Instead, we ran the pay 
charts as a center-spread pull- 
out in the February issue. 

THE 10th Mountain Division at 
Fort Drum, N.Y., is part of our 
Army. I saw a few soldiers from 
the division in the almanac is- 
sue, but the Our Army section 
contained seven pictures of the 
82nd Airborne Div. and none of 
the 10th Mountain. 

SFC M.S. Wheeler 
via e-mail 

THE "This Is Our Army" photos 
are the best we receive each 
year as part of the photo con- 
test; none from the 10th Mtn. 
Div. made the cut. Hopefully, 
people are taking pictures of the 
great things the 10th Mountain 
soldiers and families are doing 
now and will submit them for 
next year's almanac. The guide- 
lines for our next "This Is Our 
Army" are on pages 24 and 25. 

Soldiers is for soldiers and DA 
civilians. We invite readers' views. 
Stay under 150 words — a post 
card will do — and include your 
name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire 
and may condense your views be- 
cause of space. We can't publish 
or answer every one, but we'll use 
representative views. Write to: 
Feedback, Soldiers, 9325 Gun- 
ston Road, Ste. S108, Fort Bel- 
voir, VA 22060-5581, or e-mail: 

United States Government 

Oder Processing Code 


Credit card orders are welcome! 

Fax your orders (202) 512-2250 
Phone your orders (202) 512-1800 

| YES, please send subscriptions to: 

The total cost of my order is $ 

Pnce includes regular shipping & handling and >s subject to change 

Sf.-eet aCd-ess 

Soldiers (SOL) at $24 each ($30.00 foreign) per year. 

For privacy protection, check the box below: 

Do not make my name available to other mailers 
Check method of payment: 

Check payable to Superintendent of Documents 

I | GPO Deposit Account [ 

I | VISA MasterCard Discover 

Authorizing signature 

Mail to: Superintendent of Documents, PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250-7954 

Important: Please include this completed order form with your remittance. 

Thank you for your order! 

What's New 

Compiled by SFC John Brenci 

1 * 

, _^i Li LL. 

The XM-141 Bunker Defeat Munition is the first Army munition 
designed specifically to destroy bunkers. 

Though the XM-141 will defeat bunkers, it is also effective against 
triple-brick and concrete-block walls and armor. 

Picatinny Arsenal, N.J. 

Bunker Buster 

LIGHT fighters can now look 
forward to busting bunkers with 
a weapon specifically designed 
for that purpose, thanks to the 
fielding of the new 83mm XM- 
141 Bunker Defeat Munition by 
the U.S. Army Armament Re- 

search, Development and En- 
gineering Center at Picatinny 
Arsenal, N.J. 

Designed primarily to de- 
feat bunkers, the weapon is also 
highly effective against triple- 
brick and concrete block walls 
and armor. 

Until now light infantry, dis- 
mounted infantry and engineers 
engaged such targets using 
hand-placed satchel charges or 

Light Anti-armor Weapons, 
whose warheads were never 
designed for tackling bunkers. 

Since the BDM is a "dispos- 
able" munition, no dedicated 
gunner or maintenance is re- 
quired. The BDM weighs 15.7 
pounds, is 32 inches long in its 
carrying mode and has an ef- 
fective range of 15 to 500 
meters. It can be air-dropped on 
a pallet or by an individual and 
can mount a variety of night 

The weapon is an offshoot 
of the Marines' Shoulder- 
launched, Multi-purpose Assault 
Weapon, which is a dedicated 
weapon system in their infantry 
squads. The BDM is essentially 
a SM AW-Disposable or SM AW- 
D. The SMAW, with a round 
loaded for firing, weighs 29 
pounds compared to the BDM's 
total weight of 15.7 pounds. 

Due to funding shortfalls, 
only a limited number of rounds 
are available. They are stored 
on pallets, with training materi- 
als, and are available to contin- 
gency forces. 

Questions concerning the 
BDM can be directed to the 
ARDEC System Manager, 
David Burkhardt, at (DSN) 880- 
3510 or e-mail at dburkhar 
©pica. army. mil. — ARDEC 
Business Development Office 

Washington, D.C. 

Army Fields 

IN OCTOBER 1998 the Army 
was authorized to begin full de- 
ployment of the Standard Army 
Installation and Division Person- 
nel System Version 3.0, or 

SIDPERS-3, its most advanced 
personnel management sys- 
tem. The Department of De- 
fense authorization culminated 
eight years of effort in develop- 
ing the successor to the previ- 
ous personnel management 
system, SIDPERS-2. 

SIDPERS-2 has served the 
Army well since 1 972. However, 
as early as 1982, personnel 
planners realized the inherent 
limitations of the system. 
SIDPERS-2 was not designed 
to provide commanders and 
staff with real-time access to 
personnel information data- 

In addition, SIDPERS-2 
software is not Y2K-compliant 
and will not process transac- 
tions involving date calculations 
after Dec. 31, 1999, without 
major software recoding. 

and time-sensitive access prob- 
lems while modernizing the 
Army's personnel system ar- 
chitecture with a system that 
leverages the latest in commer- 
cially available hardware and 
software products. 

Redundancy is engineered 
throughout SIDPERS-3, with 
multiple database copies main- 
tained at each echelon and 
multiple modes of data trans- 
missions. This enables com- 
manders and staffs access to 
more information and greater 
personnel asset visibility. 

A number of major installa- 
tions have already received 
SIDPERS-3 and have been 
operating, in some cases, since 
1996 with the system as their 
primary means of processing 
personnel transactions. The 
rest of the Army will be operat- 

Upcoming Events 

(— May 1: Asian-Pacific 
American Heritage Month 

r— May 2: Best-Ranger Competition 
(April 30-May 2) Fort Benning, Ga. 

|— May 5: Exercise Cobra Gold in Thailand. 

; 1 , 

■ May 6: National I 
of Prayer. 

May History 



ional using SIDPERS-3 by Oc- 

Unit leaders and person- 
nel-support soldiers will get sev- 
eral weeks of training prior to 
actually converting to the new 
system. Once conversion is 
complete, installations will have 
at least 30 days of continued 
on-site technical support and 

LTC Jenna L. Noble, the 
SIDPERS-3 product manager, 
said she believes that, with field- 
ing approval in hand, the chal- 
lenge has shifted from system 
acceptance to getting the sys- 
tem fielded and operational be- 
fore the new millennium. 

Once the active Army is 
fielded, the Project Manager's 

Hot Army Website 

Army Correspondence 

Office will turn its attention to 
fielding the Army reserve com- 
ponents by 2002. The reserves 
have their own system that is 
used to manage reserve per- 
sonnel only. However, reserve- 
component units are given 
SIDPERS-3 equipment to sup- 
port the active components 
when the reserve components 
are mobilized. 

The next major modifica- 
tion will be the integration of 
SIDPERS-3 into DOD's corpo- 
rate personnel management 
system — the Defense Infor- 
mation Management Human 
Resources System — sched- 
uled for sometime in 2003. — 
Program Executive Office, Stan- 
dard Army Management Infor- 
mation Systems 


New Orleans, La. 

D-Day Museum Opens 
in 2000 

THE National D-Day Museum 
will open its doors in New Or- 
leans on the 56th anniversary 
of the Normandy invasion, June 
6, 2000. 

The new museum will tell 
the story of what some consider 
the most decisive event of the 
20th century: June 6, 1 944, the 
day that American, British, Ca- 
nadian and Free French forces 
landed on the beaches of 

Although the museum's 
opening is more than a year 
away, the institution's funding 
is 85 percent complete with $1 2 

THE Army Correspondence Course Program's 
website proves that technology is taking Army 
professional development out of the dark ages. 

Soldiers may now register and enroll for 
professional development correspondence 
courses online at 

The website offers a catalog of all of the 
available correspondence courses in DA PAM 
351 -20. Once you find a course you want to take, 
you can enroll online. The Army Institute of Pro- 
fessional Development sends you an e-mail mes- 
sage confirming your enrollment and the mailing 
of your first subcourse. 

You must be currently enrolled in a course or 
subcourse to register, which allows you to access 
your student records and take online exams. The 
site also offers fou r courses and seven subcou rses 
that can be taken completely online. You do not 
need to be enrolled in a course to register for the 
online courses. — AIPD 

i 1! 

Welcome To The 
Armv Correspondence Course Program (ACCP) Informalion 


million in contributions received 
so far. Donations from such 
patrons as Steven Spielberg, 
Tom Hanks, Tim Forbes, former 
President George Bush and 
other private, corporate, state 
and federal sources have en- 
abled the planning to continue 
on schedule. 

"This museum will celebrate 
the famous Normandy invasion, 
but it will also portray all the 
other World War II invasions 
undertaken by the Army, Navy, 
Air Force, Marines and Coast 
Guard," said Dr. Gordon 
Mueller, elected chairman of the 

To raise funds for the mu- 
seum, organizers developed the 
innovative Road to Victory brick 
campaign. Personalized bricks 
sold through the campaign will 
aid in the construction and be- 
come part of a permanent col- 
lection located on the main floor 
of the museum. 

For more information on the 
museum and its programs, call 
(504) 525-1544. — The 
Ehrhardt Group 

May 9: 

Mother's Dai 

" May 8: Battle of the Coral Sea. 1942. First 
sea battle waged entirely by aircraft. 

-May 9: VE Day 1945. War in Europe ends 
after Germany's surrender to the Allies. 


V^^k Mexico 

May 1 3: Congress declares war 
on Mexico in 1846. 

May 15: Armed 
Forces Day. 

'- May 1 4: Meriwether Lewis and CPT William Clar 
explore a route to the Pacific, 1804. 

May 1999 


What's New 


urn* ii ifflBiMS^HMaJl^^^B 

■ ■ i«^H 


BeaEfSi:'''!,^ 1 ' 

^■^ * k. 



t 4*lii 


K W 


Center of Military History and 
the Office of the Inspector Gen- 

"The Inspectors General of 
the United States Army 1903- 
1 939" is the companion work to 
"The Inspectors General of the 
United States Army 1 777-1 903" 
and continues the story of the 
activities and concerns of the 
Inspector General's Depart- 
ment and its corps of inspec- 

The book covers a dynamic 
period during which the Indian- 
fighting Army became a mod- 
ern force, fought in a large war 
overseas, and dealt with demo- 
bilization and the Great Depres- 

More importantly, the study 
documents the key role played 
by Army IGs in the codification 
of "lessons learned" and the 
development of doctrine in an 
era of rapid technological and 
organizational change. 

The book is available to 
Army publication account hold- 
ers by submitting requests 
through command channels to 
the Army's Distribution Opera- 
tions Facility, 1655 Woodson 
Road, St. Louis, MO 63114- 
61 81 . Army publication account 
holders may requisition up to 
25 copies. CMH can approve 
larger numbers for official edu- 
cational, training, or profes- 
sional development purposes. 

A Fort Benning Mobile Training Team taught advanced marks- 
manship skills to 32 soldiers in Bosnia. 

Fort Benning, Ga. 

Trains Snipers 

THREE service-rifle shooters 
from the U.S. Army Marksman- 
ship Unit recently spent 20 days 
in Bosnia training snipers for 
the Army. 

USAMU shooters SSG 
Grant Singley, SGT Emil 
Praslick III and SGT Kyle Ward 
joined personnel from the 
Ranger Training Brigade, the 
29th Infantry Regiment and the 
Dismounted Battlespace Battle 
Lab in conducting counter- 
sniper training in Bosnia. 

The team provided ad- 
vanced marksmanshiptraining, 
sniping and fieldcrafttechniques 
to 30 soldiers from the 1 st Cav- 
alry Division of Fort Hood, 
Texas, and two from the 10th 
Mountain Div. of Fort Drum, N.Y. 

The soldiers were trained 
in engaging stationary targets, 
sniper employment and marks- 
manship training on the M-24 
sniper system, which was 
prototyped and tested by the 
USAMU Custom Firearms 

The service-rifle shooters, 
along with USAMU gunsmith 
SGT Robert DeWitt and two 
soldiers from the 75th Ranger 
Regiment, also went to Fort 
Hood to train 30 soldiers of the 
1st Cav. Div. preparing to de- 
ploy to Bosnia. — USAMU PAO 

Washington, D.C. 

IG Book Now 

A NEW book on the inspectors 
general of the Army is now avail- 
able and is a collaborative effort 
published by the U.S. Army 

Roosevelt's Record Reviewed 

THEODORE Roosevelt's record of valor in the Spanish- 
American War is currently being reviewed by the Army to 
determine if he should be posthumously recommended for 
the award of the Medal of Honor. 

The public is invited to submit information about 
Roosevelt's battlefield courage in the attack on San Juan 
Heights. The Army wants to ensure that it has all available 
information that may help determine whether Roosevelt should 
be awarded the Medal of Honor. 

The U.S. Army Center of Military History is accepting 
submissions through May 31, 1999. Upon the completion of 
the public comment period, an independent panel of histori- 
ans will review the submissions and provide a formal report on 
Roosevelt's valor. The secretary or the Army will provide a 
recommendation on this matter to the president. 

Public submissions should be written and sent to: 

Roosevelt MOH Panel 

U.S. Army Center of Military History 

103 Third Avenue, Building 35 

Fort Lesley J. McNair 

Washington, DC 20319-5058 

Public submissions must be received no later than May 
31 to be considered. — Army Public Affairs 


May 16: Running for Fitness Week 

May 18: National Bike-to-Work Day. 


May 21: National Defense 
Transportation Day. 

L May 21: Charles Lindbergh lands in Paris, 
completing first nonstop Atlantic flight, 1927. 



Requisitions for CMH pub- 
lications can be transmitted 
electronically to the U.S. Army 
Publishing Agency's host sys- 
tem at 

The book is also available 
through the Government Print- 
ing Office by calling (202) 512- 
1 800, faxing (202) 51 2-2250 or 
contacting the GPO Superin- 
tendent of Documents, PO Box 
371954, Pittsburgh, PA 15250- 

Current GPO prices for the 
book are $40 cloth (GPO order 

number 008-029-00347-3) and 
$32 trade paperback (GPO or- 
der number 008-029-00348-1 ). 
— U.S. Army Center of Military 

Indianapolis, Ind. 

Medal of Honor 

THE nation's first memorial spe- 
cifically honoring all recipients 
of the Medal of Honor is sched- 
uled to be dedicated in down- 

Election News 

Slogan Contest Announced 

SOLDIERS, family members and federal workers have until 
July 6 to enter a voting slogan contest for the 2000 elections. 

Slogans will be rated on originality and motivational 
value. The winner and runners-up will receive certificates of 
recognition from Secretary of Defense William Cohen. 

The winning slogan will be featured in the voting program's 
2000-2001 media campaign. Voter program officials also 
plan to use the winning slogan on their website at, intheir2000-2001 Voting Assistance Guide, 
and in other publications and manuals. 

Contestants may enter as many times as they wish, but 
each entry must be submitted separately. Send entries by e- 
mail to vote © orfax them to (703) 588-01 08 or (DSN) 
425-0108. You may also mail entries to: 

Federal Voting Assistance Program 

Attn: Voting Slogan Contest 

Washington Headquarters Services 

1155 Defense 

Washington, DC 20301-1155 

All submissions must include your full name, service (if 
military), mailing address, daytime telephone number, fax 
number and e-mail address (if applicable). If submitting by 
mail or fax, type or print information on plain letter-sized 

For more information, e-mail Matthew Knefel at, or call (800) 438-8683 toll-free in the United 
States, or commercial (703) 588-1584. — American Forces 
Press Service 

town Indianapolis May 28. 

The memorial will feature 
27 curved-glass panels etched 
with the names, branches of 
service and locations of the 
heroic actions of the 3,410 
people who have received the 
nation's highest award for mili- 
tary valor. 

Reaching seven to 10 feet 
in height, the walls represent 
the 15 conflicts in which acts of 
bravery resulted in the award- 
ing of the Medal of Honor. 

Steps, benches and a 
grassy area will provide seating 
for visitors. Each day at dusk, 
the memorial's sound system 
will play recorded stories of 
medal winners or the conflicts 
in which they fought. 

Major construction of the 
memorial began in January with 
the pouring of the foundation 
for the memorial's walls. 

IPALCO Enterprises, an 
Indianapolis-based energy 
company, is contributing the 
memorial — including design, 

construction and future mainte- 
nance — as a gift to the medal 
recipients and the country. 

"As a symbol of heroism, 
the Medal of Honor has no equal 
in American life," said IPALCO 
Chairman John Hodowal. "The 
individuals who received this 
medal for acts of valor have 
been singled out not to glorify 
war, but to recognize that war is 
often the backdrop for extraor- 
dinary acts of bravery. This 
memorial will give these heroes 
the recognition they deserve." 

The location of the memo- 
rial is particularly appropriate 
because it's adjacent to Military 
Park, which served as a pris- 
oner-of-war camp during the 
Civil War. Nearly half of the 
Medals of Honor issued were 
given to soldiers who fought in 
that conflict. 

Ninety-eight of the 160 liv- 
ing Medal of Honor recipients 
are scheduled to take part in the 
dedication ceremony. — 
IPALCO Enterprises 

J- V 

This artist's rendition of the Medal of Honor Memorial shows how 
the 27 curved-glass panels will look. 

|— May 24: The Army Explosive Ord- 
~~n nance Disposal Competitions are held 
' 'ay 24-28. 

May 23: South Carolina becomes 8th 
state to ratify the constitution, 1788. 

May 1999 

-May 29: USMA graduation 
exercises, West Point, N.Y. 

-May 30: Memorial Day 
(observed on May 31). 



Special-Care N 


Story and Photos by Heike Hasenauer 

CW3 Paul Jacobs, a pilot 
assigned to the Fort Belvoir, 
Va. -based 12th Aviation 
Battalion, and his wife, Jill, had 
triplets in 1992 while Paul was sta- 
tioned at Fort Hood, Texas. 

Before Jill gave birth, the couple 
imagined magical days of being new 
parents again; their daughter, Sarah, 
was already five. Paul was halfway 
through his military career. 

Their family was healthy. Life was 
good. Soldiers at Paul's unit joked 
when Jill visited her husband. "There 
goes Jake's brigade," they had teased 
good-naturedly. She and Paul were 
lighthearted and filled with anticipa- 

"We planned to buy a big vehicle 
and walk the babies around in a triplet 
stroller," Jill said. 

Then their lives took a 180-degree 

Because the triplets were born three 
months premature, Emma, the tiniest, 
weighed less than two pounds. She 
died 10 hours later. Doctors told the 
couple that Collin and Laura might be 
afflicted with cerebral palsy. 

It's not something doctors can 
determine immediately, Paul said. 
"They know it only after children fail 
to meet developmental 

Cerebral palsy 
manifests itself 
differently from one 
person to the next, Jill 
said. "Laura has 
spastic diplegia that 
affects the lower 
limbs, basically her 
legs. In her case, the 
disability hasn't 
affected Laura's 
cognitive abilities and 

She learned to 
walk with leg braces 
and a walker and now 
walks independently, 
thanks to the twice- 

Jill Jacobs helps her son, Colin, 
"talk" via his augmentative commu- 
nication device. 

yearly injections of Botulinum toxin she 
receives at Walter Reed Army Medical 
Center in Washington, D.C. The 
injections paralyze too-tight muscles in 
her legs, giving Laura the flexibility she 
needs to walk, Jill said. 

"At first, you don't see that Laura 
has a disability," Jill added. She speaks 
and walks. But an offshoot of the palsy 
is strabismus; she's cross-eyed. Her 
eyes work independently of each other, 
affecting not only her vision, but her 
balance as well. 

Collin's cerebral palsy is more 
significant, said Jill. "I don't like to say 
'more severe' because that's negative." 
Collin moves about via his electric 
wheelchair and uses an augmentative 
communication device to "talk." The 
size of a laptop computer, its touch- 
screen images allow him to simply 
press a picture to communicate. At 
supper-time, he can push a button that 
tells his family he wants more to eat. 

Early on, doctors categorized Jill's 
pregnancy as a troubled one, and Paul's 
chain of command got involved, 
allowing him to extend his minimum- 
assignment tour at Fort Hood from two 
years to three. 

Then, when Collin and Laura were 
three, Paul departed on a one-year 

unaccompanied tour 
to Egypt. After seven 
months, Jill urged 
him to come home. 
Paul's chain of 
command considered 
his needs, and he 
returned to help his 

"I became 
overwhelmed," Jill 
said. "Initially, I had 
nursing care 20 
hours a week and 
two hours a week of 
respite care. Social 
Security disability 
had paid $240 
toward expenses." 
But suddenly. 

May 1999 


due to changes in the couple's 
financial status — Paul's 
pay in Egypt was tax-free 
and he got danger pay — 
those resources were no 
longer available. 

Jill, now a consultant 
to civil rights organiza 
tions on issues dealing 
with children with 
disabilities, said: 
"As a social worker, 
I had the resources 
that should have 
made the situation 
as easy as it could 
be. But it wasn't. 

"When you have 
children, you think 
you're going to be 
able to take care 
of them. When 

found out I couldn't care for 
them myself, I felt like a 
failure," she said. 

"So how is it for the wife 
of a private, whose primary 
language is Spanish, and 
who's caring for an excep- 
tional family member 
while he's on assignment 
in Bosnia?" 

Without a program 
like the Army's 
Exceptional Family 
Member Program 
[see related story], it 
could be devastating. 
Tod Dewey 
Brundage II is 6. He was 

Laura Jacobs' cerebral palsy 
s less significant than her 
brother's, but it affects her bal- 
ance and vision. 

born with bladder extrophy, meaning 
his bladder was on the outside of his 
body, said his dad, Active-Guard- 
Reserve special operations medic SFC 
Tod Brundage. Brundage is assigned to 
Headquarters Company, U.S. Army 
Garrison, Fort Myer. Va. 

Brundage said that one in every 
30,000 American children is born with 
the birth defect each year. It does make 
Dewey different. "Doctors basically 
had to build him a bladder," his father 

At age 2, they put his bladder back 
inside his body. But without the 
sphincter muscles that contract to close 
off the flow of urine, he still wears 
"pull-ups" (diaper-like underpants) to 
catch urine that leaks from a small 
opening below his navel. 

Takeya, 3, the daughter of Kelley 
and SSG Vincent Harris, a White 

Helping Families Cope 

Heike Hasenauer 

THE Army's Exceptional Family 
Member Program is open to 
family members of active-duty 
soldiers; Army Reserve soldiers in the 
USAR-Active Guard Reserve program 
and other Reservists on active duty 
exceeding 30 days; and Army National 
Guard AGR personnel serving under 
authority of Title 10 of the U.S. Code. 

The program, at the installation 
level, is coordinated and managed by 
Army Community Service, which 
chairs EFMP committees. 

The committees include medical 
personnel, school officials and repre- 
sentatives from military personnel, 
child and youth services, installation 
housing, public affairs, Staff Judge 
Advocate offices and others. 

According to a Total Army Person- 
nel Command official, exceptional 
family members' problems range from 
cancer, diabetes and asthma to muscu- 
lar dystrophy, Down's syndrome, 
chronic arthritis, hearing impairment 
and blindness. 

Others suffer psychiatric problems. 
The list includes Attention Deficit 
Disorder, hyperactivity or any other 
condition that requires treatment by a 
pediatrician or counselor. Premature 
babies may also be enrolled, said 
Shirley Brown, of the Army Commu- 
nity and Family Support Center in 
Alexandria, Va. 

"An exceptional family member is 
an authorized family member with any 
physical, emotional, developmental or 
intellectual disorder that requires 
special treatment, therapy, education, 
training or counseling," Brown said. 

EFMP is the Army's way of caring 
for these people and for relieving some 
of soldiers' anxiety about their well- 
being by providing medical, educa- 
tional and community support services. 

Tod Dewey Brundage II, age 6, 
takes care of his own special need by 
changing the pull-up diapers he must 
wear, as necessary, said his mom, 

But by enrolling Dewey in EFMP, 

his parents were able to enroll him in a 
special class at Fort Belvoir Elemen- 
tary School, in Virginia, with other 
disabled children. 

"EFMP gets him to interact with the 
other kids and shows him that he can 

EFMP enrollment is important because it 
helps ensure soldiers are assigned to 
areas where special services are available. 



House Communications Center radio 
repairman, was horn two months 
premature. On a respirator at birth, 
Takeya suffered lung 
damage that predisposed 
her to numerous medical 
conditions, including 
chronic bouts of pneumo- 

Additionally, she 
suffers from asthma, was 
diagnosed with epilepsy 
when she was a year old 
and can experience such 
anaphylactic reactions as 
collapsed lungs if she 
consumes fish, milk, peas, 
peanuts and some other 
common foods and 

"When she gets a cold, 
we 20 straight to steroids," 

Colin Jacobs gets 
plenty of attention 
from his older sister, 

Kelley said. It's also standard proce- 
dure for Takeya to inhale various 
medications three times daily to help 
her lungs stay open. Inhal- 
ants minimize her chances 
of having asthma attacks as 

Laura, Collin, Dewey 
and Takeya are among some 
40,000 exceptional family 
members Armywide, said 
officials of the Army 
Community and Family 
Support Center in Alexan- 
dria, Va., the Army's EFMP 

Special-care situations 
like theirs pose potentially 
significant problems not 
only for the exceptional 
family member, but for their 
parents or guardians and, 

do things like go swimming, bowling 
and participate in arts and crafts, 
despite the fact that he has something 
debilitating."' said his dad, SFC Tod 
Brundage, an Active-Guard-Reserve 
soldier assigned to Headquarters 
Company, U.S. Army Garrison, Fort 
Myer. Va. 

"'And it's not just a program for the 
exceptional child," he said. "It's a good 
support group for the entire family." 

In another case, "EFMP intervened 
when the child-development center on 
post wouldn't take Takeya because of 
her allergies." said her mother. Kelley 
Harris. "With the help of Fort Belvoir's 
EFMP manager. Alma Keating, 
administrators at the center agreed they 
could care for Takeya after all." 

It means Kelley pre-cooks and 
brings to the CDC all the food Takeya 
consumes. And to ensure her safety, 
care-givers took training on what to do 
if Takeya accidentally eats or drinks 
something she shouldn't. 

"Sometimes you think, 'Oh, my 

God. I'm the only person with a 
problem like this,'" Kelley said. 
"When you're going through an 
especially stressful time, you think no 
one else is having to deal with any- 
thing like what you're dealing with. 
But by participating in EFMP and 
being exposed to other families, you 
know you're not alone." 

Through the program. Kelley and 
her husband have learned what avenues 
they can use for help. "And we re- 
cently enrolled in respite care," Kelley 
said. "The people who come to care for 
Takeya several hours a week are all 
CPR certified." 

Through EFMP, Army personnel 
officials consider the exceptional 
family member's needs in the assign- 
ment process, too. Soldiers can be 
assured that the Army is not allowed to 
deny them an assignment because 
facilities to treat special needs of a 
family member are not available where 
his or her MOS is needed. Brown said. 

The Army can deny family travel 

ultimately, for the Army as well. 

"You can't concentrate on being a 
good soldier when you know your 
child's oxygen has run out and another 
tank won't be delivered until tomorrow, 
or you know your child needs a heart 
specialist and none is available," said 

EFMP works to ensure that children 
enrolled in the program don't have to 
live each day feeling different or out of 
place, and that their parents don't have to 
feel overwhelmed and alone. □ 

EFMP is the Army's way of caring for 

people with special needs and for 

relieving some of soldiers ' anxiety 

about their well-being. 

Soldiers should enroll family members in 
EFMP as soon as they become aware of a 
potential problem. 

for lack of medical care, not for lack of 
special-education services. A process 
has been developed to assist in the 
assignment of soldiers to overseas 
areas where appropriate special- 
education services are available. 

"We want to assign soldiers to 
areas where the Army has facilities to 
serve families with special needs," 
Brown said. But MOS requirements 
around the world still drive assign- 
ments. Sometimes, soldiers with 
exceptional family members must be 
sent on unaccompanied tours. 

"We must sometimes deny family 
travel overseas for medical reasons, if 

May 1999 


The Army must sometimes deny family travel overseas 
for such medical reasons as nonavailability of adequate 
follow-up care or the severity of a particular illness. 

intensive follow-up support for cancer 
patients, for example, is not available, 
or the family member's mental health 
condition is so severe that weekly 
psychotherapy sessions would not be 
available," Brown said. 

"When that happens, it is the 
family's decision about where they will 
reside while the soldier is serving the 
overseas assignment," Brown said. 

EFMP families can be sure their 
children receive appropriate education 
and therapy. EFMP is based on federal 
laws that promote the well-being of 
children so they may lead productive 

EFMP also provides advocacy 
services to familiarize families with 
their rights and responsibilities under 
federal law, respite care to temporarily 
relieve the family of constant care- 
giving, and ACS-sponsored recre- 

ational and cultural 
programs to build bodies 
and self-esteem. 

All soldiers with 
exceptional family mem- 
bers must enroll them in 
the program. Enrollment, 
optional when EFMP was 
created in 1978, became 
mandatory in 1986. 

Soldiers who receive 
overseas orders must have 
their family members 
screened for potential 
disabilities and chronic 
illnesses by contacting the 
EFMP point of contact at 
the nearest Army medical 
facility. Screening includes 
a medical records check to 
follow up on any earlier 
treatment, said Fort 

\Belvoir EFMP manager 
Alma Keating. 

Children age 6 and 
under take a test of their 
motor skills. It's not an IQ 
test, but a measure of 
hand-eye coordination to determine if a 
pediatrician should further examine the 
child, said Dr. Robert Kugel, EFMP 
medical director at Fort Bel voir' s 
Dewitt Army Community Hospital. 

Following the screenings, eligible 
family members are enrolled in EFMP. 
EFMP participants are permanently 
enrolled in the program unless medical 
or special-education needs warrant case 
closure or the soldier is separated from 
the Army. Soldiers are responsible for 
keeping the medical and special- 
education needs documentation current 
as the condition of the exceptional 
family member changes or at least 
every three years, whichever comes 

Unfortunately, soldiers sometimes 
wait until the last minute to have their 
family members screened. "The 
majority of soldiers with an excep- 

tional family member continue to be 
identified when they're scheduled to go 
outside the continental United States 
because family-member screening is 
mandatory before OCONUS moves," 
Brown said. 

If problems surface at that point, it 
may be too late for officials to defer 

For more information about the 
program contact the EFMP manager at 
your installation. □ 

Looking Beyond 
the EFMP 

CW3 Paul Jacobs and his wife, Jill, 
strongly urge parents who have chil- 
dren with disabilities to look for support 
services above and beyond what EFMP 

EFMP managers at their respec- 
tive installations didn't always have ac- 
cess to a database of support services 
and organizations in their area, Jill said. 
Jill learned that United Cerebral Palsy 
of Northern Virginia isn't far from Fort 
Belvoir, where she and her family live. 
Shriners, an organization that provides 
cost-free equipment, like prostheses, 
is located in Pennsylvania. 

Paul would like to see the day when 
host EFMP families are a part of the 
process to ease families with excep- 
tional family members into a commu- 
nity and connect them with all the spe- 
cial care providers they will need. 

He's currently working with another 
soldier in his unit whose child has can- 
cer. 'Through EFMP, we're trying to get 
the family a different house on post, 
one that has two bathrooms. Because 
the child is undergoing chemotherapy, 
he often is nauseated, and he's much 
more susceptible to infections." — 
Heike Hasenauer 



Around the Services 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

Senior Master Sgt. Tom Westermeyer leads 
Air Force ranger hopefuls on a 1 2-mile road 
march during pre-ranger screening. 

USAFE Airmen Prepare 
for Ranger School 

Sembach Air Base, Germany 

— Ten airmen here recently 
completed a four-day pre- 
ranger screening class to earn 
nominations to attend the Air 
Force Pre-Ranger Course at 
Nellis Air Force Base, Nev. 
Passing that course will make 
them candidates for the U.S. 
Army Ranger School at Fort 
Benning, Ga. Upon graduat- 
ing, they would earn Army 
ranger tabs. 

'The pre-ranger and ranger 
courses allow airmen to experi- 
ence leadership challenges that 
they would not normally en- 
counter in their day-to-day du- 
ties," said Air Force Capt. Chris 
Bargery, Sembach's Security 
Forces Training Flight com- 
mander and one of five ranger- 
qualified members of the unit. 
'The confidence and tactical 
competence that they take back 
to their units after completing 
these training courses raise the 
standard of the entire unit." 

During the course the air- 
men received training on pa- 
trolling, weapon systems and 
soldier skills. They were also 
certified for the Army Physical 
Fitness Test, combat water- 
survival test, land navigation/ 
terrain association, 1 2-mile ruck 

march, five-mile 
run and more. 

For their fit- 
ness evaluation, 
they were tested 
against the stan- 
dards for the pre- 
ranger course, 
which is slightly 
higher than the 
Ranger School's 
APFT. Besides a 
two-mile run in 
14:30 minutes or 
less, they had to 
do 55 push-ups 
and 65 sit-ups (compared to 
running two miles in 14:54 and 
doing 52 push-ups and 62 sit- 
ups for the APFT). 

"If they can pass with these 
standards, then they know they 
should have no problems pass- 
ing the Army PT test at Ranger 
School," Westermeyer said. — 
Tech. Sgt. Ann Bennett, Air 
Force Print News 

Coalition Aircraft 
Bomb Iraq 

Incirlik Air Base, Turkey — 

U.S. F-15Es dropped 30-plus 
2,000-pound and 500-pound la- 
ser-guided bombs on Iraqi com- 
munications sites, radio-relay 
sites and anti-aircraft artillery 
sites March 1 in response to 
several incidents of Iraqi radar 
targeting coalition aircraft while 
they were conducting routine 
enforcement of the northern no- 
fly zone. 

The inci- 
dents hap- MosuI « 


No-fly zone 




enforce the 
northern no-fly 
zone above the 
36th parallel in 

Iraq. There was no damage to 
coalition aircraft. Forces as- 
signed to Operation Northern 
Watch continue to enforce the 
northern no-fly zone. 

Operation Northern Watch 
is a combined task force 
charged with enforcing the no- 
fly zone north of the 36th paral- 
lel in Iraq and monitoring Iraqi 
compliance with United Nations 
Security Council resolutions 
678, 687 and 688. 

The United States and 
United Kingdom provide ap- 
proximately 45 aircraft and 
more than 1 ,400 personnel to 
support Operation Northern 
Watch. The joint U.S. force in- 
cludes soldiers, sailors, airmen 
and marines, all operating as 
part of the United States Euro- 
pean Command. 

Operation Northern Watch 
is headquartered at Incirlik Air 
Base, Turkey. — European 
Command Public A f fairs Office 

Army Sweeps Boxing 

Kelly AFB, Texas — Top mili- 
tary fighters gathered for a 
three-night slugfest — the 
Armed Forces Boxing Champi- 
onships — Feb. 10-12. In the 
end, the All-Army Boxing team 
walked away as the undisputed 
team champions with 20 points 
and eight gold medals out of a 
possible 12. 

When the bell signaled the 
start of the championship bouts, 
the Army team had fighters in 
10 of 12 divisions — two had 
been eliminated during pre- 
liminary bouts. 

The following Army box- 
ers won gold med- 
als in their divi- 

i,sions: SPC John 

I Medina, 112- 
pound; PFC Ja- 
son Franco, 119- 
pound; SGT Corey Ber- 
nard, 139-pound; SPC James 

J < 

Webb, 147-pound; SGT Julius 
Fogle, 1 65-pound; SGT Olanda 
Anderson, 178-pound; and 
SPC Preston Hartzog, 201- 
pound. SPC Hong Gu earned a 
silver in the 125-pound class. 

Two marines also earned 
gold medals. Cpl. Orlando 
Cordova Jr., won the 125- 
pound class, and Sgt. Henry A. 
Markin won the 156-pound 
class. Both are stationed at 
Camp Lejeune, N.C. Other Le- 
jeune marines came away with 
silver medals: Sgt. Matthew L. 
Winters, 112-pound; Cpl. 
Felson D. Perez, 139-pound; 
Lance Cpl. JawawnL. Hairston, 
147-pound; and Lance Cpl. 
Tony O. Scoggins, 201 -pound. 

The Air Force took one gold 
and four silver medals. Airman 
Malcolm E. Tann, Minot Air 
Force Base, S.D., earned the 
top spot in the 201 -pound divi- 

SPC James Webb lands a 
punch during the 147-pound 
final championship bout. 

sion. Airman Albert Villaruel, 
Moody AFB, Ga., won the sil- 
ver in the 119-pound class. 
Capt. Ellis Johnson, Kelly AFB, 
Texas, took the 132-pound 
class silver. Staff Sgt. Michael 
A. Frazier, Tinker AFB Okla., 
earned the silver in the 156- 
pound class. And Capt. Joseph 
S. Pastorello, Los Angeles AFB, 
Calif., won the silver medal in 
the 178-pound class. 

Navy Petty Officer 3rd 
Class Backlin Medrano of the 
USS John F. Kennedy won the 
gold medal in the 132-pound 
class. — Michael Kastre 

May 1999 


For those interested in 
bicycling, May is the time 
to get started. . . 

Story by 

LTC Albert Morton Archibald Jr. 

T'S rush hour. The sun is sparkling 
off the lagoon, and the sound of 
Pacific surf mixes with the voices of 
Kwajalein's citizens headed to work 
or school. 

On many of these early mornings, 
the traffic is mostly "Frequent Flyers" 
— the scientists, engineers and other 
personnel rushing on bicycles to make 
the commuter flight to Roi-Namur 
island, 50 miles to the north. Once 
there, most will get on their second 
land vehicle — also a bicycle — and 
ride to the office. 

Modes of transportation usually 
indicate a person's status in society, 
but not at the U.S. Army Kwajalein 
Atoll/Kwajalein Missile Range. Here 
soldiers, scientists and children all ride 
bicycles to work or play. 

"On an island 2 1/2 miles long 
and 1/2 mile wide, you can go 
from home to work or shopping 
in less than 10 minutes, and 
always find a place to park," 

said KMR's deputy commander, LTC 
Rick Donahue. "More than 100 inches 
of rain each year is an inconvenience, 
but bicycles, umbrellas and rain coats 
seem to mix very well." 

But commuters on Kwajalein Atoll 
aren't unique in their reliance on two- 
wheeled transportation. Many Army 
installations have large bicycling 

"Bicycles offer soldiers a flexibility 
that motor vehicles can't provide," said 
Redstone Arsenal's deputy staff judge 
advocate, MAJ Steven Butler, explain- 
ing why so many people on the instal- 
lation in Huntsville, Ala., peddle to 

"They can lower 
the cost of driving 
their cars by 

premiums, gas consumption and 
maintenance costs," Butler said. "Also, 
parking is always easier and on-post 
commutes here are usually short. 

"Military streets are friendlier and 
speed limits lower, and traffic laws are 
more strictly enforced on a military 
installation," he said, explaining why 
bicycling is so popular in military 

"Many military members enjoy 
cycling as a fitness activity," said Air 
Force Lt. Col. Stu Carter. "Others 
enjoy it for the pursuit of sporting 
competition, and still others to take 
time to smell the roses." 

Carter is captain of the Air 
Force cycling team called "Team 
Aim High," whose members ride 
in the annual 500-mile event 
known as Register's Annual 
Great Bicycle Ride Across 

RAGBRAI claims to 

LTC Albert Morton Archibald Jr. is an 
Army Reserve officer and a Defense De- 
partment civilian employee at Redstone 
Arsenal, Ala. 

Bicycling is an increasingly popular pastime for soldiers looking for both fun and exercise. 



he the oldest sponsored cycling event 
in North America. It's a week-long trek 
broken into daily 75-mile rides through 
steep hills and some of the hottest 
weather the Midwest has to offer. 

Speaking of RAGBRAI. Carter 
said: "Riders average over 25 miles per 
hour. Some enjoy seeing who can get 
to the next night's campsite first. Some 
like riding with teammates and friends 
or mingling with the other 15.000 
riders, and others are there just to get 
aw ay from their daily routines." 

"In addition to allow ing us to focus 
on a fitness-centered lifestyle that we 
tend to develop in military culture, 
hiking allows us to slow down the pace 
of life." said CW5 Jake Stevens of 
FORSCOM and a veteran of Bicycle 
Across Magnificent Alabama. "Amid 
our daily work routines and then 
coming home to the nightly news, we 
often lose the perspective that there 
still is an America out there, with 
mostly friendly people; and in the rural 
areas, a beautiful environment to enjoy. 
Bike tours help me get back to that 
other America out there, off the 

The Rails-to-Trails Conservancy, a 
national trails-and-greenways move- 
ment, has helped to build this enthusi- 
asm for biking by creating a nation- 
wide network of public trails from 
former railroad lines. People of all 
backgrounds and abilities use these 
rail-trails for a wide range of recreation 
and transportation activities. There are 
1.006 documented rail-trails, totaling 
10,362 miles, in 49 states. Another 
20.000 miles of trail are under con- 
struction or in planning. 

Many of the trails are on or near 
military installations. The Redstone 
Arsenal Physical Fitness Trail connects 
the Marshal Space Flight Center with 
the Army missile school. Most of the 
route is along an old railroad bed. 

Florida's Blackwater trail — from 
the city of Milton through Whiting 
Field to Blackwater State Park — is 
used mostly by service members and 
their families. The New Santa Fe Trail 
in Colorado Springs attracts both 
soldiers from Fort Carson and faculty 
and students from the Air Force 

For anyone who moves frequently 
due to reassignments or job changes, 
joining a local bike club is a good way 
to make friends in a new location. 

"Five years ago the company I 
work for sent me on a long business 

A New Link in the Trail 

A SPECIAL Rails-to-Trails effort in New England has matched National 
Guard soldiers in Rhode Island and Connecticut in a race inspired by a 
competition that ended 130 years ago. 

Celebrated May 10, 1869, the driving of the golden spike at Promontory 
Point, Utah, signaled the joining of the Central and Union Pacific railroads in 
a symbolic linking that brought the United States a step closer to having a 
transcontinental railroad. 

The modern east-west effort is about tearing up rusted rails and rotted ties 
and grooming many miles of the unused Washington Secondary Railroad for 
use as a trail for people who want to walk, run and ride bicycles along one of 
America's forgotten byways. 

The Guard soldiers have been working toward their states' common 
border since October 1997, prompted by a friendly challenge between 
Connecticut Gov. John Rowland and Rhode Island Gov. Lincoln Almond. 

"The terrain is hard and hilly. This is not an easy project," said Maj. John 
Whitford, Connecticut's public affairs spokesman. 

The two governors met in Green, R.I., a mile from the states' border, on 
Oct. 19 and commemorated the joint project by hammering home a silver 
spike. — MSG Bob Haskell, National Guard Bureau Public Affairs Office, 
Alexandria, Va. 

trip from Huntsville to 
Philadelphia," said Morgan 
Andriulli, president of 
Huntsville's 107-year-old 
Spring City Cycling Club. "I 
didn't know a soul, but after 
meeting some of the local 
riders, we ended up being 
pretty good friends who still 
have contact to this day." 

Andriulli said the 
primary benefit to joining a 
club is meeting other cyclists. "And 
you immediately have the inside line 
on the good rides and routes in the 
area," he said. "Racers meet racers. 
Tourists meet tourists. Mountain 
bikers meet mountain bikers. You 
have an immediate association with 
those who share your interests. And 
for new riders, it really helps to 
make the learning curve a lot less 

For those interested in bicycling, 
May is the time to get started, since 
local clubs will be running ads 
seeking new members or announcing 
coming events for National Bicycle 
Month or Bike-to-Work Day on May 
18. The mild spring temperatures 
also make this a good time to get 
out, enjoy the changing season and 
get a jump on summer. □ 

Getting Started 

EACH of these Internet sites has in- 
formation about bicycling activities or 

*J Rails-to-Trails: 
^ Local clubs or Effective Cycling 
Q) Equipment on sale at AAFES: 
Q) National Bicycle Tour Directors 
Q Bicycle Across Magnificent Alabama: 
i^ Bike Ride Across Georgia: 
Q Register's Annual Great Bicycle Ride 
Across Iowa: 

May 1999 



Compiled by Gil High 

f^y From Army Posts Around the World 


More than 1 00 military athletes from 1 5 countries participated in 
the 1998 World Military Taekwando Championships. 

Fort Hood, Texas 

CISM Taekwando 

SGT Paul Nelson and Navy 
HM1 Elizabeth Evans won gold 
medals during the final day of 
competition here in November, 
propelling the U.S. team to a 
third-place finish in both the 
men's and women's divisions in 
the 1998 World Military 
Taekwando Championship. 

The American military mar- 
tial artists from the Army, Navy 
and Air Force won six medals 
during the three-day competi- 
tion. More than 1 00 military ath- 
letes from 15 countries partici- 
pated in the event sponsored 
by the International Military 
Sports Council, known by its 
French acronym, CISM. 

The games at Fort Hood's 
Abrams Physical Fitness Cen- 
ter marked the first time the 

CISM Taekwondo champion- 
ship had been held in the United 
States, and the first time that 
the U.S. team has placed so 
high in the final standings. 

In addition to Nelson's gold 
medal in the men's welterweight 
division and Evans' gold in the 
women's featherweightdivision, 
CPL Andrew Roberts earned a 
silver medal in the men's light- 
weight division. SGT Eric Laurin, 
1 LT Alisha Williams and Senior 
Airman Kevin Jones each won 
bronze medals in their respec- 
tive divisions. 

The late rally by Team USA 
followed two days of Korean 
and German dominance of 
medal matches. However, Ko- 
rea eventually took first place in 
the men's division and Germany 
took second. In the women's 
division, Germany won first- 
place honors and Greece took 

Nelson, Roberts and Will- 

iams are members of the U.S. 
World Class Athlete Program 
at Fort Carson, Colo. Laurin is 
assigned to 1 st Battalion, 502nd 
Infantry, at Fort Campbell, Ky.; 
Evans works at the Naval Medi- 
cal Clinic, Pearl Harbor, Ha- 
waii; and Jones is from Keesler 
Air Force Base, Miss. — Michael 
Pintagro, III Corps Public Af- 

Fort Indiantown Gap, Pa. 

Counterdrug Training 
Center Opens 

THE fight against illegal drug 
use will get a major boost when 
the Pennsylvania National 
Guard's Northeast Regional 
Counterdrug Training Center 
opens here. U.S. Sen. Arlen 
Specter recently announced pro- 
vision of $2 million in the 1999 
federal budget to make the long- 
sought facility a reality. 

The center will be a major 
expansion of the Pennsylvania 
Guard's program of training, 
logistic and administrative sup- 
port for counterdrug efforts. 

"There's only one other 
training centerof this type in the 

_TC John Maietta 


JJ ft 




1*7 . 


Civilian special-response 
teams practiced high-risk war- 
rant entries during training at 
Fort Indiantown Gap. 

country," said LTC Steve 
Gingrich, Pennsylvania's coun- 
terdrug coordinator. "That's in 
Mississippi, and its outreach is 
limited to the Southeast. With 
our facility we'll be able to open 
up specialized training pro- 
grams for law-enforcement per- 
sonnel throughout the north- 
eastern United States — from 
uniformed officers and street- 
level investigators to senior 
managers and drug-demand- 
reduction professionals." 

Gingrich said about 1,000 
professionals are expected to 
take advantage of training op- 
portunities at the center in 1 999. 
The following year that number 
should reach 2,000. 

These civilian students and 
trainees will join the annual in- 
flux of 170,000 active and re- 
serve-component soldiers and 
airmen who now train at Fort 
Indiantown Gap. 

The counterdrug center will 
combine existing ranges, train- 
ing sites and weapons simula- 
tors with both new and reno- 
vated academic and support 
buildings. Planned courses in- 
clude interviewing and interro- 
gation techniques, photo sur- 
veillance, tactical drug opera- 
tions, street gang investigation, 
identifying money-laundering 
techniques, and marijuana iden- 
tification and eradication. 

All courses will be offered 
free of charge. Instructors will 
come from both the military and 
law enforcement. To beef up 
the training and support staff, 
about 20 full-time Guard posi- 
tions will be added. — LTC John 
Maietta, PAARNG PAO 

Columbus, Ohio 

Scouts and Soldiers Day 
Enters Second Year 

IN the shadow of an enormous 
Army crane a young boy oper- 
ated the controls of the Heavy- 



SSG Randal J. Rogers helps 
Scouts operate a HEMTT- 
mounted crane during Scouts 
and Soldiers Day. 

Truck Wrecker, just one of the 
many activities that visiting Boy 
Scouts and Girl Scouts experi- 
enced during the 83rd Infantry 
Division Reserve Center's sec- 
ond annual "Scouts and Sol- 
diers Day." 

The event attracted approxi- 
mately 240 people from Indi- 
ana, Kentucky, Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania. Reserve volunteers 
came from several nearby units 
to supervise activities and talk 
to Scouts and other participants, 
said M AJ Thomas Cunningham 
of U.S. Army Reserve Readi- 
ness Command, which orga- 
nized the event. 

A favorite station among the 
Scouts was the night-vision ex- 
ercise. Participants were taken 
into a room, where they donned 
night-vision goggles after the 
room was darkened. They were 
then instructed to find a para- 
keet and a ferret, using the 
goggles in complete darkness. 
Many said they were amazed at 
being able to spot the animals 
without any light in the room. 

Other stations featuring sol- 
diers holding a variety of skills 
— such as nurses, lawyers, 
cooks, military police officers, 
photographers and mechanics 

May 1999 

— gave participants a chance 
to see the range of Army occu- 
pational choices. 

Gail Egle said the day was 
valuable because she and other 
parents "asked a lot of ques- 
tions and enjoyed learning all 
the different occupations." 

'The activities were very 
well put together and very infor- 
mative, and gave our Scouts 
the opportunity to see how 
things they learn in Scouting 
are used as they grow older," 
said assistant Scoutmaster 
Bobbi Bauer. 

Cunningham said the plans 
for the Scouts and Soldiers Day 
began when his son's troop 
showed an interest in seeing 
his Reserve Center, and the 
idea just grew from there. — 
PFC Jennifer S. Trautwein, 
367th Mobile PA Detachment 

Aberdeen Proving Gmd, Md. 

The Future of Mine 

SIX soldiers from Fort Riley, 
Kan., helped testers at Aber- 
deen Test Center and at Yuma 
Proving Ground, Ariz., evalu- 
ate the new Handheld Standoff 
Mine Detection System. 

"HSTAMIDS is a light- 
weight, handheld mine detec- 
tor capable of detecting and 
alerting soldiers to metallic and 
non-metallic mines," said John 
Ward, ATC's project officer for 
system testing. 

Unlike the Army's 
current portable 
mine detec- 
tor, HSTA- 
MIDS uses 
audio and 
visual dis- 
plays to tell sol- 


Soldiers from Fort Riley, 
Kan., tested new equip- 
ment being evaluated as 
candidates for future 
mine-detection systems. 

diers when a potential mine de- 
tection occurs. 

HSTAMIDS has three mine 
detection and alert capabilities: 
a metal detector, ground-pen- 
etrating radar to detect metallic 
and non-metallic mines, and an 
infrared sensor that provides 
alert signals from a distance 

Describing the test re- 
quirements, Ward ^^ 
said: "HSTAMIDS 
must be able to alert 
soldiers to suspected 
mines from a distance 
of at least three meters, 
verify the mine's location, and 
provide audio signals and vi- 
sual displays for mine detec- 
tion. The system must also be 
able to perform manual or auto- 
matic self-tests to ensure the 
equipment is fully operational." 

Ward said combined test- 
ing at ATC and YPG allows a 
single test effort, shares re- 
sources and avoids duplication 
of effort, thus reducing cost, 
resource and scheduling 
requirements. j/ 

Test data will answer *— 3 
three questions: What risks 
does an operator face due to 
system malfunction or op- 
erator error? Does the 
system meet safety *y**" 
and operational S 
standards with 
regard to its 

detect lethal targets? And what 
level of training is needed to 
use the system safely? 

The testing initiative is man- 
aged by the program manager 
for mines, counter mines and 
demolitions at Fort 
Belvoir, Va. — 
Lena Good- 

Joining the Home 



Story and Photos by 
MSG Bob Haskell 



An M1 Abrams of the Nevada National 
Guard's 1st Squadron, 221st Cavalry, moves 
into action at the National Training Center. 

THIS is a Total Army. 
Nowhere is that fact 
more evident than at the 
National Training Center 
at Fort Irwin, Calif., 
where 479 soldiers from 
the Nevada National 
Guard's 1st Squadron, 221st 
Cavalry Regiment, have been 
embraced as equals by the 
Army's 1 1th Armored Cav. Regt. 

The 1 1 th ACR performs a 
critical role as the opposing force 
that tests the mettle of the 10 
armored brigades that visit the 
NTC every year. 

Going up against the 1 1th 
ACR is akin to playing a three- 
game series against the champi- 
onship-winning Yankees. The 
visitors may win an occasional 
battle, but they will probably lose 
the campaign. In the process, 
they discover what they need to 
improve if they someday find 
themselves on a real killing field. 

When soldiers from the 
NTC's operations center are 
asked about the 1st Sqdn., 221st 
Cav., they smile and nod their 
heads in the approving way 
professionals acknowledge their 

During the last year, the 
Nevada National Guard soldiers 
have helped the 1 1th ACR teach 
active Army outfits harsh lessons 
at the 1,059 square-mile reserva- 
tion that is the Army's premier 
heavy-armor training area. 

"The greatest opportunity of 
any military career is to be able 
to lead soldiers at the National 
Training Center," said LTC 
Aaron Kenneston, the 1st Sqdn. 
commander. His unit was aligned 
with the 1 1th ACR as a round- 
out unit in 1995. 

The home team's tanks and 
other combat vehicles have been 

MSG Bob Haskell is assigned to the National Guard 
Bureaus Public Affairs Office in Alexandria, Va. 

modified to resemble Russian- 
built tanks and troop carriers. 
The 1 1th ACR soldiers wear 
distinctive desert uniforms and 
black berets and function as a 
Russian-style motorized rifle 
division. The squadron's Guard 
soldiers have mastered those 
tactics, and can also duplicate the 
tactics used by a variety of 
potential adversaries. That gives 
them a special place among the 
22,000 reserve-component troops 
who trained at Fort Irwin last 

In January 1998, after two 
years of training by 1 1th ACR 
soldiers, the Nevada squadron 
squared off against part of the 
3rd Infantry Division's 2nd 
Brigade and proved to be a 
formidable adversary for the 
troops from Fort Stewart, Ga. 

In August, the Nevada 
soldiers took on the 4th Brigade 
of the 4th Infantry Division from 
Fort Hood, Texas, in the same 
way. That brigade belongs to the 
Army's experimental force that 
includes unmanned aerial 
vehicles that fly over and observe 

Four tanks from CPT 
Kristofor Zehm's B Troop 
formed part of a 13-vehicle 
OPFOR battalion that took out a 

SSG Kirk Anderson, a tank com- 
mander in A Troop of the 1st Sqdn., 
221st Cav., scans for targets during 
a "battle" at NTC. 

May 1999 


platoon of enemy tanks and a 
platoon of Bradley fighting 
vehicles, and then clobbered a 
half-dozen Paladin self-propelled 
howitzers with laser-simulated 
massed fire. 

They also chopped up a 
reserve force on their right flank 
while charging 20 miles across 
the desert in three-and-a-half 
hours. Three of Zehm's tanks 
made it to the final objective, 
Hill 780. 

"We took out half of their 
ground strength. This is the best 
fight I've ever had," said Zehm, 
who served 4 1/2 years as an 
active-Army armor officer after 
graduating from West Point in 

The Nevada squadron's 
efforts have reinforced advo- 
cates' faith in the program. 

"There is no better example 
of active and reserve component 
integration in the concept of 'one 

team-one fight' than the relation- 
ship between the 1 st of the 22 1 st 
and the 1 1th ACR," said COL 
John Rosenberger, the 1 1 th 
ACR's commander. 

"This is the smartest thing the 
Army is doing, having a reserve- 
component unit working along- 

side an active Army unit." 
maintained SGM Roger Warner. 
Fifth Army's senior enlisted 
advisor to the Nevada Army 

"They're not handled with kid 
gloves. They're given a mission 
and expected to react the same 

A 1st Sqdn. maintenance crew lifts a replacement engine into a waiting M1 . 
Outdoor, round-the-clock maintenance operations are common at NTC. 

IT was another long night of work- 
ing on tanks in the desert while 
most of America was fast asleep. 

SPC Chris Parkins, a mainte- 
nance specialist in the Nevada Army 
National Guard, was laboring on a 
front road wheel of a 68-ton M1 tank 
in the darkness of the Mojave Desert. 

He was the central figure in a 
maintenance crew that worked into 
the night replacing a wheel arm and 
hub assembly so other members of 
the 1 st Squadron, 221 st Cavalry Regi- 
ment, from Las Vegas could take the 
tank into battle by 5 a.m. 

A crane to lift the heavy assembly 
into place and an air gun to screw 
home the lug nuts certainly helped. 
But it still took plenty of muscle, a lot 
of patience and a careful touch to 
make everything fit just right. 

The Nevada tankers took to the 
desert as part of the National Training 
Center's opposing force. Their M1s 
were modified to resemble Russian- 
built T-80s because the OPFOR uses 
the tactics of a Russian-style motor- 
ized rifle division. 

The mechanics get the gritty job 
of keeping the tanks running. Regard- 

Maintaining the Tanks 

less of what the tanks resemble, a 
broken Abrams is a broken Abrams. 

"This is not training. This is real 
work," said MSG Earvin Chalmers, 
the squadron's motor sergeant. 

An M1 tank is a precision war 
machine of multiple moving parts — 
including 156 sections of track and 
36 wheels — that has to function in 
the desert and in other hostile envi- 
ronments where you would not want 
to drive your father's Oldsmobile. 

Dust is a constant enemy in the 
desert. Speeds of 25 to 30 mph across 
the tough terrain shake things up. As 
hard as people work to take care of 
them, the big tanks break. 

Maintenance crews have to re- 
place wheel assemblies, broken 
tracks and engines in the same dusty 
place where the squadron is expected 
to train. They work through the heat 
of long afternoons and, sometimes, 
long into the nights to help their outfit 
live up to its motto — "Never Broken." 

"The squadron commander wants 
31 tanks up for the mission," said 
SFC Scott Frey, a full-time mainte- 
nance technician. "We do what we 
can to meet his quota. We don't like 

tanks in our maintenance area — no 
tanks means we've done our job." 

Frey said Parkins is serious about 
his job. "As long as he's working, he's 
happy," Frey said about the Guard 
mechanic who learned about repair- 
ing armored vehicles — and the long 
hours it takes — during an active 
Army hitch that took him to Korea, 
Kansas and Germany. 

"I'm used to the long hours from 
my active-duty days," said Parkins. 
"In Germany we'd work on four or five 
tanks until they were fixed, all night if 
we had to, and then do the battle. You 
just learn how to sleep during the little 
stops." — MSG Bob Haskell 

Replacing wheel assemblies or bro- 
ken tracks is just one part of the 
maintenance effort. 


wa\ as the active Army guys do," 
Warner added. "A lot of people 
are talking about it. but these 
guys are in the dirt doing it." 

The Las Vegas-based squad- 
ron spends a lot of time at Fort 
Irwin — six to eight weekend 
drills and two 10-day rotations 
each year. 

Physical conditioning is 
critical, the soldiers said, because 
the inside of a tank can be 20 
degrees hotter than the blistering 
temperatures outside and because 
they want to fit in with their 
active Army brothers. 

"Wearing the llthACR 
OPFOR uniform, you want to 
look like an armored cavalry 
soldier." said CPT Michael 
Renwick, the squadron's person- 
nel officer. 

"We're always looking for 
squared-away soldiers," he said, 
"ideally people who are armor- 
qualified and who don't mind 

training at Fort Irwin during the 

The soldiers cite a couple of 
reasons why unit strength has 
risen by nearly 30 percent over 
the past four years and why 
people commute to drills from as 
far away as Seattle, Wash. 

"If you've got a real mission 
and you train hard, it's easier to 
get and keep good people," said 

And the 1 1th ACR has made 
the Nevada Guardsmen feel right 
at home. "The 1 1th welcomed us 
with open arms," said CPT Kerry 
Cutting, a logistics officer who 
has spent 10 years in the squad- 
ron. "We wouldn't be able to do 
this job without the fuel, ammo 
and, sometimes, the personnel 
they have given us. It has been 
carte blanche." 

The soldiers appreciate their 
real purpose for working hard 
and well with the 1 1th ACR. 

"I like the honor of being part of 
this elite unit," said SGT Allen 
Morris, a tank gunner. "The active 
Army guys hate us because they 
always lose to us. But if we do our 
job right, and if they go into com- 
bat, more boys on our side will 
come home." □ 

LTC Aaron Kenneston, commander of the 221st's 1st 
Sqdn., communicates with his troops. 


LAST year his M1 Abrams tank 
showed the active Army just what 
the National Guard could do, and 
seven months later he was still savor- 
ing the memories of that outstanding 

SFC Paul Kinsey, a tank com- 
mander and platoon sergeant from 
the Nevada Army Guard's 1 st Squad- 
ron. 221st Cavalry Regiment, returned 
to the National Training Center's vast 
maneuver areas in August. 

Kinsey lives in Carson City, Nev., 
and ordinarily earns his keep as a 
heating and airconditioning specialist 
for the state. 

His tally of enemy armor "kills" in 
last year's battle was six Abrams tanks 
and two Bradley fighting vehicles 
manned by soldiers of the 2nd Bri- 
gade, 3rd Infantry Division, from Fort 
Stewart, Ga. 

"We were the far-right tank in the 
formation. We were definitely in the 
right place at the right time. I just let 
my gunner do the dirty work," said 
Kinsey of the five-tank wedge his crew 
took out with simulated laser rounds 
from Hill 786 in the northern part of the 

A Career Morning 

They bagged their sixth Abrams 
and the two Bradleys during the next 
hour before they themselves were 
knocked out of the action by a shot 
from the rear. 

Kinsey and his crewmen, SGT 
Oswald Brown, the gunner, and SPC 
Robert Mowbray, the driver, received 
Hamby Awards, First Class, to vali- 
date that morning's extraordinary ac- 

After two years of preparations, 
the Nevada Guard cavalry outfit had 
finally gotten its chance to join forces 
with the Army's 11th Armored Cav- 
alry Regiment, the full-time opposing 
force that routinely thrashes visiting 

"It was important for the squad- 
ron, for the entire National Guard, to 
do well," said Kinsey. He was one 
reason why Nevada's entire 1 st Sqdn., 
221st Cav., left the desert with a 
Hamby First Class after surprising a 
lot of people, especially the Army's 
visiting team from Georgia. 

The Hamby is not one of the 
Army's better-known awards. It is 
handed out by the 11th ACR to op- 
posing-force units that distinguish 

themselves on the Fort Irwin proving 

It honors COL Jerrell Hamby, a 
former opposing-force commander, 
who was killed at Fort Irwin in Febru- 
ary 1985 while on the way to a night 
training exercise. 

Hamby fought in Korea as an en- 
listed marine, then fought in Vietnam 
as an Army officer. He won the Silver 
Star, four Bronze Stars, 1 1 Air Medals 
and six Purple Hearts. 

Kinsey dedicated his Hamby to 
his Army Guard mentors — SSG 
Sterling Mullins, SGM Jack Mosby 
and SFC Woody Blair. 

"They brought me up in the unit," 
Kinsey explained. "I just wish they 
could have been a part of that morn- 

Seven months later, however, it 
was time for the crew of Tank 515 to 
set aside its laurels and take on an- 
other active-Army brigade. 

"You have to prove yourself every 
time," said Kinsey as he anticipated 
the August challenge. "If we don't do 
well this time, what we did last Janu- 
ary won't be worth talking about." — 
MSG Bob Haskell 

May 1999 


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teve Harding 
. by Paul Henry Crank 

Focus on People 

"The altitude 

was the most 

difficult thing 

to overcome, " 

Wright said. 

"The air at 

10,000 feet is 

very thin. 

It made 


difficult. " 

Wright (right): Reached the summit. 

CPT Steve Wright, operations officer at the Seattle 
Military Entrance Processing Station, planted his 
command's flag atop the Northwest's highest peak — 
Mount Rainier's 14,441 -foot summit — after a two-day 

Initially accompanied by two other climbers, he as- 
cended the summit alone. "The altitude was the most 
difficult thing to overcome," Wright said. "The air at 
10,000 feet is very thin. It made breathing difficult." 

Wright, who climbed Mount Saint Helens in May 
1998, said the first day's journey up the mountain was 
similar to his first climb, which he described as "a gradual 
ascent on a glacier." 

By the second day, however, Mount Rainier's steep 
glacial ice, cold temperatures and thinning air, plus 40- 
mph winds, turned the climb into a struggle. Breathing 
became more and more difficult. Fatigue set in, and the 
climbers had to rope themselves together and attach 
large spikes to their boots to keep from falling into a 
crevasse or off a cliff. 

They started out at 2:30 a.m., with headlamps at- 
tached to their safety helmets so they could see. They 
crossed several crevasses, two via ladder bridges. Soon 
after, Wright's companions turned back due to breathing 
difficulties and fatigue. 

Wright said he felt like the king of the hill after 
crossing the last 1 ,000 feet to the mountain's summit. 

Should he train for a similar adventure in the future, 
he said, he'll increase the weight of the 50-pound back- 
pack he hiked with across the steep Seattle hills. "When 
covering 18 miles in two days at an elevation of 10,000 

feet, that backpack gets very heavy." — U.S. Military 
Entrance Processing Command Public Affairs Office 

FLEET-footed 1LT Dan Browne ended his 1998 
racing season by winning the Gator Bowl Rockin'- 
the-River 5-kilometer race in 13:05 — by one one- 
hundredth of a second. 

As he crossed the finish line in Jacksonville, Fla., the 
23-year-old West Point graduate raised his open 
hand to signify the five titles he'd won in 1998. 

The other firsts were in 4-kilometer cross- 
country, indoor 3,000-meter, outdoor 10,000- 
meter and 1 0-kilometer road races. The last 
man to win more than three U.S. distance- 
running titles in the same year was a 
civilian named Ed Eyestone, who won four \ 
road titles in 1993. > 

By winning the fifth race, Browne earned 30 
points toward a third-place finish in the U.S. 
American Road Circuit Grand Prix. He finished 
first in two of nine USARC Grand Prix races. 

For his season finale the Oregon native, 
who also won his second Army Ten-Miler in \ 
1998, was named Runner's World magazine's 
American male runner of the year. 

"That's probably the greatest accolade I've 
received in my running career," Browne said. 
"I'm excited to see the work I've put into it •_- 
pay off. I train hard. I train to race and I Browne: 
race to win." World-class 

A member of the Army's World-Class athlete. 
Athlete Program at Fort Carson, Colo., 
Browne trains in Boulder with coach Rich Castro and a 
dozen other runners, all WCAP members. 

Browne is now focusing on the 2000 Olympics. 
"That's what my training is all about," he said. "I'm 
continually working to get better. There's no looking 
back. I've got my eyes set on the mountain ahead of me 
and I'm charging up it as fast as I can." 

Browne faces a full schedule in the 1999 season, 
ranging from USA Track and 
Field indoor and outdoor 
competitions to the Pan- 
American Games and the 
Military World Games sched- 
uled for August in Zagreb, 
Croatia. — U.S. Army Com- 
munity and Family Support 
Center PAO 

WHEN he was 105 years 
old, World War I Army 
veteran Moses Hardy of Ab- 

Hardy: Overdue World 
War I recognition. 



erdeen. Miss., asked his grand- 
son, former Army officer Ricky 
Davis, to help him get the hon- 
orable discharge and two med- 
als Hardy didn't receive with the 
rest of his unit. 

Davis' search led him to 
SFC Richard Lambert of the 
Jackson Army Recruiting Bat- 
talion. Lambert contacted the 
battalion's public affairs office, 
and officials there worked with 
2nd Army Recruiting Brigade 
officials to cut through red tape. 

On his 106th birthday, 
Hardy's gifts included the long-awaited discharge, prop- 
erly framed, and his two medals, the Victory Medal, 
featuring a female angel and the inscription "The Great 
War for Civilization," and the Germany Occupation Medal, 
featuring the face of GEN John J. Pershing. 

Assistant Adjutant General for the Mississippi Guard 
BG George S. Walker made the presentations at Hardy's 
Aberdeen home. 

"You paved the way for the rest of us, and you stand 
as an example of what this country is made of," Walker 
said. "You saw your duty and you performed honorably." 
— U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion, Jackson, Miss. 

SSG Jamie Worthy, an automotive repair instructor 
at the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Armaments 
Command's New Equipment Training Center in Warren, 
Mich., recently became the command's first soldier to be 
inducted into the prestigious Audie Murphy Club. 

The club honors Audie L. Murphy, a war hero, movie 
actor, songwriter and poet who served in the 3rd Infantry 
Division's famed 1 5th Inf. Regiment during World War II. 
Its members are considered to be among the Army's best 
soldiers — those who demonstrate a high level of skill 
and knowledge in a variety of critical areas. 

Since enlisting in the Army in 1 989, Worthy has been 
singled out several times for outstanding performance. 
He was the 24th Inf. Div.'s Soldier of the Year while 
stationed at Fort Stewart, Ga., and TACOM's 1 998 NCO 
of the Year. 

Worthy's previous assignments have taken him to 
Saudi Arabia, Germany, Bosnia and Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Md. 

He has completed the Army's Air Assault School, 
earned an Army Achievement Medal for completing a 
100-mile road march in Holland, and participated in a 
pilot program at Aberdeen Proving Ground called Project 
21 5. It investigated consolidating all of the Army's tracked- 
vehicle maintenance personnel into a single military 
occupational specialty. 

TACOM CSM Herbert Nicholson, who nominated 
Worthy for membership and induction into the club, said: 

Worthy (right): Joins the prestigious 
Audie Murphy Club. 

"The board is very difficult. I basi- 
cally studied nonstop from May 
until October when I was a candi- 

Prospective club members are 
judged on their military appear- 
ance and bearing and quizzed on 
drill and ceremonies, leadership 
skills, weapons qualification and 
other topics dealing with soldier 
safety, training and support. 

Additionally, candidates must 
recount the story of Audie Murphy 
and give a brief, yet detailed pre- 
sentation, about themselves. 
Worthy, a single parent who is raising two young 
daughters, plans to make the Army his career. In August, 
he was selected "below the zone" for promotion to 
sergeant first class. That means he was selected a year 
ahead of his contemporaries because of his outstanding 
service record. 

Currently enrolled in the Army Logistics Manage- 
ment Course, Worthy hopes to become a drill sergeant 
and someday make the rank of command sergeant 
major. — TACOM PAO 

THINGS could get a bit confusing soon for the Wash- 
ington Army National Guard, what with three new 
privates who all have the same face and the same last 

Identical triplets Jack Claros, Joseph Claros and 
Donald Claros, who recently enlisted in the Guard, 
begin basic training at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo., in June. 
All are privates. 

'Triplets enlisting. I've never 
seen anything like it," said re- 
cruitment guidance counselor 
SFC Bill Braid. "It's like seeing 
an eclipse or an albino tiger," 
added a witness to their swear- 
ing-in ceremony. 

An economics teacher at 
the boys' high school sparked 
their interest in the National 
Guard, said Joseph. The 
teacher, Clayton Colliton, has 
been a National Guard soldier 
for almost four years. 

"They expressed an interest and I told them about 
the benefits," said Colliton. "I try to clear up misinforma- 
tion. A lot of teenagers figure life in the military mimics the 
one Hollywood portrays — with brutal drill instructors. I 
tell them it's not like that." 

The Salvadoran-bom brothers, who enlisted for six 
years, will train to be wheeled-vehicle drivers. — The 
Spokane Review 

hopes to 
become a 
drill sergeant 
and someday 
make the 
rank of 

PVTs Claros: 

(from left) Jack, Joseph and 

May 1999 



Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

Photos From the Field 

WHETHER rolling across the Califor- 
nia desert or operating in foreign 
lands, tanks and armored fighting 
vehicles and the soldiers who ride 
them into training and combat provide 
the Army with a steel fist. 

AnM1A1 tank of Company D, 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, lights up the desert 
skies during the night-fire portion of Task Force 2-7's Tank Table XII at 
Udairi Range, Kuwait. — Photo by SPC Kap Kim 

Visually modified M551 Sheridans 
the 11th Armored Cav. Regiment pre 
pare for movement at the Nationa 
Training Center at Fort Irwin, Calif.— 
Photo by MAJ Douglas V. Mastriano 

An M109A6 Paladin self-propelled howitzer from Battery B, 1st Bn., 10 Field Artillery Regt. 
during live-fire training at Fort Benning, Ga. — Photo by MAJ Douglas V. Mastriano 

moves oul 



SGT Chris Harris of the 3rd Inf. Div.'s 1st Bn., 15th 
Inf. Regt. , communicates with soldiers during a move- 
ment to contact lane as part of exercise Hammer 
Focus '98 at Fort Benning. — Photo by SGT Michelle 
J. Davis 

SPC Kip Deville of the 1st MP Co., 1st Infantry Division, 
leads an "enemy prisoner of war" to a holding cage dur- 
ing training in Germany. — Photo by SGT Cris Fletcher 

May 1999 



Story and Photos by HeikeHasen 


Army child-development centers use a variety of activities — including creative 
play — to nurture children mentally, physically and emotionally. 

THREE-year-old Katie, 
a blond toddler in a 
pint-sized "leopard" 
coat, cheerfully greets 
other kids as she starts 
a new day at Fort 
Meade, Md.'s, Child 
Development Center- 1 . 

A regular for two years, Katie 
knows the routine — kiss 
mommy goodbye, have breakfast 
and do fun stuff with friends. 

What she and the other kids 
don't know is that the develop- 
mental care program is meticu- 
lously designed to nurture 
children mentally, physically and 
emotionally, said center director 
Karen Ganong. 

A child-development special- 
ist even plans activities for 
infants, said CPT Elizabeth 
Combass, assistant head nurse on 
the orthopedic ward at Waller 
Reed Army Medical ('enter in 
Washington, D.C. 

Because Combass lives in 
Columbia, Md., she enrolled her 
children, Ryan and Tyler, at the 
nearby fori Meade facility after 
visiting five child-care centers in 
the ( lolumbia area. 

I hr only one that came close 
to offering what the Fori Meade 
center does was in Columbia, she 



said. It would have cost $1,700 
per month for both children, but 
meals were not included. The 
Fort Meade CDC charges $810 
per month for both her children, 
with meals and snacks included. 

Under the 1989 Military 
Child Care Act, fees for child- 
care services within the Defense 
Department are set by DOD, 
based on a family's total income, 
in five income brackets [see 
chart on page 41], said Joy 
Guenther, a former senior staff 
member at the Army Community 
and Family Support Center in 
Alexandria. Va. That sum 
includes the cost-of-living 
allowance in particular areas. 

Calculating costs in this way 
allows a single private to obtain 
the same quality child care an 
officer couple can afford for their 
children, said Combass. 

When she and her husband, a 
former infantryman, returned 
from a tour in Baumholder, 
Germany, they initially enrolled 
their children in a Jessup, Md., 
child-care center. They pulled the 
kids out of the collective $1,200- 
a-month program after six 
months because of health and 
safety concerns. 

"I can't say enough good 

things about Fort Meade's 
center." Combass said. 

A critical element of quality 
child care is the relative stability 
of the staff, said Martha 
McClary, Fort Meade's Child 
Development Services coordina- 
tor. Under the Military Child 
Care Act, employees receive 
special job training that leads to 
promotion and competitive 

"When people come here to 
work, they tend to stay," she 
said. Educational technician 
Barbara Fieni has been at the 
center nine years. Other 
caregivers at Fort Meade have 
been on the job seven and eight 

Most important is the empha- 
sis on programs for the children, 
Ganong said of the two CDCs at 
Fort Meade, which together 
accommodate more than 500 
infants, toddlers and school-age 
children on a full-time, part-time 
or hourly basis. 

"When kids come here, their 
work is play," she said, but there 
is also an emphasis on skills 
development. To help teach the 
children basics such as spelling, 
for example, employees have 
labeled items from room to room. 

A caregiver at Fort Meade helps a child sign his name to 
a work of art. Many caregivers have years of experience, 
and ongoing training ensures their skills stay sharp. 

such as "door," "books" and 
"cubby." And each child's name 
is visible where his or her 
personal belongings are kept. 
To build young minds and 
bodies, the CDC philosophy isn't 
ritiid instruction and strict 

May 1999 


Army CDCs foster an atmosphere that promotes learning, cooperation and friendship among their young charges. 

Happy, outgoing youngsters can't hide the fact that 
they've had a great day. 

scheduling, but a flexibility that 
allows youngsters to do what 
they enjoy doing, with supervi- 
sion, but minus ironclad time 
constraints, Ganong said. 

Three- and 4-year-olds 
actually make their own plans for 
how their days will be spent, 

whether in art, music, science, 
"housekeeping" or dramatic play, 
among other areas, Ganong said. 

Children enrolled at the 
center don shiny vinyl aprons, 
then create sponge paintings and 
participate in water play after- 
ward as a fun way to clean up. 
Shelves full of blocks — varying 
in complexity according to the 
children's ages and individual 
motor skills — become fantasy 
objects such as a ship, space 
station, zoo or, according to one 
little boy, "a three-headed 

"There's a reason behind 
activities and the toys selected 
for particular age groups," 
Ganong said. The result is "a lot 
of cooperative play and a lot of 

The military's CDCs are 
required to be nationally accred- 
ited. Civilian centers can opt to 
be accredited, added M.A. Lucas, 
the Army's Child and Youth 
Services program manager. 

Besides going through the 
accreditation process, military 

CDCs and military family child- 
care homes are regularly in- 
spected by fire marshals and 
health and safety officials, 
McClary said. 

Eighty-seven percent of the 
Army's 143 CDCs worldwide 
have been accredited, and the 
remaining 13 percent are sched- 
uled to be accredited by the end 
of 2000, Lucas said. By compari- 
son, just seven percent of 
licensed child-care centers in 
communities near military 
installations are accredited. 

"National accreditation gives 
us a baseline for expectations of 
quality. It's more than licensing, 
which sometimes just ensures 
there are enough toilets in a 
facility, the food's sanitary and a 
firewall exists between the 
kitchen and activity rooms," 
Guenther explained. 

Today, CDC administrators 
are working with local day care 
centers to help them obtain 
accreditation, Ganong said. 

The military's child-care 
facilities and services were 



lauded by President Bill Clinton 
in an April 1997 memorandum to 
the secretary of defense. 

The memo read, in part: "The 
military child-development 
programs have attained a reputa- 
tion for an abiding commitment 
to quality in the delivery of child 

"I believe that the military 
has important lessons to share 
u ith the rest of the nation on how 
to improve the quality of child 
care for all of our nation's 

There are basically four 
things the president recognized, 
Guenther said: "funding, 
whereby every dollar spent by 
patrons is matched by appropri- 
ated government dollars that pay 
for salaries, supplies and pro- 
grams to reduce the cost to 
families while maintaining the 
highest level of care; strict 
oversight through regular 
inspections: training and com- 
petitive wages for caregivers: and 

"Across the board, parents 
tell us "the Army child-care 
program has standards covering 
everything from cost to regular 
inspections. And the program is 
consistent and safe for my 
child,'" Guenther said. 

At the Fort Meade CDC, as 
examples, "You have to show 
identification when picking up a 
child." Combass said. Other 
security measures include rows 
of television monitors in full 
view of administrators at the 
front desk. The TV screens allow 
parents to check on what their 
children are doing or how they're 
interacting with staff members 
and other children. 

On the playground, caregivers 
monitor each playground activ- 
ity, and not from a distance. 
There are even fire drills and 
"little two-year-olds know 
exactly what to do when they see 
the blinking red light," Combass 

May 1999 

The center's developmental 
program of instruction focuses on 
weekly and monthly themes, 
Combass added. Three-year-olds 
learn about cultural heritage and 
customs and participate in 
cooking projects. 

The children are excited 
about going to the center, 
McClary said. They come home 
and share what they've learned in 
a safe and supportive environ- 
ment. □ 

SGT DeLaina Van Acker gives her son, 
Zachary, a big goodbye hug before 
leaving him at Fort Meade's Child 
Development Center-1. 

1998-1999 Department of Defense 
Military Child-Care Fees 


Family Income 


Weekly Fees 

Per Child 

* Optional High- 
Cost Range 
Per Child 


$ 0-23,000 

$ 38-51 

**see note below 



$ 48-62 

$ 53-66 


$ 34,000-44,000 

$ 59-74 

$ 65-79 



$ 72-84 

$ 78-90 


$ 55,000 + 

$ 86-97 


* Installations Using High-Cost/COLA Options: 

Allamanu, Hawaii Meade, Md. 

Bayonne, N.J. Monmouth, N.J. 

Belvoir, Va. Monterey, Calif. 

Buchanan, Puerto Rico Myer, Va. 

Greely, Alaska Oakland, Calif. 

Hamilton, N.Y. Picatinny, N.J. 

Irwin, Calif. Richardson, Alaska 

Schofield Bks., Hawaii 
Shafter, Hawaii 
Stewart, N.Y. 
Wainwright, Alaska 
Walter Reed, Wash., D.C. 
West Point, N.Y. 

** NOTE: Recommend fees for Catagory I patrons be within the standard 
weekly fee range rather than the high-cost range or Cost-of-Living- 
Adjustment option. 


Path to School 

Story by 

MAJ Brenda Hickey 

JEREE Harris, a seventh grader, 
became a new student at Seoul 
American School in South Korea 
about a year ago, when her dad, 
LTC Mike Harris, was transferred 
from the States to Camp Casey near the 
demilitarized zone. 

From the outset, Harris wasted 
little time getting involved and making 
friends. She joined the Science Club, 
started singing in a choir, playing 
basketball and participating in the 
Student Council Association. 

But not everything about the move 
has been rosy. Family members don't 

MAJ Brenda Hickey is special assistant to the Army chief 
of staff at the Pentagon. 

live on the DMZ. So her dad, who 
commands the 509th Personnel Sup- 
port Battalion, makes the two-hour trip 
to Yongsan only on weekends. 

The separation and the initial 
transition to a new school caused 
Harris, like many of her peers, to worry 
about her studies and her family. 

High school junior Anna Hobby 
can empathize with some of the 
difficulties frequent moves present. 
She's attended nine schools since 
kindergarten and never wanted to move 
to Korea when her dad, COL Redding 
Hobby, got orders to report to Taegu as 
chief of staff of the 19th Theater Area 
Army Command. 

Like so many children of military 
families, however, she had little choice 
about going. 

Now, after four years of experienc- 
ing a new culture, Hobby admitted. 
"I've really enjoyed my Korea experi- 

A student at Taegu American 
School, Hobby participates in Junior 
ROTC and hopes to remain in Korea 
long enough to graduate there. 

In late 1998, a five-member group 
called the Education 2000 Team — 
formed at the direction of the Army's 
chief of staff to report observations on 
the state of the schools military 
children attend — visited 29 schools, 



: * s 



both military and civilian, to gather 

Many kids told team members they 
feel lucky to see so much of the world. 
They feel more confident than their 
peers who haven't moved, and they 
enjoy staying in touch with friends 
they meet along the way, said team 
member Pamela Tomlinson, chief of 
Youth Services at the Army Commu- 
nity and Family Support Center in 
Alexandria, Va. 

But military students also encoun- 
ter some frustrating obstacles, too, 
Tomlinson said. 

Holding leadership positions can be 
difficult, said Ryan Hayes, a former 
student at Killeen High School near 
Fort Hood, Texas. 

"Since I moved every year, I 
couldn't run for a class office, which is 
important," since university admis- 
sions personnel consider school and 
community leadership involvement 
when evaluating a potential student's 

"I couldn't do anything about the 
voting process at school because 
students voted a year in advance for 
the next year's officers," Hayes said. 

Policies at individual schools can 
also affect a student's academic 
success, the team found. Some- 

times a new school won't accept 
credits earned from another school, and 
students must retake courses. Other 
times, a military student will transfer to 
a school that requires additional 
academic credits to meet graduation 
criteria or requires students to pass 
state competency tests. 

And many middle and high schools 
are supplanting the traditional schedul- 
ing system, whereby students take the 
same seven classes for nine months, 
with a block schedule. 

The four-by-four block schedule 
offers only four two-hour classes daily 
per semester. If a school on the four- 
by-four block system begins in the 
middle of August and a new student 
arrives after Labor Day, that student 
has to make up a significant amount of 

Parents can eliminate some prob- 
lems by ensuring their child's previous 
school records accompany the child to 
the new destination. If the new school 
doesn't know what classes students 
have completed, the children may have 

to repeat certain subjects. It's also 
possible that students could be placed 
in advanced classes where the require- 
ments exceed their abilities. 

To help assist families as they PCS, 
the Department of Defense maintains 
the Standard Installation Topic Ex- 
change Service database. SITES 
contains information about every U.S. 
military installation in the world and 
can be accessed via the Internet at 

School districts can also get 
assistance from the Military Child 
Education Coalition, a private, non- 
profit organization based in Killeen. Its 
mission is to "establish partnerships 
and provide networking of schools and 
military installations for the purpose of 
establishing support systems and ... 
address transition and other educational 
issues related to the military child." 

Barely contain- 
ing their excite- 
ment, students 
cheer (right) and 
wave U.S. flags 
(left) as the 
Space Shuttle 
lands at Robert 
Gray Army 
Airfield at Fort 
Hood, Texas. 

Todd Martin 
April 1999 

During a summer school program at East Ward Elementary in Killeen, Texas, students 
have fun while they learn important social and intellectual skills. 

MCEC's website is at 

"MCEC can help 
military families by serving 
as the full-time catalyst for 
finding solutions to the 
challenges that educational 
systems force on their 
school-aged children," said 
Glynn Decoteau, a retired 
Army colonel and former 
middle-school teacher who 
now works at MCEC as a 
transition specialist. 

"Students in military 
families have to jump too 
many hurdles on their path 
to a high school diploma," 
he said. "As school reform 
increasingly changes 
things, these students pay 
more and more of a price. 

"Through no fault of their own, 
they move from one school system to 
the next, encountering difficulties 
along the way that affect their grades, 
accumulation of educational credits, 
curriculum choices, class standing, and 
the ability to participate in sports, 
student government and extracurricular 
activities," Decoteau said. 

"By promoting partnerships 
between military installations and their 

At Venable Village Elementary School on Fort Hood, 
which is part of the Killeen Independent School Dis- 
trict, students who speak Korean at home take advan- 
tage of the only Korean bilingual program in Texas. 

supporting school districts, establishing 
networks on the Internet through which 
to share information, holding confer- 
ences to find solutions, and being the 
focal point for assistance, MCEC hopes 
to make a difference in the educational 
lives of these young people," he 

Decoteau can be reached at (254) 
50 1 -02 1 2 or via e-mail at glynnd@ □ 

School Transition 

How Parents Can Help 

• Tell the losing school, as early 
as possible, that your child is leaving. 

• Provide the school the address 
of the school where your child will be 
enrolled, including city, state, county 
or country. 

• Call ahead or use the Internet 
to determine if your child's new school 
has special programs available (if 
needed) and determine as much as 
you can about the new school, such 
as its type of schedule. The latter 
could affect your child's selection of 

• Take phone numbers and ad- 
dresses of former school points of 
contact with you and, if you need 
more information when you get to 
your new school, don't hesitate to 

• When you arrive at your new 
school, ensure that you have neces- 
sary documents and records. Without 
shot records, for instance, your child's 
enrollment can be delayed. You 
should also have your child's birth 
certificate and last report card. 

How Schools Can Help 

# Ensure proper placement in any 
special programs. 

# Arrange for alternative or ac- 
celerated methods to complete 
middle-school or high-school credits. 

•& Help schedule secondary 

# Provide information to explain 
the school's programs. — Military 
Child Education Coalition 



and Photos by ReneeMcElveen 



If 1 


*** 1 



• j 




SSG James T. Taylor 

performs his last 

walk as a sentinel at 
the Tomb of the Un- 


/ A 



? AH 

L ■'•- -IS^MBP^JL """"" 

N ice storm the 
night before left 
everything encased 
in crystal. The 
ccasional cracking 
of tree branches breaking 
under the weight of the ice 
was the only sound to break 
the ghostly silence. 

It was 6:45 a.m. on Jan. 15 
in Arlington National Cem- 
etery. SSG James T. Taylor 
was making his final prepara- 
tions for what would be his 
785th and final walk as a 

He had a chance to prepare 
now, before the cemetery 
opened to the public, and run 
through one time with others 
the last-walk ceremony that 
would mark the end of his tour 
as an honor guard at the Tomb 
of the Unknowns. 

This day was a long time 
coming for the 32-year-old 
Tennessee native. The story 
started in 1 986 when Taylor 
was training to be a materiel 
storage and handling specialist 
at Fort Lee, Va. His platoon 
traveled to Washington, D.C., 
to see the guard-change 
ceremony at the Tomb of the 

Taylor was so impressed 
by the ceremony that he asked 

Renee McElveen is a staff writer for the Mili- 
tary District of Washington's Pentagram 



his platoon sergeant how he could go 
about becoming a sentinel. At that 
time, the duty MOS was limited to 
infantrymen. Taylor didn't think he 
would ever become a sentinel, since he 
was serving in a logistics MOS. 

Taylor completed his enlistment in 
1988 and left active duty to join the 
Tennessee National Guard. He attended 
college in Berea, Ky., then transferred 
to Middle Tennessee State in 
Murfreesboro, where he earned a 
bachelor of arts degree in special 
education in 1993. 

That same year, he re-enlisted and 
came back on active duty as an infan- 

Taylor came one step closer to his 
dream when in 1994 he was assigned to 
the 3rd Infantry Regiment (The Old 
Guard) in the Military District of 
Washington, and spent a year in 
Company D performing ceremonial 
duties in the cemetery. He then volun- 
teered to become a sentinel for the 
Tomb of the Unknowns and was 
transferred to Co. H. 

Taylor then entered an intensive 
training program for his new assign- 
ment. The average train-up period for a 
sentinel is about six months, but the 
time varies for individual soldiers. 

"It just depends 
on how quickly a 
soldier grasps the 
knowledge and 
progresses," Taylor 

Not only does 
the sentinel have to 
learn "the walk," he 
must also become 
proficient in the 
manual of arms for 
the M- 14 rifle, 
prepare his uniform 
to standard, learn a 
seven-page history 
of the Tomb of the 
Unknowns, memo- 
rize 150 locations 
of headstones and 
learn pages of facts 
about the cemetery 
in "The Knowledge Book." 

The sentinel must be able to answer 
questions during the frequent visitor 
tours of the sentinel quarters below the 
amphitheater, Taylor said. Tourists 
often stop the sentinels and ask about 
locations of burial sites of famous 

The Knowledge Book also contains 
the mission statement of the sentinel, 

As the noon bells tolled Taylor placed 
roses on each of three crypts in the 
plaza, and a fourth rose at the base 
of the marble Tomb. 

the "guard of honor" 
for the Tomb of the 
Unknowns. The 
sentinel is respon- 
sible "for maintain- 
ing the highest 
standards and 
traditions of the U.S. 
Army and this nation 
while keeping a 
constant vigil at this 
national shrine." The 
sentinels' "special 
duty is to prevent 
any desecration or 
disrespect directed 
toward the Tomb of 
the Unknowns." 
Sentinels are 
tested periodically 
throughout their 
training, according 
to MSG Richard K. Cline, sergeant of 
the guard for the sentinels. Oral exams 
are every three weeks, and a timed 
performance exam accompanies these 
tests. Sentinels must take the test 
administrator to the headstones of 
persons named by the administrator 
and give biographical sketches on the 
notables within the time allotted. 
In order to "graduate" and qualify 

Though friends and relatives were on hand for Taylor's last walk, he undertook it — as always — alone. 


to wear the Tomb Badge, sentinels 
must take and pass a written exam, 
pass a uniform inspection and demon- 
strate proficiency in the time-honored 
ritual of maintaining the guard sentinel, 
referred to simply as "the walk." 

Taylor said that he had to learn to 
eliminate any bounce whatsoever in his 
walk, which translates to a technique of 
rolling the feet in a particular manner. 
His trainer told him the walk should 
make people think of the way a ghost 
might move, drifting along smoothly 
with no up and down movement. 

In addition, the sentinel's arms 
must not bend at the elbows during the 
walk, but instead swing in a straight 
line like a pendulum. The eyes must 
focus straight ahead, ignoring the 
crowds, which can number up to 2,000 
at a single summer changing of the 
guard ceremony. Cline said. 

Taylor said it irritates him when 
soldiers outside The Old Guard tell him 
he has "easy duty" because all he does 
is 'walk back and forth." He says they 
have no idea of the intensive training 
involved, the performance standard 
required and the level of commitment 
sentinels have to their job. 

Taylor said he has performed his 
sentinel duty in all types of weather. 
Snow, sleet, rain, heat or thunderstorms 
do not deter the sentinels 
from guarding the Tomb 
of the Unknowns. 

Sentinels are on duty 
for 24 hours, then off for 
24 hours. During the 
winter months, sentinels 
perform two or three hour- 
long walks each 24-hour 
period and two hour-long 
night shifts. During the 
summer months, sentinels 
perform six or seven 30- 
minute walks, and two 
night shifts. 

Cline said the walks 
are shortened to 30 
minutes during the 
summer months to 
accommodate the large 
number of tourists visiting 
the MDW area. Shorter 
walks result in more 
ceremonies, which are a 

With support and en- 
couragement from his f i- 
ancee, Angie Hunter, 
Taylor bids an emotional 
farewell to his fellow 
sentinels during an 
awards ceremony fol- 
lowing his last walk. 

popular tourist attraction at the cem- 

Taylor said he has had many 
memorable moments as a sentinel. Two 
moments, one very public and one very 
private, stand out in particular. 

In 1997 he was selected as the 
presidential wreath bearer for President 
Bill Clinton during the Veterans Day 
Ceremony at the Tomb of the Un- 
knowns. Taylor admits he was nervous, 
but once the National Anthem started 
playing, he said, "I felt like a giant out 

The private moment occurred 
during one of his early morning walks. 
The only visitor at the cemetery at that 
hour was a man wearing uniform items 
from the Vietnam War era. Taylor said 
the man stood at attention at the end of 
the plaza near the guard booth, saluting 
him. The man watched him for the 
entire hour and appeared to be very 
emotional, watching him perform his 

"It was a real moving experience 
for me," Taylor said. 

He said he changed his uniform 
after his tour, then went back up to the 
amphitheater to try to find the man so 
that he could speak with him, but he 
was already gone. 

"This is probably the greatest honor 
I ever will have," he said. 
While assigned to Co. 
H, Taylor held five 
positions at the Tomb of 
the Unknowns. He was a 
sentinel, an assistant relief 
commander, a relief 
commander, an assistant 
sergeant of the guard and 
a trainer. 

One of the sentinels he 
trained, William Q. 
Hanna, returned for 
Taylor's last walk. Hanna, 
who left the Army in 
December, served with 
Taylor for two years and 
wanted to be present for 
his "special moment." 

Hanna explained that 
the last walk is a "rite of 
passage" and an extremely 
emotional event for a 
sentinel as he pays his 

(continued on page 48) 

Jne <L)en//ners Greet/ 

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'noaA/A o/yn//y ana 
•ance my s/anAara 
ev/'/j rema/n perfec/ion. 

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o/scomfor/ of /Ae eAemen/s, SA 
aAAAcvaAAmy /our in Aa/noAe 
reverence /o /Ae oes/of/ny 

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/A a/ '/nacAe i/s so proa cA 

c )(/rroi/noed oy weAA- 
/nean/ny crocvc/s oy oay, 
a/one /n ///e /A/oayAj/fuA 
peace of a/aA/, /A/s so/o/er 
w/AA/n AonorecAyAo/y res/ 
t/naer my e/erna/ u/y/'/anc v. 

U//& c/i'i'c/. or/ f//j/c/j ea< /j M'/r///7e/ 
//■/ei ■ /v //he. // as ui/>//i///er/ />// <//> 
a/)u/>//mvi/s o/sr'/or/o ///< > //■//<// Of/At ■ 
Q/fi/e/iow/M /// /&// 

May 1999 




{continued from page 47) 

final respects at the Tomb of 
the Unknowns. 

Taylor's mother, Sandra S. 
Taylor of Knoxville, Tenn., 
had driven 10 hours through 
the ice storm so that she could 
be there for his last walk. His 
father, James L. Taylor, and 
stepmother, Linda Taylor, of 
Middlesboro, Ky., had spent 
nine hours on the road as well. 

At 10:45 a.m., Taylor 
made adjustments to his 
uniform. He pulled the brim 
of his dress blue service cap 
down and adjusted it over his 
eyes, checking his reflection 
in the mirror. Sentinel PFC 
Daniel Baccus took a large 
piece of masking tape and 
blotted up any stray lint on 
Taylor's raincoat. Taylor then 
went to the water fountain and 
ran water over his white 
gloves and rubbed them 
together. The water provides a 
better grip on the wooden 
stock of the M-14 rifle. 

At 11 a.m., the bells tolled 
the hour. Taylor made his way 
down the marble sidewalk to 
take his place on the plaza for 
the last time. Cline inspected 
his uniform and weapon. The 
guards were changed. Taylor 
spent the next hour guarding 
the Tomb of the Unknowns. 
His eyes were focused straight 
ahead, his arms swinging like 
pendulums. He drifted along 
with no bounce in his walk, 
smoothly, like a ghost. 

At noon the bells tolled 
the hour again. Taylor walked 
to the center of the plaza. His 
fiancee, standing at the base 
of the steps, handed him four 
red roses. 

He placed one rose at the 
base of each of the three 
crypts, and the fourth rose at 
the base of the marble tomb. 

A bugler played "Taps." 

Taylor saluted. 

His last walk as a sentinel 
at the Tomb of the Unknowns 
was over. □ 


The U.S. Army Drill Team 

Uhe UJcfSt/aro 

...,r W 
7 'UiUi 


The Continental Color Guard 




The Old Guard Caisson Platoon 

Are you a well -disciplined soldier? Do you have hiah levels of 
limitary Dealing and pride in seizing your country? ^nre you up 
to the challenge of- i^epmsenting the ^nrmy and the Qlnited States 
to the nation and the world? Sir you answeryOcj to these 
auestions, then the 3rd * United States SJn yantry, more commonly 
hnown as u \Jne (Jldcjuaid^ " may be the place for you. 

cjuaro is: 

• the Army 's official 

\Jo aualifu for 

ceremonial unit and 


service m 

escort to the president. 

' -H 

• a fully structured 
TOE unit with five line- 

soldiers mush 

infantry companies, a 

combat-support com- 

pany, a headquarters 

• be between 5' 10" J 

company and afife-and- 

and 6'4" for males. 1 

drum corps. 

• be between 5 '8" 

• the oldest active- 

and 6'2" for females. 

duty infantry unit in the 

• be Regular Army, 

Army today, continually 

officer or enlisted (from 

serxing our nation since 

32 MOSs). 


• have a GT score of 

• stationed at Fort 

1 JO or higher. 

Myer, Va., just across 

• have no permanent 

the Potomac River from 

physical profiles, 

Washington, D.C., and 

shaving profiles or 

adjacent to Arlington 

facial hair. 

National Cemetery. 

• have no civil 

• have all UCMJ 

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case-by-case basis. 

BHj^Ht '■ 

For more information visit /oldguard/ 

or call (703) 696-3149/3150 
or (DSN) 426-3149. 

The 3rd United States Infantry 

The Guard of Honor at the 
Tomb of the Unknowns 

United States Army 

A Heritage of Honor 

The South Vietnam 
Counteroffensives, 1964-1968 

• »l 




i Vietnamese army joined Viet Cong forces in 
South Vietnamese army fell back against communist advances. 


pendence and increased U.S. troop strength in the region, mi 
American counteroffensive campaign began in December 1 965 and was 
followed by Phase II in 1966 and Phase III in 1967. 

The Tet Counteroffensive began Jan. 30, 1968, when the communists 
launched a massive attack against 36 South Vietnamese provincial capitals 
and five major cities, including Hue and Saigon. American and South 
Vietnamese troops met the attacks with such determined resistance that 
the communists suffered 33,000 troops killed. Viet Cong forces were so 
decimated that from then on the majority of insurgents in South Vietnam 
were North Vietnamese infiltrators. During Counteroffensives IV and V, also 
in 1968, the Army launched operations to disrupt enemy activity north of 
Saigon and along the Cambodian border. 

MG Keith L. Ware 


1st Infantry Division commander 

Ware was killed in action Sept. 13, 1968, when his helicopter 
was shot down by ground fire near the Cambodian border, 
lorth of Saigon. 

While serving with the division in World War II, Ware 
was awarded the Medal of Honor for leading an 1 1 -man 
assault on four machine-gun emplacements and inspiring his 
battalion to seize a German stronghold near Sigolsheim, 








1 A 



SGT James W. Robinson Jr. 


2nd Battalion, 16th Inf., 1st Inf. Div. 

Robinson was awarded the Medal of Honor for action 
against a Viet Cong battalion, in which he charged 
through enemy fire, armed only with hand grenades, to 
destroy an enemy machine-gun position and inspired 
his soldiers to defeat a numerically superior enemy. 

*j W/jM 


The Official U.S. Army Magazine 

June 1999 


New Mission 


oncrete Combat 

• ■ 




The Official 

U.S. Army Magazine 

Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: GEN Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: MG John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Information Strategy: William R. Drobnick 

Soldiers Staff 

Editor in Chief: LTC Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSG John Valceanu 
Photojournalist: Heike Hasenauer 
Associate Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T. Marsden 


Soldiers (ISSN 0093-8440) is published monthly under super- 
vision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide the Total 
Army with information on people, policies, operations, technical 
developments, trends and ideas of and about the Department of 
the Army. The views and opinions expressed are not necessarily 
those of the Department of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest 
to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is autho- 
rized to Editor, Soldiers, 9325 Gunston Road, Suite S108, 
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581 Phone: DSN 656-4486 or com- 
mercial (703) 806-4486. Or send e-mail to soldiers® ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for 
"by permission" and copyright items), material may be reprinted 
provided credit is given to Soldiers and the author. ■ All 
photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. 
■ Military distribution: From the U.S. Army Distribution Opera- 
tions Facility, 1655 Woodson Road, St. Louis. MO 631 14-6181 , 
in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 050007 
subscription requirements submitted by commanders. ■ The 
Secretary of the Army has determined that the publication ol this 
periodical is necessary in the transaction ol the public business 
as required by law of the department. ■ Use ol funds for printing 
this publication was approved by the Secretary of the Army on 
Sept. 2, 1986, in accordance with the provisions ol Army Regu- 
lation 25-30. Library of Congress call number: U1.A827. ■ 
Periodicals postage paid at Fort Belvoir, VA, and additional 
mailing offices. ■ Individual domestic subscriptions are available 
at S24 per year through the Superintendent of Documents. P.O. 
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call (202) 512-1800 or FAX (202) 512-2250. ■ To change 
addresses for individual subscriptions, send your mailing label 
with changes to: Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOM. 
Washington, DC 20402 ■ POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to the Fort Belvoir address above. 

L Engineering Rescues 

Saving the lives of others is part 
of the job for the soldiers of the 
Military District of Washington 
Engineer Company. 

/ Preserving a Bridge 

Engineers and designers at 
Rock Island Arsenal created 
new parts using 102-year-old 
drawings to repair a historic 
Mississippi River bridge. 

16 Y2K: Averting the Threat 

In dealing with the threat of the 
"millennium bug" the Defense 
Department is focusing on safety, 
security and core missions. 

Zl Kwajalein 2000 

U.S. Army, Kwajalein Atoll, and 
the Kwajalein Missile Range 
are working hard to 
prevent potential 
Y2K problems. 

M Soldier Show '99 

The high-powered dance and 
music show is on the road again, 
this year performing at 63 sites at 
home and abroad. 

Z8 Remembering D-Day 

Cartoonist and WW II veteran 
Charles M. Schulz shares his 
thoughts on the Normandy 
invasion, the Army and the 
meaning of sacrifice. 

3D Old Post, New Mission 

Closure as an active-duty post 
hasn't ended the contributions 
made by Fort Devens, Mass. 

uO Waysides to History 

Seventeen wayside historical 
markers at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kan., illuminate and explain the 
post's long and impressive 

41 Concrete Combat 

Soldiers learn the lethal business 
of street fighting at Fort Polk's 
state-of-the-art Shughart-Gordon 
Military Operations in Urbanized 
Terrain complex. 

4b Keeping the Army Afloat 

Tucked away off a small side 
road in Hythe, England, is one of 
the smallest but most capable 
support installations in the U.S. 
Army — and it's a shipyard. 


9 Around the Services 
10 Feedback 
12 What's New 
26 Postmarks 
32 Environmental Front 
34 Focus on People 
36 Sharp Shooters 


Be part of 

Front cover: 

MDW engineer 
SPC Casey E. 
Gillen prepares to 
use a lowering 
system on a high 
line rigged be- 
tween two build- 
ings. — Photo by 
SFC John Brenci 


JUN 9)999 


complex rescue 
operations in time of 
I, soldiers in the Fort 

Belvoir, Va.-basetf 

save the lives of others. 




TIME was of the essence. 
Civilians "trapped" inside the 
collapsed government building 
could be "injured," maybe 
"dying." Soldiers, trained for 
rescue operations, furiously chopped 
through the debris like they were 
attacking an enemy. 

Endless hours turned into days as 
these skilled engineers continued their 
search, slicing through sheet metal, 
concrete and anything else that got in 
their way. When they couldn't go 
through the debris, they went under or 
over it. Stopping was not an option; 
lives were at stake. 

In that exercise, the only "lives" at 

stake were those of the soldiers in the 
Fort Belvoir, Va.-based Military 
District of Washington Engineer 
Company, who frequently risk their 
lives while training to save lives. And 
fear is no option for them, either. It's 
allowed, but it must be overcome in 
order to accomplish the mission. 

The MDW Engr. Co. has the 
mission to conduct technical rescue 
operations in support of military or 
federal contingencies in the National 
Capital Region. 

In other words, if a federal building 
in Washington collapsed, the MDW 
Engr. Co. could conduct confined- 
space and structural-collapse rescue 

operations and dig the trapped people 
out of the building. But that's a very 
concise version of the unit's mission 
and capabilities. 

The job is a dangerous one, and the 
engineers in the unit know it. "In my 
opinion, we should be drawing hazard- 
ous-duty pay," said SGT Dewey 
Snavely, 1st Platoon team leader. "It's 
not every day you go into a building 
that could fall on you. We have to go 
into weakened buildings that we have 
to shore up to make safe enough to go 
in and conduct rescues. We do cliff 
rescues, crawl through pipes with water 
that's over our heads, and rappel out of 
helicopters. In some situations, we 

Story and Photos 
by SFC John Brenci 

June 1999 

could rescue people in areas where a 
spark could set off an explosion." 

If that's not enough excitement, 
realize that most of those dangerous 
scenarios occur during everyday 
training. Fortunately, the MDW Engr. 
Co. hasn't yet been called to execute its 
assigned mission, according to CPT 
Roosevelt Samuel, the company's 
commander. That doesn't take the 
hazard out of the job, however. 

"We've never done an actual 
rescue," said SPC David Home, a 
heavy-equipment operator now trained 
in technical rescue. "But we train for it, 
so when it does come time for us to 
rescue someone, we'll be on top of our 

Training is very important to these 
specialized engineers because the skills 
they employ aren't taught at any single 
school. The MDW Engr. Co. is a one- 
of-a-kind unit in the Army, and most of 
its soldiers are volunteers from differ- 
ent engineer career fields. 

None of the soldiers come to the 
unit with any knowledge of rescue 
operations, said Samuel. However, 

The engineers use the high-line with a low- 
ering system in order to train for rescues 
in such hard-to-reach areas as cliff faces 
and building exteriors. 

once on board, soldiers 
begin training to become 
rescue certified. "My goal 
is nine months to have new 
soldiers completely certi- 
fied," said Samuel. What 
they don't learn from 
specific training courses, 
they learn on the job. The 
training never ends. 

"When we go to the 
field we don't mess around; 
we don't sleep," said 
Snavely. "It's nonstop 
work, and you have to be 

The soldiers spend 
about 50 percent of their 
time in realistic training for 
their mission. "The unit is 
on call 365 days a year," 
said Samuel. "We work in 
mission cycles of 30 days, 
during which 50 percent of 
the company is locked 
down and ready to deploy. 
The other 50 percent is 
doing training; that's our 
'green' cycle. When we're 
locked down and not 
deploying, we're conduct- 
ing post-support operations 
that can include everything 
from horizontal construc- 
tion to demolition of old, 
World War II buildings." 

In layman's terms, that 
means when they're not 
training they're conducting 
a variety of engineer 
projects in the MDW area. 
For instance, Home said, 
they have built several confined-space 
rescue simulators for training purposes. 

For the 50 percent of the company 
on the "green" cycle, the training is as 
real as it can possibly get. The soldiers 
train for confined-space rescue, vertical 
rescue and collapsed-structure rescue 

A confined space can be any site 
with limited access or limited entrance, 
said SPC Tom Drinkwater, a technical 
rescue and emergency medical techni- 
cian with the company. "A room with 
one door could be considered a con- 
fined space," he said. "In practice 
scenarios I've crawled through 14-inch 
pipes using a self-contained breathing 
apparatus, or SCBA." 

Vertical rescues include the use of 
ropes and pulleys to construct mechani- 

During confined-space training, MDW engineers use 
a mechanical advantage to remove a rescuer from the 
hull of the USS Berry at the Washington Navy Yard. 

cal "advantages" to make up for a lack 
of manpower, said Snavely. "We can 
use this technique to rescue a casualty 
from a cliff, in a cave — just about 
anywhere," he said. 

Collapsed-structure rescues include 
everything the name implies — 
structures that collapsed due to such 
causes as earthquakes or explosions. 

All three forms of rescue are often 
needed during collapsed-structure 
rescues such as during Exercise Golden 
Eagle in 1998. 

The scenario for the annual exercise 
— which in 1998 had participants from 
the Secret Service, the 3rd U.S. 
Infantry and the Federal Emergency 
Management Agency — was a "col- 
lapsed" building on Fort Belvoir that 
had an undetermined number of people 


trapped inside due to a "terrorist" 
bombing. The goal for the unit was to 
rescue as many "live" victims as 
possible. Secret Service personnel 
evaluated the MDW Engr. Co. rescu- 
ers, also known as the "Extractors." as 
they conducted their rescue operations. 

Home said 2nd Pit. was first on the 
site and surveyed the scene. "Within 
the first hour they made a 360-degree 
search around the building, found 
some personnel they could get to 
quickly and provided emergency 
medical treatment," he said. 

After finding a safe entry point, the 
platoon used chainsaws to cut through 
a wall to gain entrance to the building. 
"The first team in wore SCBAs until 
they got readings on the air quality," 
said Home. The SCBAs are used in 
case of gasses in the air or oxygen 

Once inside, the real work began. 
"We had to dig through all sorts of 
rubble — cut through pallets, boards, 
filing cabinets, refrigerators, stairs and 
desks." Home said. "It was like 50 
miles of computer paper and 20 meters 
of debris." 

Depending upon the material, the 
rescue teams used specific tools to dig 
through the debris. Chainsaws, 
skillsaws and axes were used for 
wood, while hydraulic chainsaws, 
jackhammers and drills were used for 

concrete. For steel-reinforced concrete, 
the team had access to a diamond-tooth 
chainsaw and welding equipment. 

Crawling through confined spaces 
tight enough to cause a claustrophobic 
to go into fits, rescue team members 
searched for victims. Most were 
eventually found in open areas called 
"void spaces." 

"The Secret Service guys 
would tell us the specific 
injuries of the victims and 
grade us while we provided emergency 
medical treatment," Home said. "About 
90 percent of the time the victims had 
some sort of neck or back injury, so we 
had to place them on skids and slide 
them out." 


■.■■■■■■;-. i*-; ,■... 

The Road to Rescue 

UNLIKE other jobs in the Army, there is no advanced individual training 
school that teaches soldiers how to conduct technical rescue operations. 
There is no military occupational specialty for "rescue" engineers. 

The soldiers assigned to this demanding unit start rescue training upon 
arriving at the company. Some of the training is formal schooling, but a vast 
portion of the working knowledge of how to conduct rescue operations is 
handed down from one soldier to the next. The institutional knowledge and 
experience are in the hands of the experts, the soldiers in the unit. 

"It's not unusual to see specialists giving classes to senior NCOs," said SPC 
David Home, a heavy-equipment operator trained in technical rescue opera- 
tions. "It just depends on who has the specific expertise and knowledge in a 
specific area." 

All soldiers assigned to the MDW Engineer Company must complete the 
following courses to be considered "certified" in technical rescue: 

• Rescue systems — This seven-day course teaches the basics of confined- 
space, vertical and collapsed-structure rescue operations. 

• Advanced rescue systems — This five-day course is a more detailed 
version of rescue systems. 

• Combat lifesaver— This five-day course teaches CPR, advanced first aid 
and how to administer an IV. 

• Hazardous materials — This one-day course covers how to identify 
hazardous materials and how to transport ammunition. 

Selected soldiers are given opportunities to attend the following courses 
while assigned to the MDW Engr. Co.: 
•Air assault — 10 days 

• Rope I and Rope II instructor training — 10 days 

• Rappel master — One week 

• Emergency medical technician — Three weeks 

• Incident commander — One week 

I* SCBA maintenance — Three days 
• Hazardous material responders — One week 
NOTE: This list does not include all the courses available. 

How to Apply 

Engineer soldiers practice helicopter 
sling-load operations with a hovering UH- 
1 Iroquois at Fort Belvoir's Davison Army 

Soldiers interested in volunteering for assignment to the MDW Engr. Co. 
should speak with their assignment managers and must be in one of these 
military occupational specialties: 

Combat Engineer (12B) 

Construction Equipment Operator (62E) 

General Construction Equipment Operator (62J) 

For more information contact the MDW Engr. Co. at (DSN) 656-5149 or 
imercial (703) 806-5149. — SFC John Brenci 

June 1999 

SGT Michael Love (center) of the MDW Engineer Company explains the configuration 
of the high-line and lowering system. 

of the rescue operation. "They don't 
want you in there for extended periods 
of time," he added. 

After 72 grueling hours of nonstop 
rescue operations, the mission was 
accomplished and more than 16 
"victims" were saved. "We kicked butt 
on the exercise," said Home. "It was 
really supposed to last another 24 
hours, but we finished early." 

A performance like that isn't 
surprising to Samuel. "These soldiers 
are exceptional. They have to be 
completely trained in nine months in 
something they've never done before," 
he said. "I would put any one of my 
rescue-certified soldiers toe-to-toe 
against any civilian rescuer who has 
been doing this for 10 to 15 years." 

The MDW Engr. Co. frequently 
trains with local agencies, and the 
soldiers consistently receive high 
marks from the rescuers. "Local 
rescuers have said they can't believe 
how good these guys are," Samuel 
said. "Some things they say we bring to 
the table that they don't have are 
discipline, endless drive and motiva- 
tion. It just goes to show the quality of 
soldiers we have today." 

Engineers interested in an exciting 
and challenging career might find 
rescue operations right up their alley, 
but Home doesn't recommend it for 
everyone — especially those who are 

An MDW engineer adjusts his self-con- 
tained breathing apparatus before partici- 
pating in confined-space training. 

When team members came across 
obstacles they couldn't cut through, 
they dug under the obstructions, said 
Home. In another situation, the rescue 
team had to set up a vertical rope 
system in order to lower a victim out of 
a second-story window. 

Home said different teams, each 
consisting of three rescue engineers, 
were periodically rotated into and out 

faint of heart. "One time we lowered a 
soldier through a manhole cover: he 
was six feet down before he realized he 
was claustrophobic and started to 
panic," Home said. 

You also have to consider the 
physical demands placed on rescue 
engineers. "You might have to pull a 
200-pound dummy by a rope tied to 
your ankle because the pipe you're 
crawling through is so small that you 
can only fit one person at a time." said 
Home. "I've hurt my back on several 

It's definitely not a job for the weak 
or meek. If you're scared of heights, or 
the thought of crawling through an 
underground pipe makes you ill, you 
might want to rethink your career path. 
These soldiers work in other people's 

"Still," Home said, "If you're 
looking for something out of the 
ordinary, this is the place to be. You'll 
learn skills here that you can't get 
anywhere else in the Army." □ 

A Brief History 

THE Military District of Wash- 
ington Engineer Company 
was activated July 1 , 1 989, at Fort 
Belvoir, Va. 

Soldiers assigned to the com- 
pany train for and conduct techni- 
cal rescue operations in support 
of military or federal contingen- 
cies in the National Capital Re- 

The MDW Engr. Co. is one of 
the last remaining engineer units 
at the former home of the engi- 
neers. The company assumed 
several of the engineering sup- 
port missions at Fort Belvoir and 
in the Military District of Washing- 
ton that had previously been per- 
formed by the 1 1th Engineer Bat- 
talion, which inactivated Aug. 15, 
1989. — MDW Engr. Co. 



Preserving a Bridge 

Storv bv Paul Levesque w w 

To repair a historic Mississippi River bridge, engi- 
neers, designers and planners at Rock Island Arse- 
nal created new parts using 102-year-old draw- 
ings drafted when the bridge was first designed. 

Workers carefully remove the original, damaged gear. 

ROCK Island Arsenal sometimes 
describes itself as a military "job 
shop," a place where the Army and 
other services can go when they 
need parts that are unique or can't 
be produced quickly or profitably by the 
private sector. 

Now, the arsenal has produced urgently 
needed parts, not for a weapon but for a 
key transportation link built more than a 
century ago. 

Government Bridge links RIA — 
located on an island in the Mississippi 
River between Illinois and Iowa — to the 
city of Davenport. In combination with 
another span known as the Rock Island 
Viaduct, Government Bridge, which is 
fully owned and operated by the federal 
government, carries local traffic across the 
river and provides access to Arsenal Island. 
On average, more than 18,000 vehicles use 
the bridge daily, along with an uncounted 
number of pedestrians and bicyclists. 

Built in 1896, Government Bridge 
includes a swingspan that opens to barges 
and other river traffic. Despite frequent 
waits in traffic caused by swingspan 
openings, residents of the two-state area 
known as the Quad Cities recognize the 
bridge both as a local landmark and an 
engineering marvel, because of its long 
record of reliability. 

In October, however, Government 
Bridge was forced to temporarily curtail 
operations due to a damaged gear. 

Bridge operators decided that continual 
turns of the swingspan, which can number 
a dozen or more a day, could cause a 
complete breakdown of the swingspan's 
drive mechanism. So they restricted the 
number of openings to only three a day. 

This meant that the bridge stayed open 
for river traffic 18 hours a day, and 
vehicular and rail traffic used the bridge 
during a two-hour period in the morning, 
another two- hour period at afternoon rush 
hour and during a late-night period set 
aside for train crossings. 

esque works for the RIA Public Affairs Office. 

June 1999 

The view of Government Bridge from Rock Island Arsenal, looking toward downtown Davenport, Iowa. 

Rick Bowlyou welds a key component. 

A "quick fix" was performed to get 
the bridge back into full operation 
pending permanent repair. The dam- 
aged gear was replaced with a spare 
gear that was already on hand, and the 
fix was completed with the installation 
of two new drive shafts and couplers. 

The parts were manufactured and 
installed by a team from RIA's Science 
and Engineering and Arsenal Opera- 
tions directorates. Had this manufac- 
turing expertise not been on hand, the 
bridge repairs could have been delayed 
for several months just to find and hire 
a qualified contractor. 

As soon as the Mississippi River's 
navigation season ended, team mem- 
bers began the task of permanently 
fixing the drive mechanism in time for 
the March resumption of river traffic. 

They started by replacing the 
bridge's drive mechanism, a series of 
components that turn the swingspan 
open and shut. Like much of the work 
performed at the arsenal, the project to 
repair the bridge had an absolutely firm 
deadline, but came without a clear set 
of building instructions. Project 
requirements included tight tolerances 
and enough strength and durability to 
handle very hard use. 

To make the repairs present-day 
arsenal engineers, designers and 
planners had to create parts using 102- 
year-old drawings drafted when the 
bridge was designed. They also tapped 
the knowledge of employees who were 
involved in past bridge-repair projects 
or who had extensive experience in 
bridge operations. Reverse engineering 
and computer modeling and testing 
were also used in what was essentially 
a prototyping effort. 

Among the parts produced for the 
new drive mechanism were gears, 
shafts, couplers and drive chains. All 
new parts had to be fabricated by early 
January to be installed and tested 
during the winter shutdown. 

The project involved many of the 
arsenal's capabilities, including 
foundry, casting, heat treating, machin- 
ing and finishing. Tolerances on some 
parts were measured in thousandths of 
an inch. Everything had to be built to 
stand the stress of a moving span that 
weighs more than 2 million pounds and 
is operated in all types of weather in a 
region known for temperature ex- 

Teams also built spare parts to be 
set aside in case of future breakdowns. 
All (he new engineering drawings 
made for the project — drafted by 
computer rather than pencil and ruler 
— were saved for reference, for that 

time in the 21st century when the drive 
mechanism may need to be replaced 

Once all the new components were 
in place the bridge went through 
several test turns. If 1999 is an average 
year, Government Bridge will be 
opened and closed about 4,000 times 
before it closes again for the winter. 

Dorman Miller, a former bridge 
operator who now oversees contract 
operations, was under the swingspan 
while it was being tested. Miller said 
the mechanism was so quiet he could 
hold a conversation in a normal tone of 

"The fact that it's that quiet really 
shows how well it was built and how 
well it's been maintained," Miller said. 
"It should remain in service for many 
years to come." □ 

Workers unload a new shaft for the 
bridge's drive mechanism. 


Around the Services 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

Prime Beef Improves 
Joint Forge QOL 

Tuzla Air Base, Bosnia- 
Herzegovina — Construction 
here seems to be an on-going 
event. Numerous projects have 
kept the 401st Expeditionary 
Air Base Group civil engineers 
too busy to take on every task. 
Bring on a 1 00th Civil Engi- 

Tech. Sgt. Ross Hindman cuts 
boards to fit the deck of Tuzla's 
Rock City Cafe. 

neer Squadron team of engi- 
neers, known in the Air Force 
as "Prime Beef," from RAF 
Mildenhall, England. This team 
of 10 carpenters, electricians, 
plumbers and heavy-equip- 
ment operators spent several 
months working on projects to 
improve the quality of life for Air 
Force members supporting 
Operation Joint Forge. 

They arrived in January 
with three major projects to 
complete, including building 
new furniture and putting in an 
extension to the Rock City Cafe. 
They also improved living ac- 
commodations by putting in 
subfloors. These improvements 
were necessitated by the up- 
coming arrival of additional sup- 
port personnel. 

"We couldn't have done 
those projects and our mission 
at the same time," said Senior 
Master Sgt. Gary Bushnell, 
401 st Civil Engr. Flight superin- 

tendent. "These guys have 
done a great job. You can see 
the quality of the work they do." 
— USAF SSgt. Scott Davis, 
401st EABG Public Affairs Of- 

Navy, Marines Explore 
New Technologies 

Palo Alto, Calif. — Imagine 
knowing your squad is outnum- 
bered two-to-one prior to en- 
gaging the enemy, simply by 
looking at your palm-top com- 
puter. This is one of the sce- 
narios the Navy and Marine 
Corps are developing to better 
protect troops. 

Corporations across 
America routinely use the lat- 
est information technology 
available. Now the Navy and 
Marine Corps want to make 
that same innovative technol- 
ogy available on the battlefield 
and at sea. 

A recent conference exam- 
ined military use of "commer- 
cial off-the-shelf" products. 
During the conference senior 
Navy and Marine officers met 
with executives from several of 
California's leading high-tech- 
nology companies. They dis- 
cussed how civilian state-of- 

Air Force Maj. Gen. Richard Engel looks over the guns aboard 
USCGC Aquidneck during the ICAF visit to Portsmouth. 

the-art information technologies 
could be effectively applied to 
military situations. 

"This conference is a learn- 
ing experience that marks the 
start of a new era in integrated 
technology for our armed 
forces," said Lt. Gen. John E. 
Rhodes, commanding general 
of the Marine Corps Combat 
Development Command. — 
J02 James L. Devine, USNR, 
Urban Warrior Joint Informa- 
tion Bureau 

ICAF Students Visit U.S. 
Coast Guard 

Portsmouth, Va. — Students 
in the Industrial College of the 

The Navy and Marine Corps are 
advanced civilian technologies 

looking for ways to incorporate 
into military operations. 

Armed Forces, part of the Na- 
tional Defense University, study 
military-resource allocation. 
Representing various branches 
of the armed services, a group 
of students recently had the 
opportunity to see what the 
Coast Guard has to offer and 
how it factors into the military 

ICAF students and faculty 
members visited the Coast 
Guard Atlantic Area Command 
and the Integrated Support 
Command, both in Portsmouth, 
Va. They had a chance to learn 
about the variety of Coast 
Guard missions, as well as tour- 
ing 270-foot and 1 10-foot cut- 

Such visits acquaint mili- 
tary and civilian students with 
other branches of the armed 
forces and federal government, 
and explain how agencies mesh 
into a cooperative force during 
national or international crises, 
said Air Force Maj. Gen. Rich- 
ard Engel, ICAF commandant. 

"I continue to be impressed 
by the breadth and width of 
what the armed forces can do," 
Engel said. "The Coast Guard's 
tremendous span of responsi- 
bility, its variety of aircraft and 
its ability to link with the Navy 
and integrate with joint inter- 
agency forces is very impres- 
sive." — USCG PA2 A.C. 
Bennett, Atlantic Area PAO 

June 1999 


From the Editor 

JUNE 14 marks the Army's 
224th birthday. As it has 
since 1775, the Army stands 
ready to protect and serve the 
nation. In this issue our fea- 
tures touch on just a few of 
the myriad missions the Army 
performs for the nation. From 
rescue engineers in the 
nation's capital and con- 
struction engineering at Rock 
Island, III., to the Army's En- 
glish shipyard and Fort Polk's 
urban warfare training 
ground, soldiers and civilians 
are serving around the world. 

Two stories in this issue 
look at the hundreds of infor- 
mation-systems specialists 
working to ensure the Army 
will be ready Jan. 1 when we 
and our computers enter the 
year 2000. 

And as we look forward, 
we also look back. We are 
pleased to bring you a remem- 
brance of 0-Day with former 
sergeant and now-famous 
cartoonist Charles M. Schulz. 
A World War II veteran, Schulz 
is active in establishing the 
National D-Day Memorial. We 
also present a tribute to two 
great soldiers who were there 
on 0-Day in our latest install- 
ment of the United States 
Army: A Heritage of Honor on 
the back cover. 

Enjoyed "Hero" 

WHEN your February issue fea- 
tured "A Hero Remembered," I 
was at BNCOC and had no idea 
the story was going to be run 
then. Two days before the is- 
sue was released, my wife told 
me that I was going to be in 
Soldiers for the naming of the 
post theater after PVT Fitz Lee. 
As I was scrambling for a copy, 
one of my classmates ap- 
proached me and, to my sur- 
prise, asked me to autograph 
his copy. The school comman- 
dant even congratulated me in 
front of the entire class! And 
more praise awaited me when I 
returned to Fort Leavenworth, 

The actual dedication cer- 
emony was very nice. Some 
relatives of the "Buffalo Soldiers" 
were there along with another 
Medal of Honor recipient. I was 
proud to have contributed to the 
com m u n ity of Fort Leavenworth 
by honoring such a deserving 

SSG Jason Dulberg 
via e-mail 

Awards Query 

WHERE can I find the authori- 
zation to wear the Armed Forces 
Expeditionary Medal that I un- 
derstand my unit earned while 
serving in Bosnia? I was a mem- 
ber of Headquarters and HQs. 
Company, 1st Brigade, 1st Ar- 
mored Division, as part of Task 
Force Eagle from Dec. 28, 1 995, 
to Nov. 30, 1996. I have been 
unable to locate any update to 
AR 600-8-22 that gives us that 

SSG Newell 
via e-mail 

Lawrence, responds: "The Mili- 
tary Awards Branch (www. 
awards) website provides ac- 

Extraordinary Issue 

JUST wanted to compliment you on an 
extraordinary April issue. Great job! 
LCDR John F. Kirby, USN 
Executive Editor, All Hands 

We just got a look at the April edition 
... impressive! A job well done. 

Bob T. Colman, 
Art Director, Field Artillery Bulletin 

cess to all of the latest informa- 
tion about the Army's awards 
and decorations program, in- 
cluding AR 600-8-22. 

"Soldiers should direct spe- 
cific awards and decorations 
questions to their immediate 
supervisor, supporting person- 
nel administration center, per- 
sonnel service center or the 
Office of the Adjutant General/ 
G 1 of the local command. 

"Award actions pertaining to 
Army retirees and veterans nor- 
mally are handled by the Na- 
tional Personnel Records Cen- 
ter in St. Louis, Mo. Requests to 
NPRC must be in writing to trig- 
ger a search for specific award 

"The request should include 
a copy of the former soldier's 
separation or discharge docu- 
ment and any documents that 
support the request. 

"The NPRC address is: Na- 
tional Personnel Records Cen- 
ter, Attn: Army Reference 
Branch, 9700 Page Avenue, St. 
Louis, MO 63132-5100. 

"For the most current per- 
sonnel information, visit PER- 
SCOM Online at www. " 

More History 

THANK you for the March ar- 
ticle about the Center of Military 
History and the great work be- 
ing done there. How do I find 
out more about the center? Is 

there a website where I can go 
for more details? 

1LT Jerry K. McBreairty 
Auburn, Maine 

THE CMH home page can be 
found at 
mil/cmh-pg. Or you can call 
CMH at (202) 685-2706/2707 or 

Certificates Moved 

YOUR March issue says on 
page 12 that Cold War Certifi- 
cates can be obtained from 
coldwar. i have tried many 
times and cannot get in. Can you 
help me? 

SGT Patrick T. Stout 
via e-mail 

THA T website has been moved 

Is That Patton? 

JUST for my own information, 
in the photo on page 1 1 of Sol- 
diers' April issue — I would like 
to know if the general standing 
between GEN Dwight Eisen- 
hower and President Harry 
Truman is GEN George S. Pat- 
ton Jr. Thanks. 

Tandy Biggervi 
via e-mail 

YOU'RE absolutely correct. 
That is Patton, ivory-handled 
pistols and all. 



Caption Correction 

IN the photo on page 37 of the 
April Soldiers, SPC Mike 
Lindenberger was demonstrat- 
ing how a demolition charge is 
prepared and explaining the 
function of the M60 fuse igniter. 
If he were preparing an actual 
demolition charge he would 
have been wearing Kevlar and 
eye protection. Thank you for 
an otherwise great article on our 

1SG Jeffery J. Hartman 
Grafenwohr, Germany 

No Birthday? 

THE USAR center where I am 
assigned is named for SSG 
Robert H. Dietz, featured on 
your April back cover. I am 
embarrassed for you and sad 
for his family that you could not 
determine his date of birth. You 
listed it as 19?? when it is, in 
fact, Jan. 22, 1921. 

CW4 George H. Audette 
via e-mail 

THANK you for providing this 
information. None of the sources 
we consulted before going to 
press listed Dietz's date of birth, 
so our choice was to recognize 
his contribution and sacrifice or 
substitute another soldier for 
whom we had complete bio- 
graphical data. We chose the 
former and think you will agree 
that his actions deserved to be 
recognized despite the fact that 
our records were incomplete. 

Sharper Shooters 

WHILE the Fort Gordon, Ga., 
public affairs staff enjoyed your 
April Sharp Shooters section, 
two of those photos were from 
here, not Fort Lewis, Wash., as 

The top left photo of two 
men on a tractor using a drip 
torch and the photo of Steve 

June 1999 

Willard holding a southern hog- 
nose snake were submitted by 
this office. 

James L. Hudgins, PAO 
Fort Gordon, Ga. 

YOUR April Sharp Shooters in- 
troduction implied that all the 
photos were taken at Fort Lewis, 
when a couple of them actually 
came instead from Fort Gordon. 
Regardless, I'm glad you 
showed use of prescribed fire 
to manage the ecosystem. Not 
only is it the most cost-effective 
tool for many jobs in this arena, 
it's also an ecological necessity 
in many parts of the country. The 
men and women managing 
Army land are among the best 
in the business, and our lands 
are showing it! Keep up the good 

LTC Stuart M. Cannon 
Fort McPherson, Ga. 

SOLDIERS regrets the error. In 
commemoration of Earth Day, 
the intent of the April Sharp 
Shooters department was to 
focus on environmental happen- 
ings at several installations. In 
addition to the photos identified 
from Fort Gordon, the photo of 
the yellow cactus flower was 
taken by Rafael Corral at Fort 
Bliss, Texas. 

Almanac Photos 

PLEASE give me the correct 
mail and e-mail addresses for 
submissions for use in the next 
edition of The Soldiers Alma- 

Jason T. Woodward 
via e-mail 

DETAILS on submitting photos 
for next year's almanac are 
spelled out on page 15 of this 

Proper Respect 

WHEN asked about my favorite 
holiday, I replied "Memorial Day" 
and explained that this is about 
the only holiday left that has not 
been overly commercialized. It's 
a time when we honor those who 
have bought ourfreedom, often 
with their own lives. Yet, how 
many of us pay that same trib- 
ute when we hear reveille or 
retreat played on military instal- 
lations? Next time you hear 
those familiar sounds, ask your- 
self if you have time to stop your 
car and render the proper re- 

SSG Richard L Matthews 
Fort Huachuca, Ariz. 

JUNE 14, Flag Day, offers 

Americans an opportunity to pay 
tribute to the symbol of freedom 
and democracy that has been 
the hallmark of this country for 
more than two centuries. 

Additional Almanacs 

WE need additional copies of 
the January almanac. It had 
great information with reference 
to my office in the National 
Guard Readiness Center. 

MSG John W. Mayo 
Arlington, Va. 

WE'RE planning to frame Mr. 
Yu Hu Son's calendar photo in 
the almanac for presentations 
here in Korea. Could we get 50 
extra copies? 

MSG Tracy L. Tanner 
via e-mail 

YOUR copies are on the way. 

Soldiers is for soldiers and DA 
civilians. We invite readers' views. 
Stay under 150 words — a post 
card will do — and include your 
name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire 
and may condense your views be- 
cause of space. We can't publish 
or answer every one, but we'll use 
representative views. Write to: 
Feedback, Soldiers, 9325 Gun- 
ston Road, Ste. S108, Fort Bel- 
voir, VA 22060-5581, or e-mail: 

United States Government 

Order Processing Code 


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Thank you for your order 


What's New 

Compiled by SFC John Brenci 

Soldiers deploying 
to Bosnia will be 
using NATO's DAF 

Schinnen, Netherlands 

Troops Train 
on NATO Trucks 

DUTCH instructors recently 
trained 14 service members 
from the Central Region Signal 
Group on NATO's DAF 2300 
Heavy Transport Vehicles. 

The troops were preparing 
for deployment to Bosnia as 
part of a CRSG rotation and will 
be operating DAF 2300 HTVs 
during their mission. 

"Our primary concern is to 
train soldiers and airmen going 
to Bosnia on how to drive, 
operate and maintain NATO 
vehicles they may be assigned 
to operate during their deploy- 
ment," said Wil Raven, the 
254th Base Support Battalion's 
traffic manager. 

"We don't want our soldiers 
killed by bullets. We wouldn't 
want them killed by a truck ac- 
cident either," he said. 

These same vehicles are 
part of the Allied Forces Central 
motor pool inventory. However, 
none of the soldiers or airmen 
deploying with Central Region 
Signal Group previously had li- 
censes to operate the vehicles. 

Upcoming Events 
June History 

Raven said each four-week 
period of training involves learn- 
ing and gaining the experience 
of operating a DAF 2300 HTV 
with trailer. 

"This training is being done 
by a private contractor, but li- 
censing is done by Driver's Test- 
ing here at Schinnen," said 
Raven. "We ensure that the 
contractor is 1 00 percent in com- 
pliance with all host-nation 

SGT Joseph Aldous, who 
is assigned to D Troop, CRSG, 
at AFCENT, pointed out that 
the DAF 2300's transmission 
system is similar to the Family 

of Medium Tactical Vehicles the 
Army now uses. 

"The semi-automatic clutch 
makes it easier to drive because 
you don't have to shift when 
you're at or coming to a stop," 
Aldous said. — 254th Base 
Support Battalion Public Affairs 

Fort Belvoir, Va. 

CID Looks for 
Soldier Sleuths 

THE U.S. Army Criminal Inves- 
tigation Command is looking for 
soldiers interested in careers 
as special agents. 

Applicants should be spe- 
cialists or sergeants who have 
a general technical score of 1 1 
or higher, have completed 30 or 
more semester hours of col- 
lege, and have eight or fewer 
years of active federal service. 

CSM Michael Misiano- 
wycz, of CID's headquarters at 
Fort Belvoir, said interested 
soldiers don't have to be mili- 
tary police to qualify and be 
accepted into the training pro- 

Kosovo Update 

gram for CID special agents. 

ACID agent's work "is not a 
standardized MP job," said 
Marianne Black, chief of the ac- 
creditation branch. "Our profes- 
sion is an excellent opportunity 
for enlisted soldiers who aspire 
to become warrant officers," she 

CID also offers a local six- 
month internship program for 
soldiers who lack the required 
law-enforcement experience. 
Major installations offer CID in- 
tern opportunities for dynamic 

"Enrollment in these initial 
internships helps develop the 
recruit's potential to complete 
the rigorous 15-week Appren- 
tice Special Agent Course at 
the U.S. Army Military Police 
School," Black said. After these 
classroom studies, soldiers 
spend their first year as appren- 
tice agents before becoming 
fully accredited. 

Soldiers who are not mili- 
tary police may enter the intern- 
ship program after receiving 
their commander's permission. 
With successful training and a 

Refugee Relief Gets Hot Line 

PRESIDENT Bill Clinton recently announced the opening of a toll-free federal telephone hot line, 
(800) USAID-RELIEF, to direct callers to organizations providing relief to Kosovar refugees. 

Clinton said the government established the line in response to many federal employees 
asking how they could help. In addition, the U.S. Agency for International Development website 
lists known groups active in the Kosovar relief effort. The site address is 

"We can best help alleviate the suffering in the Balkans by providing financial support to relief 
agencies on the front lines. The organizations are on site, they know how to deliver the relief and 
they need financial support," Clinton said. 

Thousands of ethnic Albanian Kosovars are believed to have been killed in Yugoslav attacks 
in the Serbian province. About 1.4 million others have been driven from their homes and are in 
refugee camps in surrounding countries or in hiding in Kosovo. — American Forces Press Service 

June 6: 2nd Bn., 75th Ranger Regt., 
re-enactment of D-Day assault. 

June 4: US. 9ih Army enters and . 
liberates Rome from the Nazis, 1 944 

June 6: 55th anniversary of D-Day. 
Allied forces land in Normandy, 1944. 

June 9: Sylvanus Thayer, 1st super- 
intendent of West Point, born in 1 785. 




continued desire to become 
criminal investigators, these sol- 
diers may apply for acceptance 
into the program. 

Soldiers with at least six 
months of law-enforcement ex- 
perience may apply for accep- 
tance without the internship. All 
applicants must undergo an in- 
tense background investigation 
to determine suitability and fa- 
cilitate the granting of a top- 
secret security clearance. 

CID agents investigate all 
felony offenses committed on 
Army property and alleged 

felony violations of the Uniform 
Code of Military Justice com- 
mitted by soldiers anywhere. 
Agents also offer protection for 
key Defense and Army officials. 

Since the application and 
background review process 
may take up to nine months, 
interested candidates need to 
complete their packets as soon 
as possible to compete for train- 
ing slots. 

The most important require- 
ment, accordingto Misianowycz, 
is that a candidate must want to 
be a detective. 

Finance News 

Pay Info by Phone 

SERVICE members can now access pay information from 
the master military pay account using an automated Interac- 
tive Voice Response System, thanks to the Defense Finance 
and Accounting Service-Indianapolis Center. 

Soldiers can access the system — 24 hours a day, seven 
days a week— by calling (31 7) 51 0-0299 or (DSN) 699-0299. 

The system goes through a series of questions that 
enable the caller, using a touch-tone telephone, to establish 
a secure, confidential, personal identification number. 

Once the PIN is validated, service members can access 
pay information regarding Direct Deposit information for mid- 
and end-of-month pay, allotments and bonds, tax information 
and debt and leave information. 

This system also provides generic information on fre- 
quently asked questions such as non-receipt of allotments, 
information on bonds in safekeeping, reporting procedures 
for lost or stolen bonds, inquiries regarding estimated earn- 
ings for purposes of civilian retirement and direct access to a 
bond specialist. 

While IVRS is a convenient, easy way to obtain pay 
information, contact your finance office as the primary chan- 
nel for resolving pay issues and obtaining information. 

Reservists, National Guard members and separating 
soldiers seeking pay information should call the customer 
service line at (317) 510-2800 or (DSN) 699-2800. Retirees 
should call (800) 321-1080 and annuitants should call (800) 
435-3396. — DFAS PAO 

"If you have that desire, we 
can teach you what is needed 
to be a special agent. Just call 
the nearest CID office and tell 
them you'd like to investigate 
the career field," he said. — 
Army News Service 

Fort Detrick, Md. 

Soldiers to "Wear" 
Medical Records 

SOLDIERS may soon find them- 
selves "wearing" their medical 
records, thanks to a Personal 
Information Carrier that is still 
under development. 

A PIC is a small, rugged, 
electronic storage device for 
recording, storing and transmit- 
ting medical data. Depending 
on the capacity, it can store 
portions or all of an individual's 
computer-based patient record, 
including digital images. 

It's designed to be carried 
by the service member and to 
serve as the primary medical 
data source in situations where 
computer network connectivity 

is not available or as a backup 
medium in all other scenarios. 

The U.S. Army Medical Re- 
search and Materiel Command 
released a Request For Infor- 
mation in March 1998 to iden- 
tify potential technologies. Sev- 
eral companies responded to 
the RFI by loaning their prod- 
ucts for participation in equip- 
ment technical feasibility tests. 

The devices were tested 
under various conditions and 
the results have been encour- 
aging. Additional field testing of 
the PIC is slated for the fourth 
quarter of this fiscal year. 

Some of the technologies 
examined include Flash Mem- 
ory, Electrically Erasable Pro- 
grammable Read-Only Mem- 
ory and Integrated Circuit Chip. 

The devices ranged in size 
from a dime to that of a credit 
card. Distinguishing character- 
istics were storage capacity (8 
kilobytes to 96 megabytes), data 
transfer rate (6 kilobytes per 
second to 6 megabytes per sec- 
ond) and infrastructure require- 
ments. — USAMRMC PAO 

Personal Information Carrier technology is incorporated into a 
number of different devices. 

-t June 14: Flag Day 
Army Birthday 

-June 14-18: Drill Sergeant of the 
Yeaf Competition, Fort Monroe, Va. 

June 12: Women's Army Corps becomes part of the 
Regular Army and the Organized Reserve Corps in 1 948. 

■■ I "I II I ■■ I I IW — — »l» 

Father's Day 

June 20 

June 18: Congress declares war on Great Britain, 
L beginning the War of 1812. 

June 1999 


What's New 

New York, N.Y. 

Korean War Stamp 

AMERICANS recently proved 
the Korean War deserves a 
special place in history by 
choosing to honor it with "The 
Korean War" stamp. 

This stamp is one in a sheet 
of 1 5 new collectible "Celebrate 
the Century" stamps chosen by 
the public in nationwide ballot- 
ing to represent the most memo- 
rable events of the 1950s. 

The Korean War is often 
tagged "The Forgotten War" 
because it began in the shadow 
of World War II, was fought in a 
faraway land and concluded 
with a negotiated armistice. For 
the 1.5 million U.S. men and 
women who served there and 
the families and friends of those 
who didn't return, this war will 
probably always be etched in 
their memories. 

Sheets of 1 5 commemora- 
tive stamps honoring the 1 900s 
through the 1950s, including 
"The Korean War" stamp, are 
now available at post offices 

Sheets of stamps com- 

"The Korean 

War" stamp is 

now available 

at post offices 


1960s will be 
available in 
August; the 
1970s in No- 
vember; and the 
1980s and 1990s in January 

For more information on 
"Celebrate the Century," visit 
the website at 
etc. — Cohn and Wolfe 

Washington, D.C. 

Wanted: Younger 

TO infuse youth into the recruit- 
ing effort, U.S. Army Recruiting 

Command will begin a pilot pro- 
gram using young, single, first- 
term soldiers as recruiters. 

Up to 200 corporals will 
begin arriving at recruiting sta- 
tions around Aug. 1, according 
to USAREC officials. All sol- 
diers who are selected for this 
program must be volunteers 
from the Continental United 
States or overseas Table of 
Organization and Equipment 
units who meet the basic re- 

Soldiers accepted into the 
program must have sufficient 
time in service remaining to com- 
plete a 12-month tour with 
USAREC, followed by an addi- 
tional 12 months in their initial 
unit of assignment. Candidates 
must be recommended by the 
first colonel in theirchain of com- 

Quality of Life News 

USAREC is also seeking 
female soldiers and soldiers of 
Hispanic or Asian-Pacific eth- 
nic origin as a means of pen- 
etrating those growing recruit- 
ing markets. 

Volunteers will be screened 
by the U.S. Total Army Person- 
nel Command after recommen- 
dation from the chain of com- 
mand is received, officials said. 
coordinate all assignments and 
match special qualifications and 
desired preferences where pos- 

Soldiers who volunteer and 
are selected will fill vacant 
USAREC authorizations and will 
not increase the overall strength 
of the recruiting force, officials 
said. Interested soldiers are 
encouraged to contact their 
PERSCOM assignments man- 
agers. — ARNEWS 

Posts Privatize Housing 

FORT Hood, Texas, is now working with a Department of the Army task force to privatize the 
installation's 5,482 units of family housing. 

Three other installations — Fort Lewis, Wash., Fort Stewart, Ga., and Fort Meade, Md. — 
will begin later this year to work with the private-sector to develop plans to privatize their housing 
under a pilot program for the Army's Residential Communities Initiative. 

Under RCI, the Army will partner with private sector firms to jointly develop plans to provide 
housing and service facilities for Army families. In most cases an installation's family housing 
will be conveyed to a developer with a long-term land lease in return for an agreement to 
renovate/replace existing quarters and build new units when required. The developer will also 
be responsible for operating and maintaining the housing units for the term of the lease. 

Officials said RCI would attempt to eliminate a $6 billion backlog in construction and 
maintenance for Army family housing caused over the years by inadequate funding and complex 

Over the next six years, more than 40 installations in the United States will privatize their 
housing under RCI, officials said. They estimate that a total of 85,000 housing units will be turned 
over to private developers by 2005. Housing at overseas installations will continue to be 
maintained using appropriated funds. 

For more information, visit the RCI website at — ARNEWS 

Timeline (cont.) 

June 24: Berlin Airlift 
begins, 1948. 


,— June 26 - July 4: Battle of Gettysburg com- 
memoration days, Gettysburg, Pa. 

June 25: North Korean forces invade 
South Korea, 1950. 

June 28: Reception Day, West Point. 


manac Alert 



The Soldiers Almanac 

Outstanding Soldi 

SOLDIERS is once again looking for outstanding 
soldiers to model Army uniforms for next year's 
edition of The Soldiers Almanac uniform poster. 
This year we are accepting applications from 
soldiers up to the rank of staff sergeant, and from 
second lieutenant to captain. 

To be considered, send a packet that includes: 

• An official DA photo, taken within the last six 

• A brief biographical sketch of military career. 

• A letter of recommendation from unit com- 

• Contact information, including telephone 
number, unit address and e-mail (if available). 

Packets must be submitted no later than July 
15. Applicants who are selected will be notified by 
telephone. They should be able to travel TDY in 

WE want you to be part of the 
fifth annual edition of The 
Soldiers Almanac. 

Much of the almanac will be 
dedicated to the "This Is Our 

Army" photo feature. That's 
where you — the soldiers, 
family members and 
civilians who make up the 
Army — come in. 

If you have a candid 
photo of the Army family at 
work or play, send it in. 
Mail your best photos to 
us by Aug. 15. There's only 
one rule — all photos must have 
been taken between Sept. 1, 1998, 
and Aug. 15, 1999. 

We are looking for color 
slides and prints. We don't need 
8x10 glossy prints — standard 
prints will do. Due to the number 
of responses we get every year 
and the amount of time required 
to view, select and process digital 
images for print, we cannot accept 
images electronically for submis- 
sion to this feature. 

To enter, complete the form 
below and attach it to each 
photo you send. Photos without 
complete caption information will 
not be considered. Photos and 
accompanying information cannot 
be returned. 


iiJJJiijJjjlRlj JMUiJ 

SOLDIERS is also seeking 
landmark photos from installa- 
tions throughout the Army for 
use in next year's almanac. We 
need photos from both active- 
duty and reserve-component 
installations. These landmarks 
may include statues, historic 
buildings, front-gate signs and 
even aerial shots of the installa- 
tion. This is a great way to 
showcase your installation in The 
Soldiers Almanac. Photo entry 
deadline is Aug. 15. 

We can also accept digital 
images for this category, but they 
must be at least 300 DPI at 3x5. 
JPEGs should be saved at the 
maximum possible resolution. 
Send digital images by e-mail to 

For more information contact 
SSG John Valceanu at (DSN) 
656-4504 or (703) 806-4504, 
or e-mail him at soldiers® 

Mail your entries with prints 

or slides to: 

Soldiers Magazine 

ATTN: Photo Editor 

9325 Gunston Rd., Suite S108 

Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581 


"This Is Our Army" 
Entry form 

Photographer'-, full name 

Rank (if military) 


Slreel address 

City IAPOi 



Photocopy this entry form and attach a copy to each photo you submit. 

Where and when was the photo taken? (Use approximate date if necessary.) 

Describe the action in the photo. (Include full name, rank and unit of those pictured.) 

Mail to: Soldiers, "This Is Our Army," 9325 Gunston Rd., Suite S108, Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581 Photos must have been 
taken between Sept.. 1. 1998. and Aug. 15, 1999. Color or B&W prints and slides are acceptable. Photos that are obviously posed or 
that show obvious uniform or safety violations will be disqualified. Entries cannot be returned and must be postmarked by Aug. 15. For 
more information see Soldiers Online at 

f* '***% 

j^L* ' 

Story by Heike Hasenauer 

AS clocks continue ticking down 
the days, hours and minutes 
toward 2000, some pessimistic 
media hype still forecasts 
potential doom. 

Some reports suggest the civilized 
world could face major recessions, 
blackouts, and food and water short- 
ages. Others predict the disruption of 
communications, transportation, and 
medical and banking services, as well 
as threats to national defense. Coun- 
tries, for example, could mistakenly 
launch retaliatory missiles in response 
to perceived attack. 

"This is going to be a bad year for 
paranoids," said a Jan. 18 article in 
Time magazine. 

At the same time, Y2K experts — 
the ones who are actually working to 
avert problems — say: "Don't panic. 
The world will not come to an end." 

The good news is that many Y2K 
reports — including those from 
agencies and organizations whose 
services are critical to daily operations 
in the civilized world — are more 
encouraging. Their reports outline 
what's been done so far to correct the 
problem, what's being done, and what 
the world can expect by midnight on 
Dec. 31. 

The problem, of course, is the Y2K 
computer "bug" that threatens to 
disable uncorrected computers at 12:01 
a.m. on Jan. 1, 2000. That's because 
older computers have been pro- 
grammed with two digits, instead of 
four, to represent the year in a date. 

When those two digits roll over to 
00. uncorrected computers will 

interpret the date not as 2000, but as 
1900, said Bill Dates from the Year 
2000 Project Office in the Directorate 
of Information Systems for Command, 
Control, Communications and Comput- 
ers in Falls Church, Va. DISC4 
spearheads the effort to correct Army 

What's Affected? 

Virtually every computer applica- 
tion that's been designed over the last 
30 years is affected, as are roughly 10 

percent of the 25 billion or so embed- 
ded systems worldwide, according to a 
December 1998 report by Christopher 
Tippins published by Software Tech- 
nologies Inc. 

Embedded systems are devices that 
contain microprocessors, programs and 
computerized "clocks" that work 
together to perform an automated 
function, Tippins said. 

They include the system that 
controls your VCR, those that switch 
trains from one track to another to 
avoid collision and those that control 
satellite trajectories and communica- 
tions. They're also found in such 
critical systems as medical equipment, 
aircraft instruments and powerplant 

The affected systems are often 
considered separately as information 
technology and non-information 
technology systems. 

The former include computers, 
telephones, radios and facsimile 
machines, said John Longtin, an 
information systems management 
officer with the U.S. Army Signal 
Activity at Fort Belvoir, Va. 

Non-IT systems are those with the 
embedded chips. 

Government's Efforts 

The Defense Department's ap- 
proach has been to focus first on safety, 
security and core missions, ensuring 
that both IT and non-IT systems are 

Experts say that dire predictions of the Y2K- 
induced collapse of the world's telecommu- 
nications infrastructure are baseless. 


Y2K-compliant. said Longtin. By 
March. Fort Belvoir agencies had 
already purchased the systems they 
needed to become Y2K compliant, but 
some of the equipment had not yet 
been installed. 

At Fort Bragg. N.C.. LTC Carl 
Prantl, commander of the 111 2th 
Signal Battalion, is the information 
technology point of contact for Y2K. 
He*s responsible for ensuring informa- 
tion networks — phones, computers 
and electronic mail — continue 
working on Jan. 1. Mike Lorenzo, from 
the post's Public Works Business 
Center, handles such non-IT systems as 
heating and cooling, and alarms. 

"We've conducted a series of 
inventories and tests using software to 
identify systems that were not Y2K- 
compliant."' Prantl said. "Our results as 
of March 1 indicate more than 98 
percent of the computers at Fort Bragg 
are Y2K-compliant." 

For the military services, Y2K 
compliance is a matter of national 
defense and is, accordingly, being 
tackled with the utmost priority, Dates 
said. Every military installation has its 
own Y2K staff, dedicated to averting 

At the same time, congressional 
committees have been holding hearings 
and considering legislation regarding 
the Y2K computer problem. 

Within DOD, every affected system 
was labeled as either critical or non- 
critical and placed in one of four 
categories: already compliant, being 
repaired, being replaced or being 
retired, said Dates. 

Recent Grades 

Federal agencies continue to report 
to a House oversight committee and 
recently were graded on their progress. 

Organizations that corrected 
systems before the Office of Manage- 
ment and Budget's March 31 deadline 
got an "A." Those whose progress 
indicated fixes wouldn't be complete 
until 2000 or 2001 got a "C," and those 
that lagged into 2002 and beyond got 
"D" and "F" ratings. 

The Department of Veterans 

For the military 

services, Y2K 

compliance is a matter 

of national defense 

and is, accordingly, 

being tackled with the 

utmost priority. 

Affairs, General Services Administra- 
tion and Office of Personnel Manage- 
ment each earned an A- in February 
1999 for meeting their goals. 

DOD overall got a C-, according to 
Steve Horn, chairman of the Govern- 
ment Reform Subcommittee on 
Government Management, Information 
and Technology. 

Horn's committee found that more 
than "50 percent of the government's 
critical computer systems were still not 
ready for 2000. There's much work to 
do in the months to come," Horn said. 

Mission-Critical Systems 

A January Army report indicated 
that 74 percent, 322 of a total 434 
mission-critical systems, have been 
fixed. By the end of March, the 
percentage jumped to 87 percent. And 
MAJ Sterling Mullis, a DISC4 action 
officer, said all the Army's mission- 
critical systems would be Y2K- 
compliant by Dec. 3 1 . 

Mission-critical systems include 
weapon systems such as the AH-64 
Apache helicopter, M1A1 Abrams 
tank, Patriot missile system and others 
communication systems such as the 
SINGCARS radio; and the SIDPERS 
personnel system. 

Specific Tests 

The Army Operational Evaluation 
Integrated Process Team — co-chaired 
by the DISC4 and the Army Digitiza- 
tion Office — includes members from 
Forces Command, Training and 
Doctrine Command, Operational Test 
and Evaluation Command and Depart- 
ment of the Army staff elements that 
continue to test systems in the field, 
including tests for interoperability with 
other systems. 

The Program Executive Office for 
Missile Systems, in Huntsville, Ala., 
for example, has tested "mission 
threads" associated with the Army's 
Multiple-Launch Rocket System, that 
link command and control systems, 
sensors, weapons and fire control 
elements. And White Sands Missile 
Range, N.M., has completed a Y2K 


June 1999 

evaluation of its communications 

Likewise, DISC4 officials said, the 
Simulation, Training and Instrumenta- 
tion Command has completed tests of 
instrumentation that supports live-fire 
training at the Army's combat training 

Finance and Personnel Systems 

The Defense Finance and Account- 
ing Service that pays military person- 
nel, DOD civilians and vendors has 
developed contingency plans for 
everything from electrical power 
failure to inability of the 
organization's computers to transfer 
funds, said DFAS spokeswoman 
Cathy Ferguson. 

As precautions, DFAS officials 
have submitted a proposal for a 
number of legislative changes, includ- 
ing payment of retirees and annuitants 
in December 1999, rather than Jan. 3, 

DFAS is also seeking authorization 
to provide emergency pay based on 
prior payrolls, if necessary, to ensure 
no one misses a paycheck. Because of 
these precautions and changes made to 

i « 

» \ ' i I 

the platforms upon which finance and 
accounting systems run, DFAS offi- 
cials are confident that active-duty 
military personnel, Defense Depart- 
ment civilians, retirees and annuitants 
will receive their January 2000 pay- 
checks on time. 

Additionally, DFAS is pursuing 
policy changes that would temporarily 

relax existing use-or-lose leave regula- 
tions, increase the amount of cash on 
hand, temporarily waive the waiting 
period for contract invoices, change the 
budget and funds-distribution cycle, 
and accelerate or delay those open 
season programs that would normally 
become effective on Jan. 1, Ferguson 

Steps You Can Take 

Individuals can help prevent pay 
problems by ensuring their home 
mailing addresses are correct, should 
DFAS be forced to issue checks instead 
of completing electronic fund trans- 
fers, Ferguson said. 

"Correct addresses will also 
ensure W-2s are not returned 
^ during the critical Y2K time 
frame. To reduce the risk of 
experiencing pay-related problems," 
she said, "military and civilian employ- 
ees should minimize the number of 
voluntary discretionary personnel 
actions they enter into the system 
during the critical time frame." Those 
include address and allotment changes, 
leave, training, travel payments and 

Oilier Y2K Areas of Concern 

ALICE Buck, branch manager for Carlson- 
Wagonlit Travel at Fort Belvoir, Va., said 
many airline flights for Dec. 31, 1999, and 
Jan. 1, 2000, "showed zero availability" in 

"Contrary to what many people might 

believe, lots of prospective travelers are not 

being discouraged from making special Year 

2000 travel plans," Buck said. "They want 

to do something memorable." 

That's despite the fact that in a 
March report to Congress, 
Raymond Long, the Federal Avia- 
tion Administration's Year 2000 co- 
ordinator, stated frankly that only 64 
percent of the agency's mission-criti- 
cal systems would be compliant by the gov- 
ernment-wide Mar. 31 deadline. 

Long added, however, that the FAA ex- 
pects to have all of its mission-critical sys- 
tems Year 2000-compliant by June 30. 
Long said he expects only minor disrup- 

tions — such as lost baggage and ticket 
problems — at some of the nation's 500 
major airports. 

'The negative hype has probably sub- 
sided a little bit from this time last year," said 
COL Terry Shanahan, deputy chief of staff 
for information management at the U.S. 
Army Medical Command at Fort Sam Hous- 
ton, Texas. 

Shanahan is confident Army medical 
facilities will continue to provide uninter- 
rupted, quality health care during the critical 
Y2K period. Army medical facilities, for one 
thing, are required to regularly test the gen- 
erators that provide backup power to virtu- 
ally every major operating system, Shanahan 

Additionally, MEDCOM facilities are re- 
quired to conduct two medical-readiness 
exercises annually to maintain their accredi- 
tation by the Joint Commission on Accredi- 



Contingency Planning 

Should computer glitches occur, the 
National Guard is ready to respond, 
officials said. The Guard is used to 
responding to the problems created by 
natural disasters. 

"We're not training our troops any 
differently because of the potential 
Y2K problem," said LTC Tim 
Donovan, a spokesman for the Wiscon- 
sin Army National Guard. "We always 
train for the type of contingencies that 
people are talking about with Y2K. 

"We're not expecting major 
problems, because most public facili- 
ties have emergency power backup 

For specific DOD-related informa- 
tion on Y2K and its potential results, 
visit the Army's Y2K site at, the 
assistant chief of staff for installation 
management's site at www.hqda., and the 
President's Council on Year 2000 
conversion at The 
latter contains information about the 
Y2K problem and the federal 
government's efforts to snare the bug 
before it bites. □ 

tation of Healthcare Organizations. JCAHO 
is a national organization that accredits 
civilian and military hospitals. 

This year, medical officials plugged a 
Y2K scenario into one of the required exer- 
cises, said MEDCOM spokeswoman Cindy 

"We have some 124,000 biomedical 
devices in our facilities — life-support ma- 
chines, like fibrillators — that could have 
been affected. We identified them, met with 
manufacturers and made them Y2K com- 
pliant," said LTC David Farner, MEDCOM's 
Y2K officer. 

Heating, ventilation and air-condition- 
ing systems — "anything that could have 
contained embedded chips — - were also 
tested and made compliant," Farner added. 
"We tested more than 46,000 MEDCOM 

In March Farner said 98 percent of 
MEDCOM's equipment was Y2K-compli- 
ant and the remaining equipment will be 
compliant by 2000. 

What about pharmaceuticals? Will hos- 
pital pharmacies have enough prescription 
drugs on hand to meet demand? 

(Continued on page 20) 

Pay Will Be OK, Despite Y2K 

THE Defense Finance and Accounting Service director wants you to know that 
extinction looms for the last "Y2K bugs" that may be hiding in Defense Depart- 
ment payroll systems. 

All DFAS payroll computer software has proved Y2K compliant and was to be 
operating on compliant hardware by Mar. 31 , said Gary W. Amlin. "I am very 
confident that all DOD civilians, military members and retirees will in fact get paid 
after Jan. 1 , 2000," he said. 

Amlin said the service began work on Y2K three years ago. But DFAS doesn't 
pay military members, civilians and retirees on its own. It receives personnel 
information from the various personnel agencies. DFAS workers compute the pay 
and send the information to the Federal Reserve Bank, which then distributes 
payments electronically to thousands of financial institutions. 

Tests show the computer interface between DFAS and the Federal Reserve 
works, Amlin said. The Federal Reserve Bank will support testing of Y2K solutions 
with selected CONUS financial institutions, overseas DOD credit unions and 
NationsBank, the defense contractor that provides banking services to all DOD 
personnel overseas. 

The finance and accounting service is also working on contingency plans in 
case an unexpected Y2K problem appears. For example, back-up computer tapes 
will be on standby at the Federal Reserve Bank in case there's a data-transmission 
problem. And the service will have an extra stockpile of checks, in case individual 
banks cannot post deposits. 

Amlin said service members, DOD civilians and retirees should not stockpile 
money, but he recommends that they ask their financial institutions what they're 
doing to prevent Y2K problems. 

"I would imagine most financial institutions will include what they are doing on 
the monthly account statements," he said. "But if you don't see it, you should ask." 

He also says that if you have to start allotments, change addresses, set up new 
accounts or perform similar tasks, you should not wait until December to perform 
these actions. 

Amlin has alerted the DFAS staff not to plan for holiday season leave this year. 
The service will try to "clear the pipeline" of financial transactions by late December, 
he said, and will stand by at year's end to handle any system problems that may 
arise. — American Forces Press Service 

June 1999 

. -j 

■ i mm 

(Continued from page 19) 

That's a more localized issue. "We're 
encouraging every MEDCOM pharmacy to 
coordinate with its pharmaceutical supplier 
to ensure it will be able to fill orders without 
any delays," Farner said. 


Similarly upbeat, William White, Year 
2000 Initiative executive director for U.S. 
West, a telephone company that provides 
long-distance service to customers in 14 
western states, said telephone service should 
not be disrupted. "Most telephone switches, 
which relay long-distance calls to their proper 
destination, are not date-dependent. Most 
switches don't care what day it is." 

And while water suppliers may be tem- 
porarily unable to meet customer demand, 
according to a joint Army-Navy report re- 
leased recently, most utilities experts be- 
lieve watertreatment and distribution should 
not be greatly affected either. 

Other Services and Systems 

The U.S. Postal Service will also con- 
tinue service, according to a report on its 
Y2K website. 

The Social Security Administration is 
also positive. 

According to Commissioner Kenneth 
Apfel, social security checks issued to some 
46 million Americans monthly will be on time 
when 2000 arrives. 

The U.S. Department of Agriculture en- 
sures food supplies will not suffer. And offi- 
cials at the Consumer Electronics Manufac- 
turers Association informed the Federal 
Trade Commission that most consumerelec- 
tronics products would continue to function 
in the Year 2000 because their components 
are also not date-sensitive. 

Older VCRs and coffee makers could be 
affected, CEMA officials said. Questions 
should be directed to the product manufac- 

Check out your personal home com- 
puter, too, to see if it's Y2K-compliant. Offi- 
cials at the Army's DISC4 office recommend 
visiting the manufacturer's World Wide Web 
site for information and guidance on what to 
do if it isn't compliant. 

Everyone probably wants to be pre- 
pared when 2000 rolls over. But whetherthe 
new year will come in with only its traditional 
parties, firecrackers and the celebratory 
descent of the shimmering silver ball at 
Times Square — or something totally out of 
the ordinary — is something only time will 
tell. — Heike Hasenauer 




LIKE many of the Army's high-tech organizations that 
rely on powerful computers to propel their daily 
missions, U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll and Kwajalein 
Missile Range are working hard to tackle problems that 
may occur because of what some people call the "millen- 
nium bug." In 2000, computers based on a two-digit 
system will cycle to 00, causing many programs to mal- 

The Kwajalein Missile Range plays a major role in 
several military, scientific and governmental activities — 

Preston Lockridge is the public affairs officer for U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll and 
Kwajalein Missile Range. 

U.S. Army, Kwajalein Atoll, and the Kwajalein Missile Range employ a range 
of high-tech sensors and systems, each of which has been rendered Y2K- 
complaint. The Kwajalein facilities' Y2K team developed a two-phase plan to 
validate and demonstrate that compliance. 

All photos courtesy Kwajalein Missile Range 

June 1999 


Kwajalein Missile Range's Y2K compliance was vital to the successful fulfillment of the 
range of military, scientific and governmental activities the facility performs. 

including national and theater missile 
defense test programs, support for 
NASA and the U.S. Space Command, 
and the acquisition and tracking of 
foreign missile launches from Asia. 
"Becoming year 2000 compliant, 
and ahead of schedule, has become a 
ajor challenge for our soldiers, 
ientists and technicians. The com- 
exity of KMR missile test programs 
nd the pervasiveness of Y2K concerns 
set the ground rules," said USAKA/ 
KMR commander COL Gary 

Most missile lesls require the full 

spectrum of KMR sensors, which 
include highly sophisticated radars 
located on Roi-Namur and Kwajalein 

The complexity of test programs 
increases with the addition of ship- and 
aircraft-mounted mobile sensors. All of 
these systems provide radar and optical 
data used in the design of missile 
defense interceptor systems. These 
programs are complex, and equipment 
used in the programs is equally com- 
plex and must work flawlessly to 
produce useful data. 

The KMR Y2K team developed a 


two-phase plan to validate and demon- 
strate the range's compliance with 
Department of Defense and Army Y2K 
management plans. 

First, each major sensor has a 
computer system and software capable 
of supporting the sensor's diverse 
mission assignments. A systems 
engineer was selected to bring that 
sensor into Y2K compliance. The 
second phase was to network the 
systems and conduct simulated Y2K 
tests using all the KMR sensors under 
test conditions. 

To explain the process, McMillen 
began with a description of the AL- 
TAIR system. ALT AIR radar is a 
highly sophisticated sensor used for 
deep space, near-earth and orbital 
tracking. As one of the sensors in the 
Space Surveillance Network, ALTAIR 
detects, tracks, identifies and catalogs 
all man-made objects in space, includ- 
ing new foreign missiles. The system 
performs more than 40,000 satellite- 
space-object tracks each year for the 
U.S. Space Command. 

Two years ago, ALTAIR engineers 
began work on solving their Y2K 
problem. McMillen said the engineers 
followed the Army's five-phase 
resolution process: awareness, assess- 
ment, renovation, validation and 

Awareness was easy. The system 
has 1.2 million lines of unique code. 

Assessment was another story. 
Source code was scanned for key 
words such as "time," "year" or 
"rollover." There were hundreds of hits 
during the scans, and each had to be 
examined by a knowledgeable engi- 
neer. The result was that about 200 
changes were made to ALTAIR base 

Validation is accomplished by 
testing. ALTAIR engineers imple- 
mented two capabilities to support 
testing: one to protect existing and real- 
time data being collected and one for 
Y2K testing, McMillen said. 



Both were used to complete a full 
series ol~ local tests, demonstrating that 
validation was mature enough for 
implementation — to support inte- 
grated tests with KMR customers. 

A series of Y2K tests in October 
1 998 examined the Space Command 
Network, of which ALTAIR is a 
component. The process also involved 
data manipulation and exchanges with 
the test system at Peterson Air Force 
Base. Colo. 

Each of the range's major sensors 
went through a five-phase process to 
validate its systems prior to implemen- 

The second phase of KMR's Y2K 

compliance plan involved networking 
the various test sensors into a test 
scenario, McMillen said. A series of 
four test conditions was set up to 
'"warp" the timing systems used in 
actual tests forward to year 2000. Two 
of the tests used data and test scenarios 
from previous tests, simulating them 
for year 2000. 

In the third test, a meteorological 
rocket was launched from Kwajalein 
Atoll. All KMR radars and optics sites 
tracked and recorded data on the 
rocket, with time and date configured 
for Nov. 12, 2000. All three tests were 
highly successful. 

The fourth test, designed to resolve 

any major Y2K issues that surface as a 
result of the first three tests, was 
canceled because of the confidence of 
the KMR mission personnel that all 
problems had been solved. 

"The success of the test was not 
unexpected," said KMR test director 
MAJ Jeffrey Nadal. "System engineers 
from each of the range's sensor assets 
have continuously and thoroughly 
located the problems unique to their 
system, fixed the problem, and tested 
the solution to assure that the system 
was Y2K-compliant. When the various 
systems were networked for Y2K 
interoperability testing, they performed 
flawlessly." □ 

Most missile tests undertaken at KMR require a full range of complex and highly capable sensors, all of which depend on equally 
complex programs to gather the accurate data necessary for correct evaluation of each test. 

June 1999 


Soldier Show 

THE Soldier Show cast is on the roe 
high-powered music and dance to 
major cities. This year the show will 
63 locations in 24 states and Korea. 


ain, bringing a mix of 
/ posts and several 
it 1 1 9 performances at 

1999 U.S. Army Soldier Show Schedule 








Fort Hamilton, N.Y. 
Natick Depot, Mass. 
Maiden, Mass. 
Fort Drum, N.Y. 
New York, N.Y. 
Fort Detrick, Md. 
14 Washington, D.C. 
16 Fort Eustis, Va. 
18-20 Fort Gordon, Ga. 
22-23 Fort Knox, Ky. 
26-27 Fort McCoy, Wis. 
30 Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 


2-3 Fort Carson, Colo. 
7 Fort Riley, Kan. 
9-10 Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. 

12 Red River Depot, Texas 
15-16 Fort Hood, Texas 

18 Memphis, Tenn. 

21 Redstone Arsenal, Ala. 

22 Fort McClellan, Ala. 
25 Fort Polk, La. 

27 Houston, Texas 

30 Fort Sam Houston, Texas 


1 Lackland AFB, Texas 
4-6 Fort Sill, Okla. 
9-10 Fort Bliss, Texas 

13 White Sands Missile Range, 

Fort Huachuca, Ariz. 
Yuma Proving Ground, Ariz. 
Fort Irwin, Calif. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 
Presidio of Monterey, Calif. 
Fort Lewis, Wash. 


4 Fort Greely, Alaska 

6 Fort Wainwright, Alaska 
9-10 Fort Richardson, Alaska 

16 Camp Stanley, Korea 
18-19 Camp Casey, Korea 
20 Camp Gary Owen, Korea 
22 Camp Carroll, Korea 
24 Yongsan, Korea 
26 Camp Page, Korea 
28 Camp Humphreys, Korea 


2 Milwaukee, Wis. 

4 Chicago, 111. 

7 Rock Island, 111. 
9-10 Fort Campbell, Ky. 

13 Fort McPherson, Ga. 
15-17 Fort Benning, Ga. 
19-20 Fort Rucker, Ala. 
22-24 Fort Jackson, S.C. 
27-28 Fort Stewart, Ga. 

30 Fort Bragg, N.C. 


1-2 Fort Lee, Va. 

3 Fort Monroe, Va. 

5 U.S. Military Academy, 
West Point, N.Y 

8-10 Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Md. 
12 Washington, D.C. 

14 Fort Bel voir, Va. 







For more information 
and schedule updates, 
visit the MWR website at 

June 1999 



Compiled by Gil High 

£f% From Army Posts Around the World 

CPT Christopher Laneve, commander of the Sabalauski Air As- 
sault School, gives Nashville U.S. Army Recruiting Battalion DEP 
recruits a few insights about the "10 hardest days in the U.S. 
Army" during the recent Fort Campbell DEP Orientation Tour. 

Fort Campbell, Ky. 

Keeping Recruits 

NASHVILLE Recruiting Battal- 
ion lost nearly 23 percent of its 
Delayed Entry Program recruits 
during fiscal year 1998. These 
losses only added to the 
workload of recruiters, already 
battling a competitive market, 
who then had to try to replace 
each lost recruit, said MAJ David 
M. Branstetter, the battalion's 
operations officer. 

The battalion's leadership 
team, while seeking a way to 
retain more DEP recruits, got 
just the opening it needed when 
Fort Campbell, Ky., and the 
1 01 st Airborne Division offered 
recruiters use of the post and its 
facilities for a monthly DEP ori- 
entation tour. The first tour was 
conducted in February, and 42 
DEP recruitsfrom Kentucky and 
Tennessee attended the event. 

The Sabalauski Air Assault 
School was the tour's first stop. 
The school's commander, CPT 
Christopher Laneve, and cadre 
member SGT Michael Rel gave 
the newcomers a briefing on 
the school and its importance to 
the division. 

School cadre demonstrated 

various types of rappel tech- 
niques, including the five-man, 
fast-rope and head-first Austra- 
lian rappels, and they briefly 
discussed the format of the 

SFC Buddy Daniel is a long- 
time Army Reserve recruiter 
who presently works out of the 
battalion's Madison, Tenn., sta- 
tion. He said he hoped the pro- 
gram would continue. 

"I thought it was great," 
Daniel said. "A lot of the young 
people who went with us were 
very impressed with it. It would 
also be good to bring in guests, 
especially those who are strad- 
dling the fence in regards to 

SGT Anthony T. Sweasy is 
a first-year recruiter who works 
out of the Chattanooga East 
Recruiting Station. He brought 
four recruits on the three-hour 
ride to Fort Campbell. Sweasy 
said he believed it was time well 

"They loved it; all four of 
them were ready to go tomor- 
row," Sweasy said. "We talked 
all the way back from Fort 

The recruits also toured the 
post's Don F. Pratt Museum, 
the Post Exchange, the educa- 
tion centerand Blanchfield Army 

Community Hospital. 

Sweasy said the tour had 
practical benefits for busy Army 
recruiters. "I think it's good when 
the battalion organizes it, be- 
cause it takes the planning out 
of our hands and better orga- 
nizes it," he said. "It gives indi- 
vidual recruiters more time to 
concentrate on recruiting." — 
Nashville Recruiting Battalion 

Fort Stewart, Ga. 

Field Trip 

FORT Stewart's Engineer Bri- 
gade officers recently visited 
their counterparts at the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers' Sa- 
vannah District so the brigade 
officers could see how the du- 
ties of the USACE engineers 
differ from their own. 

The Savannah District is 
one of 41 USACE districts 
charged by Congress with mili- 
tary facilities design and con- 
struction, water resources de- 
velopment and conservation, 
environmental restoration, and 
real estate acquisition and dis- 
posal for reservoirs and military 
installation needs. 

The trip was part of a pro- 
fessional-development program 
for all officers in the brigade. 
The 70 engineers were given 
the Savannah District command 
briefing, explanations of some 
of the district's roles and re- 
sponsibilities, a boat tour of the 

Savannah River and a visit to a 
dredge-disposal site. 

Crew members on the sur- 
vey boat explained how they 
surveyed Savannah Harbor to 
acquire data before and after 
dredging. Then, at the dredge- 
disposal site, the officers 
learned how silt and water re- 
moved from the harbor are 
monitored by district techni- 

"Someday one of these of- 
ficers may be a district com- 
mander," said COL David 
Washechek, commander of the 
3rd Infantry Division's Engineer 
Brigade. "I think it's useful for 
them to begin to prepare now 
for the requirements that the 
Corps of Engineers and the 
nation may expect from them." 
— Alicia Gregory, Savannah 
District Public Affairs Office 

West Point, N.Y. 

Teamed up 
for Training 

Fort Stewart engineer officers 
take a firsthand look at a 
dredge spoils site. 

AN intensive two-week course 
has brought together U.S. Mili- 
tary Academy faculty and Army 
Reservists from various units to 
instruct cadets in military lead- 
ership skills, physical training 
and selected professional mili- 
tary subjects. 

According to LTC Steve 
Bullock of USMA's Department 
of Military Instruction, the pro- 
gram began after a 1 989 study 
that led to the creation of a 
"military inter-session" in Janu- 

"Moving military science 
from the academic year to inter- 
session has allowed for a more 
intensive, albeit shorter and 
more condensed, approach to 
teaching military-science sub- 
jects," Bullock explained. 

Seventy-five percent of the 
300 instructors needed for the 
training come from USMA, with 
most of the other instructors 



U.S. Military Academy Cadet 
4th Class Mitchell Ferris famil- 
iarizes himself with an M-203 
grenade launcher. He and other 
West Point plebes received ex- 
tensive hands-on familiariza- 
tion training with several light 
weapon systems during the 
academy's annual military in- 

coming from the Reserve. This 
was the first year that the 98th 
Division, headquartered in 
Rochester, N.Y., served as the 
lead USAR component. Other 
reserve components came from 
all over the United States and 
from as far away as Hawaii. 
Additional manning came from 
the Armor Center at Fort Knox, 
Ky.; the Infantry School at Fort 
Benning, Ga.; and the National 
Training Center at Fort Irwin, 

Four core military subjects 
are taught during inter-session. 
First-year plebes learn map- 
reading and troop-leading pro- 
cedures while cadets in later 
year groups learn tactics ap- 
propriate to a light-infantry pla- 
toon, and then concepts of com- 
pany-level, combined-arms op- 
erations in heavy forces. 

The course that has under- 
gone the most revision this year 
is 'Tools of the Trade," for first 
class cadets. Bullock said this 
course is set up to provide an 
active learning environment 
based on a deployment sce- 

nario, where instructors portray 
company commanders and ca- 
dets act as platoon leaders, giv- 
ing briefings and writing deci- 
sion papers. 

Bullock said that an advan- 
tage of the inter-session train- 
ing is that it anticipates the sum- 
mer training and gives the ca- 
dets an opportunity to work with 
soldiers from various units 
around the country, places 
where they may someday serve. 
— Ann Bray, USMA Associa- 
tion of Graduates' electronic 
newsletter, Gray-Matter 

Heidelberg, Germany 

Towers Allow 
Apartment Expansion 

AN innovative construction pro- 
cess that adds outside towers 
to existing Army housing units 
is under way at 26th Army Sup- 
port Group's Patrick Henry Vil- 
lage here. The project not only 
expands square footage of se- 
lected three- and four- bedroom 
apartments, but also provides a 
second bathroom and a private 

Dubbed the Bathroom and 
Laundry Investment Campaign, 
the initiative can be accom- 
plished more quickly than nor- 
mal renovations because occu- 
pants don't have to move out 
during the process. This saves 
time and money, allowing 
USAREUR to renovate about 
10,000 targeted apartments in 
other military communities by 

The renovations, which add 
about 100 square feet to each 
apartment, cost an average of 
$40,000 per unit, including 
plumbing fixtures, cabinets, new 
washers and dryers. 

Apartments that already 
have sufficient square footage 
will not use the tower addition 
method, but will still be reno- 
vated to add bathroom and laun- 

dry facilities. — DCSENGR, 

Fort Lewis, Wash. 

A Place 
to Worship 

FOR Muslims the December- 
January season of Ramadan is 
the highlight of the religious 
year. But for the small Muslim 
community here, what made the 
holy month even more joyous 
this year was that they could 
celebrate the end of their month 
of fasting and prayer by gather- 
ing in their own house of wor- 

The process that brought 
this about began when Chap- 
lain (CPT) Abdul-Rasheed 
Muhammad, one of only a hand- 
ful of Muslim chaplains in the 
armed forces, came to Fort 
Lewis in February 1998. 

Muhammad was welcomed 
by post Muslims, who knew the 
rarity of having their own chap- 
lain. But of equal significance 
was the start of a conversion 
project to transform a post 
chapel into a mosque. 

The project began in April 
and the building was open for 
worship in July, thanks to the 
efforts of post public works plus 
many volunteer hours contrib- 
uted by Muslim soldiers on post. 

The mosque is complete 
with specific items for Islamic 
worship, including a special ba- 

sin used by members of the 
mosque to wash themselves in 
one of the ceremonies of the 

Another benefit of the Mus- 
lim emergence on post has been 
command recognition and sup- 
port of the religion. 

"The commands are start- 
ing to realize that they've got 
diversity in their units," said SGT 
Linwood Baker, 2nd Battalion, 
8th Field Artillery Regiment. 
"The chain of command is start- 
ing to support us, and it helps 
the units, too, because soldiers 
who are allowed to practice their 
religion are better soldiers." 

"This is truly a great time for 
us, to have the recognition and 
acceptance and the fellowship 
and the place to worship that 
we do," Muhammad said. "The 
fact that we tolerate each other 
without compromising our indi- 
vidual and personal beliefs says 
a lot about our strength." — 
SGTGaryL. Qualis, Fort Lewis 

Chaplain (CPT) Abdul-Rasheed Muhammad makes a point while 
speaking to post Muslims at a recent Fort Lewis Islamic service. 

June 1999 






JUNE 6 marks the 55th anniver- 
sary of D-Day, and since Charles 
M. Schulz, creator of the "Pea- 
nuts" cartoon strip, is chairman 
of the capital campaign to build the 
National D-Day Memorial, it seemed 
appropriate to talk to him about the D- 
Day landing. Here are some of his 
comments concerning the importance 
of D-Day and the contributions made 
by the soldiers of World War II. 

Soldiers: You were drafted during 
the war and served with the 20th 
Armored Division, but didn't partici- 

William A. Mcintosh, a retired colonel, is vice president for 
education for the National D-Day Memorial. 

pate in D-Day. Is that right? 

Schulz: Yes. I was training at 
Camp Campbell, Ky., when we heard 
about the invasion. I remember I was 
operating the machine gun of our half- 
track when the announcement was 
made. At the time, I was the leader of a 
light machine-gun squad in the 8th 
Armd. Infantry Battalion. 

Soldiers: When you reflect on your 
time in the Army, what stands out in 
your mind? 

Schulz: That we were at war and 
we were all in it together. I tell people 

(Top) Schulz, one of today's 
most popular cartoonists, 
was a machine-gun squad 
leader (inset) during WW II. 

now that they missed something if they 
weren't alive in those days, because it 
was a period in history that will never 
be duplicated. The relationships, the 
music that we heard, the loves that 
were gained and lost, made up the 
memories that were totally different 



Though Peanuts usually focuses on lighter 
topics, Schulz has commemorated D-Day 
and other significant historical events. 

from any other generation. 

When I first went in, I thought it 
would be nice if I could get a job 
drawing pictures or painting signs or 
things like that, but I soon discovered, 
as my first sergeant said: "We don't 
want artists. What we need is rifle- 
men." As training progressed, I found 
that my friends and I became truly 
dedicated to trying to be good soldiers, 
dedicated to learning as much as we 

Eventually we became just as proud 
of being good infantrymen. In those 
days, members of the air corps and the 
paratroopers got the publicity, but it 
was the infantryman who was the 
backbone of everything. 

I recently mentioned to GEN Colin 
Powell that of all my honors over the 
years, the one I'm the most proud of 
receiving is the Combat Infantryman's 
Badge. And he said, "Yes, I agree." 

I'm grateful, of course, that I was 
able to survive the experience, to have 
come out unscathed, and still say, "I 
did it." I know I must have been one of 
the last people some people would 
have thought could become the leader 
of a light machine-gun squad. But I did 
become one. and I'm proud of that. 


Soldiers: You did 

some drawing during 
the war. Did you do 
any cartooning? 

Schulz: No real 
cartooning; I wasn't 
ready. I knew I 
wasn't good enough. 

But soldiers enjoyed cartoons; I could 
see that. Yank magazine had a lot of 
good gag cartoons and it had The Sad 
Sack, which was a wonderful feature. 

I think cartoons were extremely 
important. Not just to me but to most of 
us. I remember when we first saw the 
Bill Mauldin cartoons. I admired 
immediately what he was doing. 

Soldiers: In your work, you seem 
to set June 6 apart from other dates. 

Schulz: Yes. I think any sensible 
person with a grasp of history would 
have to admit that D-Day was the most 
important day of our century. Without 
D-Day it's possible that Europe could 
have remained for another 25 or 50 
years in darkness. I'm glad I wasn't 
there, and yet my admiration for the 
people who were knows no bounds. 

I had a conversation once with 
someone who said there were two 
critical elements that helped us to win 
the war. One was the breaking of the 
codes, and the other was Winston 

I said: "I can agree, but I think there 
was a third element. That was the G. I. 
— the common soldier, the common 
person — who was willing, in spite of 
not wanting to do it, to accept his 
orders and to be sent in all 
directions all over the world to do 
something, which in many cases, 
he didn't even understand." 

Soldiers: So you think the 
G.I. played a central role in the 
success of D-Day? 

Schulz: Yes. And in the other 
landings, too. But Normandy was 
the one landing that was a must. 
Others could have failed. The two 
wars, of course, the one in Europe 
and the one in the Pacific, were 
different kinds of wars, and some 
of those landings could have 
failed without having similar long- 
range effect. But D-Day could not have 
failed. It would have been a disaster if 
it had. 

Soldiers: You are the chairman of 
the Capital Campaign for the National 
D-Day Memorial. What motivated you 
take on that task? 

Schulz: It's so easy for us, as 
generations come and go, to forget 
what other generations did. It's still 

The National D-Day 
Memorial Foundation 

THE National D-Day Memorial is 
under construction in Bedford, 
Va., the community that suffered the 
nation's highest per capita losses 
during the Allied landings at Nor- 
mandy. Congress designated the 
project as a national memorial on 
Sept. 23, 1996. 

Incorporated in 1989 to operate 
under the provisions of section 
501(C)(3) of the Internal Revenue 
Code, the National D-Day Memorial 
Foundation is an educational founda- 
tion to memorialize the valor, fidelity 
and sacrifices of the Allied armed 
forces on D-Day, June 6, 1944. 

The memorial is scheduled to be 
dedicated June 6, 2000, the 56th an- 
niversary of D-Day. Construction of 
the education center will begin as 
additional funds become available. 

For more information, visit the 
National D-Day Memorial online at Mail inquiries to the 
National D-Day Memorial Foundation, 
P.O. Box 77, Bedford, VA 24523, 
phone (800) 351-DDAY, or contact 
the foundation by e-mail at 

The National D-Day Memorial will 
honor the Allied forces that took part 
in the epic invasion. 

disconcerting to talk to younger people 
and find they have almost no knowl- 
edge of what was done. I think there 
are certain things that must never be 

Perhaps sometimes we do have too 
many monuments, too many holidays, 
and things of this kind. But D-Day is 
not one of them. No, it's one of those 
days we must not forget. □ 

June 1999 


Old Post, _ 
New Mission 

Story by Eric J. Hurwitz 
Photos by Jan Abate 

AS a result of a 1991 Base Realign- 
ment and Closure decision, Fort 
Devens, Mass., after 79 years, 
closed its doors on March 3 1 , 
1996. The next day, it was business as 

Since then, the Devens Reserve 
Forces Training Area, located in north- 
central Massachusetts, has emerged as 
a prime training facility, annually 
supporting nearly 60,000 National 
Guard and Army Reserve soldiers and 
Navy and Marine Reserve units from 
throughout New England and the 
eastern seaboard. 

"There's a substantial reserve 
component in New England," said the 
Devens RFTA commander, LTC 
Edward R. Murdough. "They needed a 
place to train, and now they have it. To 
continue that way, we need to stay 
here, do our jobs well and stay up-to- 
date on everything we need to be." 

The Devens RFTA reports to Fort 
Dix, N.J., under the U.S. Army Re- 
serve Command. Just under 160 
civilian employees support more than 
25 reserve- and active-component units 
located on Devens. During its first 18 
months as an RFTA, Devens was 
commanded by a civilian, H. Carter 
Hunt Jr. Murdough took command in 
October 1997. 

"There's a long way to go before 
the military and surrounding communi- 
ties see Devens as an important 

Eric J. Hurwitz works for the Devens Reserve Forces Train- 
ing Area Public Affairs Office. 

A soldier from 2nd Battalion, 197th Field Artillery, hones his skills during reserve-com- 
ponent training at the Devens Reserve Forces Training Area. 

training area," Murdough said. 

"It will take five or six years before 
that will happen," he said. "The fact is 
that the public now sees Devens as a 
closed installation. We've had a hard 
time convincing people otherwise." 

With no commissary, post ex- 
change, housing or medical facilities, 
the RFTA has the look of a bare-bones 
facility. When Fort Devens closed, the 
Massachusetts Development Finance 
Agency acquired much of the land to 
develop a business community. 

That left the RFTA with a 5,200- 
acre training enclave, kept operational 

by a much-reduced work force. 

The change has been truly dramatic. 
In 1986 Fort Devens served 5,343 
soldiers, more than 6,036 family 
members, most living on-post, and a 
civilian workforce of 2,913. 

Today there are 632 active-duty 
military and civilian personnel and 
1,537 Reservists working on Devens, 
with an additional 2,000 soldiers 
training there on any given day. 

Military housing is empty, or has 
been torn down to make way for state 
projects. Many office buildings are just 
that — buildings with no people. 



Soldiers attending a wheeled-vehicle re- 
covery course wrestle a truck through a 
mud hole on Fort Devens' South Post. 

Streets, once filled with troops march- 
ing to class and soldiers driving to 
work, are empty. Restaurants and 
service facilities, former headquarters 
buildings and other structures are 

Yet the area is rebounding, thanks 
to an ambitious 40-year state plan that 
has already attracted such businesses as 
the Gillette Company, which now 
occupies a building five times the size 
of a football field. 

And the training that goes on at 
Devens provides more proof that the 
area is alive and well. 

Modern small-arms ranges allow 
soldiers to sharpen their marksmanship 
skills. There are 21 training areas, 23 
ranges and six facilities for land 
navigation, orienteering or small-unit 
field training exercises. Other training 
support includes a drop zone, an 
Observed Fire Trainer, an audiovisual 
center and maintenance facilities. And 
the U.S. Reserve Forces Intelligence 
School is located there. 

Soldier support includes barracks 
and dining facilities, medical facility, 
military clothing store and credit union. 

"Our facilities and ranges are 
totally dedicated to support reserve- 
component training, and our close 
relationship with the 94th Regional 
Support Command allows us to 
leverage their assets as well," 
Murdough said. "And our tenant units 
from the 78th and 98th divisions are 
key readiness enhancers for both unit 
and individual training. As long as it's 
safe and legal, we can probably help a 
unit with w hatever it needs to accom- 
pli ^h a training objective." 

Fort Devens History 

SERVING as a reception center and, later, a demobilization center for soldiers 
drafted to fight in World War I, Camp Devens had already been a part of New 
England history for nearly 80 years. 

More than 400 units, including a Navy air squadron, have called Devens home. 

The post was named in honor of Brevet MG Charles Devens, a Union Army 
officer and, later, attorney general during the presidency of Rutherford B. Hayes. 

During World War II, Fort Devens was again designated as a reception center 
for all New England men destined to serve in that war. The post also housed the 
Army's largest wartime vehicle-repair facility, which fixed all the powered vehicles of 
the First Service Command. 

Three divisions — the 1 st, 32nd and 45th — had units that trained at Fort Devens 
during the war, and the 4th Women's Auxiliary Corps Training Center opened on post 
in April 1943. The 366th Infantry Regiment, a predominantly-black infantry unit 
during the war, also trained at Fort Devens. 

In February 1 944, the post opened a prisoner-of-war camp for 5,000 German and 
Italian soldiers. The camp remained in operation until May 1946 and, even today, 
former POWs return for an annual wreath-laying ceremony to honor POWs buried 

With the outbreak of the Korean War, Fort Devens was again designated a 
reception center, and two regimental combat teams were assigned there. Other units 
included two signal battalions, the United States Army Security Agency Training 
Center and School, the 56th Anti-aircraft Artillery Brigade and the 1 st Army Chemical 
Defense School. 

The last active Army units assigned to Fort Devens included the 39th Engineer 
Battalion, 36th Medical Bn., 46th Combat Support Hospital, 10th Special Forces 
Group, 18th U.S. Army Band and U.S. Army Intelligence School. — Eric J. Hurwitz 

Devens' ability 
to support new 
training require- 
ments is increasing 
as new projects are 
completed. The 
Army recently built 
a new ammunition 
supply point co- 
located with the 
RFTA's range 
control. Future 
initiatives include a 
petroleum training 
facility, enhanced 
classroom facilities, 
a 40mm weapons 
range, "enemy 

prisoner of war" training area, a U.S. 
Marine Corps Reserve center and 
renovation work on the former com- 

"We were shattered by the closure 
of Fort Devens," Murdough said, 

umbering the reactions of the few 


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Members of the 804th Med. Bde. remove a "casualty" from a 
New Hampshire National Guard helicopter during a reserve- 
component medical exercise conducted at Fort Devens. 

soldiers and civilian employees who 
remained after the realignment action. 

"Now we're on the move, with new 
activities and new organizations. 
There's much to be done by the Army, 
the state and the local community, but 
we're working on it," he said □ 


June 1999 


■Environmental Front 

Compiled by Karen Baker 

Installations throughout the Army use controlled storage 
facilities to track the life-cycle use of many products. 

Tracking Army Waste 

FROM paint and batteries to 
industrial solvents and 
degreasers, many items sol- 
diers use require special han- 
dling. As the Army increasingly 
seeks to prevent pollution, 50 
Army installations now use the 
Hazardous Substance Manage- 
ment System to track use of 
hazardous materials and reduce 
waste generated by overstock- 

"There are two major com- 
ponents of the HSMS program," 
said Stan Childs, the U.S. Army 
Environmental Center's HSMS 
team leader. 

One is the Centralized Haz- 
ardous Materials Management 
Program, which he described 
as a process that helps Army 
installations evaluate, select and 

implement improved business 
practices to better meet their 
hazardous-materials and 
waste-management needs. 

The other is the HSMS soft- 
ware, which includes a data- 
base for tracking hazardous 
materials and waste through- 
out their life cycles, from pro- 
curementthrough consumption 
or disposal. 

The intent of both the man- 
agement program and the soft- 
ware is to help installations pro- 
cure hazardous materials in only 
the quantities needed, track 
their use and reduce wastes. 

"The HSMS software will 
not make installations better 
managers of hazardous mate- 
rial, reduce hazardous-waste 
disposal costs, or save money," 
Childs said. "That is what the 
business-practice part of the 

program is designed to do." 

Management decisions are 
critical in light of how much 
money the Army spends to dis- 
pose of hazardous waste, a cost 
that diverts resources from the 
Army's mission-oriented train- 
ing, equipment and other mili- 
tary necessities, Childs said. 

The Army attributes about 
50 percent of its hazardous- 
waste disposal to over-procure- 
ment of hazardous materials, 
the resulting misuse of these 
materials or the expiration of 
their shelf life, he said. 

But Childs said that some 
installations are already seeing 
the payoff from successfully 
managing their hazardous ma- 

Fort Campbell, Ky., for ex- 
ample, has used a Hazardous 
Materials Control Center to sig- 
nificantly cut the generation of 
hazardous waste, thus avoid- 
ing the significant costs associ- 
ated with waste disposal. 

During fiscal year 1 997 the 
Fort Campbell HMCC managed 
more than $438,000 in excess 
stock collected from units and 
extended the shelf life of more 
than 4,400 items, saving about 
$44,000 in disposal costs. In 
FY 1998 the post was able to 
achieve a cost avoidance of al- 
most $1.6 million because of 
the HMCC and the implemen- 
tation of other improved envi- 
ronmentally related business 

Fort Carson, Colo., which 
established its HMCC in FY 
1998 with the Directorate of 
Logistics and the 3rd Armored 
Cavalry Regiment, recovered 
some $362,545 in hazardous 
materials from just these two 
organizations. The excess ma- 
terial stocks were reissued free, 
resulting in a cost avoidance of 

High-tech video mapping 
has helped Fort Huachuca 
preserve its fragile desert 

nearly $24,000 for the DOL and 
nearly $1 07,000 for the 3rd ACR 
in just two months. 

The Army Environmental 
Center's HSMS support network 
includes a website with infor- 
mation, a schedule of classes, 
and important program docu- 
ments. The web address is 
p2/hsms_01.htm. — Mike 
Cast, USAEC 

Mapping Desert Erosion 

MOST soldiers know about glo- 
bal positioning systems used 
by the Army to determine loca- 
tion and to navigate from one 
point to another. Fort Huachuca, 
Ariz., now uses GPS technol- 
ogy with a state-of-the-art map- 
ping system to help protect the 
environment while supporting 
and improving training. 

Seasonal rains in the desert 
cause severe soil erosion. A 
single downpourcan turn a well- 
maintained road into a gully 3 
feet deep and 6 feet wide. The 
post's Integrated Training Area 
Management program uses the 
new system to take images of 



erosion problems on the 67,000 
acres of Fort Huachuca training 
land and plot them on a com- 
puter-generated map. 

The video mapping system 
links a small, pocket-sized GPS 
unit to a digital video camera. 
As the camera captures visual 
images, the GPS coordinates 
are converted into a digital sig- 
nal, then recorded onto one of 
the videotape's audio tracks. 
Afterward, the camera and map- 
ping system are connected to a 
computer, and the tape is read 
by special software that plots 
the camera's location on a com- 
puter-generated map. 

Individual frames or entire 
segments can be captured from 
the tape and saved to the 
computer's memory. Users can 
then compare distance between 
erosion sites on the map simul- 
taneously with site pictures. 

The system has signifi- 
cantly reduced the time needed 
for data collection. ITAM per- 
sonnel can record images on 
tape while traveling in a moving 
vehicle and download the im- 
ages and notes onto a com- 
puter within minutes of return- 
ing from the field. The system 

tracks the date and time the 
video was taken for easy refer- 
ence later. 

The ITAM program will 
eventually map all of the roads 
and trails on the nearly 29,000- 
acre East Range training area. 
Many roads and trails crisscross 
the area, increasing the poten- 
tial for erosion due to the lack of 
vegetation. As part of the land 
rehabilitation and maintenance 
component of the ITAM pro- 
gram, some roads will be closed 
and reseeded to reduce the 
amount of bare soil in those 

After collecting data with the 
GPS and the video mapping 
system, a geographic informa- 
tion system is used to effec- 
tively manage and analyze the 
data. A GIS can be thought of 
as a map created from a series 
of data layers that can be indi- 
vidually selected and combined 
to generate a new map display. 

The GIS system allows des- 
ignation of a large number of 
suitable locations for units to 
bivouac, avoiding the potential 
damage from overuse of the 
same sites. The system helps 
ITAM personnel to map poten- 
tial new bivouac sites based on 
factors such as soil composi- 
tion, slope, line-of-sight, vehicle 
accessibility, vegetation type, 
and size of area available. It's 
also used to create buffer zones 
around environmentally sensi- 
tive and restricted areas. These 
new technologies give soldiers 
more areas to use for training, 
with better accessibility and 
improved lands. — CPT Steve 
Kroeker, Fort Huachuca ITAM 

UH-60 Limes Lake 

SOLDIERSfrom the 1 0th Moun- 
tain Division recently assisted 
the New York Department of 
Environmental Conservation by 
adding lime to an acidic lake to 

Soldiers attach a slingload of lime to a 10th Mountain Di- 
vision Black Hawk for transport to Hidden Lake. 

create a healthy habitat for 
aquatic life. 

The soldiers transported 20 
tons of lime from Stillwater Res- 
ervoir to Hidden Lake, in the 
Adirondack Mountains. Two 
UH-60 Black Hawk helicopters 
flew the missions in late Febru- 
ary. One helicopter crew trans- 
ported and dropped the lime 
onto the frozen lake where DEC 
workers spread it onto the icy 
surface, while the second crew 
observed the operation to en- 
sure it was carried out as 

According to Steve Joule, a 
wildlife biologist with the Fort 
Drum Environmental Division, 
helicopters were critical to the 
mission because motor vehicles 
aren't allowed in the surround- 
ing forest. 

Hidden Lake was no longer 
able to sustain fish, because of 
acid rain. But as the ice has 
melted, the lime has evenly 

blended across the entire lake 
to restore the water's pH value 
to a level suitable for fish to live 
in, said Bill Gordon, senior 
aquatics biologist for the DEC. 

This is the second time Fort 
Drum has helped the DEC with 
a liming project. The first mis- 
sion, the liming of Evergreen 
Lake in February 1 997, was very 
similar to this mission. Both 
lakes had a pH value of 4. Most 
lakes have a normal pH of 6.5, 
and any pH level below 5.6 will 
prevent fish from reproducing. 

"Evergreen Lake was a to- 
tal success," said Gordon, point- 
ing out that the lake has been 
stocked with fish for the past 
two years and that the largest 
fish in the lake are around 10 
inches long. 

Once Hidden Lake has 
reached the right pH balance, 
the DEC will stock it with native 
brook trout. — PFC Douglas S. 
Tilson, Fort Drum PAO 

Please send your contributions or questions to: Karen Baker, National Outreach 
Team Leader, U.S. Army Environmental Center, Attn: SFIM-AEC-PA, Bldg 4415, 
Aberdeen Proving ground, MD 21 010-5401, or e-mail: 
Baker can be reached by phone at (410) 436-68 1 7 or (DSN) 584-68 1 7. 

June 1999 


Focus on People 


Compiled by Heike Hasenauer 


has been 

in the 

Army, the 


Guard or 

the Reserve 

for all 

but one 

year since 


Wilson: Helping out in Honduras. 

FOR the last six months MAJ Mike Wilson, the civil 
affairs officer for Joint Task Force Sula, has been in 
northern Honduras, near the cities of El Progreso and 
San Pedro Sula, helping Hondurans rebound from the 
devastation caused by last fall's Hurricane Mitch. 

Wilson, a memberof the Army Reserve's Oklahoma- 
based 486th Civil Affairs Battalion, said military engi- 
neers and medical personnel form the largest body of 
troops and perform the most visible jobs, but civil affairs 
people work to win and keep the local people's confi- 

Some 2,700 reserve-component personnel from the 
Army and Air Force were in Honduras building clinics and 
schools, and digging water wells. They have also con- 
ducted two medical-relief missions. 

A big part of Wilson's job was to explain the big 
picture to those who could not imagine how a military 
force from the United States could place thousands of 
tons of equipment and supplies on a cattle ranch, in the 
name of peace. 

Wilson also coordinated the distribution of food and 
clothing donated by Americans to Hondurans still living 
in displaced-persons camps, and arranged for U.S. 
media representatives to file their stories from Honduran 
newspaper and television stations. 

Wilson, who has been in the Army, the National 
Guard or the Reserve for all but one year since 1973, 

received an ROTC commission from the University of 
Oklahoma in 1980. He became a special forces soldier 
in 1982, and has served as a civil affairs officer for the 
past two years. 

"He tries to help everyone. He doesn't care who they 
are or what they do," said Pedro Castillo, a memberof the 
El Progreso Chamber of Commerce. "He has a lot of 
enthusiasm and charisma. That helps him a lot with the 
local people. He seems to get along with just about 
everybody." — MSG Bob Haskell, National Guard Bu- 
reau Public Affairs Office 

SGT Kevin Riley and SPC Mark Browning, Russian 
linguists assigned to the 513th Military Intelligence 
Brigade's 202nd Ml Battalion, at Fort Gordon, Ga., 
recently served as translators for visiting Russian cos- 
monaut Commander Talgat Musabayev, when he vis- 
ited the Augusta, Ga., area. 

Musabayev, who spent 300 days, collectively, on the 
Russian Mir Space Station in 1994 and 1998, was a 
special guest of the Savannah River Site National Man- 
agement Association during its annual Space Week 

In a special ceremony at Augusta's Fort Discovery 
science center, Musabayev received the key to the city 
of Augusta from Mayor Pro Tern Lee Beard. 

"We only do this with our very special guests," Beard 
told Musabayev. "And you are certainly one of those." 

Riley interpreted Musabayev's reply: "I have not met 
a warmer welcome than this anywhere in the world," he 

Both Riley and Browning had a hectic first day with 
the cosmonaut. They visited and translated for Musabayev 
at four schools, during the evening key ceremony and at 
a Space Week dinner afterwards. Later in the week, both 
interpreters accompanied Musabayev on visits to schools 
in Richmond, Columbia 
and Aiken counties. 

Browning and 
Riley's interpreting 
skills were also tested 
on a tour of the Savan- 
nah River Nuclear Site 
and at a meeting of the 
Columbia County 
Board of Education. 

Previously, Riley 
had interpreted for 
American engineers in 
Kazakhstan during a 
joint exercise and, while 
he was assigned to Fort 

Riley (left): Translat- 
ing for a Russian 



Riley, Kan., for a Russian lieuten- 
ant colonel on an exchange pro- 
gram tour to report on American 
use of computer models and simu- 

Riley, who is also proficient in 
Spanish and Italian, said translat- 
ing for Musabayev taught him a lot 
about the Russian space program. 

One of Musabayev's main 
messages was that only through 
international cooperation could 
Russia realize the goals of its space 
program. — CPTGaryC. Tallman, 
513th Ml Bde. PAO 

White (left): World champion 

AS a management assistant in 
the Civilian Personnel Division at the U.S. Army 
Space and Missile Defense Command in Huntsville, 
Ala., Dorothy White monitors and streamlines person- 
nel management actions for more than 700 Army civilian 

White, 29, was the light middle-weight 1998 World 
Champion for Women's Black Belt Fighting in North 
America. The title is uncontested. 

White has a third-degree black belt in Taekwondo 
and competed in some 20 tournaments sponsored by 
the North American Sport Karate Association to earn her 

"When I started participating in martial arts, I thought, 
'I'm too old and clumsy to do this,'" she said. "My self- 
confidence was so low that I hung my head to avoid eye 
contact with people. 

"Through martial-arts training I have overcome my 
shyness and have gained a great deal of strength and 
self-confidence," she said. 

Her warm-up ses- 
sions include some 200 
side-straddle hops, 75 
push-ups, several rigor- 
ous abdomen "crun- 
ches" and a series of 
stretching exercises. 
Besides doing addi- 
tional weight training to 
polish her speed and 
strength, she spars with 
her peers to perfect the 
various karate forms she 
will eventually have to 
use to defend herself in 

"I work out for two 
hours, three nights a 
week, without fail," she 








"Karate involves respect, dis- 
cipline, loyalty, honor, spirit, heart 
and self-confidence. I try to prac- 
tice those virtues in everything I 
do," she said. "Although I lost six 
fights this year, I'd like to try to 
win the NASKA undefeated world 
championship title." 

White competed in the 1999 
World Tough Woman competi- 
tion in Mississippi that was tele- 
vised through a pay-per-view 
cable company. 

"While competing in Atlanta, 
I was also offered a chance to 
participate in a Florida-based tele- 
vision production called 'Mortal 
Combat.' I don't know if I'd be any good at acting, but I'd 
like to try it," she said. — Marco Morales, SMDC PAO 

TWO U.S. reserve-component aviators — among a 
U.S. team consisting of both civilian and military 
competitors — earned trophies recently at the World 
Championship of Para-Ski and the companion 
EuropaCups of Para-Ski held in Austria. 

Para-ski is a winter sport that combines the skill of 
parachute accuracy with giant slalom skiing. 

CW3 Christian Chandler, commanderof the Rhode 
Island National Guard's Detachment 2, Company F, 
192nd Aviation, and a C-12 and C-23 pilot, earned the 
silver medal at the 
EuropaCups for precision 
parachute landings at sites 
nearthree Austrian villages. 
At the world championship, 
he was on the best finishing 
U.S. team inthe team event, 
7th of 16. 

CW3 Janice Hutzky, a 
Chinook pilot and standard- 
ization instructorpilotfor Co. 
B, 5th Battalion, 1 52nd Avn., 
a Reserve unit from Fort 
Eustis, Va., earned the 
bronze medal at the 
At the world 
Hutzky scored 
on four of her 
five accuracy 
jumps. — COL 
Kirk M. Knight, 
Para-Ski team 

White, 29, 
was the 
light middle- 
weight 1998 
for Women 's 
Black Belt 
in North 

Chandler and Hutzky: 
Para-ski champs. 

June 1999 



Sharp Shooters 

Compiled by SSG John Valceanu 

Photos From the Field 


., i 


TEAMWORK is the key to suc- 
cess in the Army. From running 
a relay race in the mud and 
playing soccer in MOPP gear to 
clearing a trench or an urban build- 
ing, it's teamwork that allows sol- 
diers to overcome any challenge. 

Fort Lewis, Wash., soldiers participate in the Mount Rainier to the Pacific Relay. — 
Photo by CPT Jeffrey P. Dennis 



Troops of the Texas-based 1st Cav- 
alry Division practice trench clearing 
on a Kuwaiti range. — Photo by SGT 
Jeffrey Ege 

New York Army National Guard soldiers clear 
a building during MOUT training at Fort 
Drum. — Photo by SSG K.C. Kelly 




Soldiers from the 14th Engineer Battal- 
ion play MOPP soccer at Fort Lewis. — 
Photo by CPT Jeffrey P. Dennis 

June 1999 



! | 


I 1 ' 

b 1 



i 1 



YOU have entered the 
front gate of Fort 
Leavenworth, an active 
Army installation. Take 
this opportunity to step back in time 
and view the fort's role in the building 
of our nation." 

So begins the narration at the 
historical "wayside" at the entrance to 
the modern post that once stood on 
America's frontier. 

There are 17 waysides at 16 sites 
throughout the post, each shedding 
light on the history of Kansas and 

Erecting the wayside pedestals was 
a 20-month project that began as an 
idea proposed by Fort Leavenworth 

Janet Wray is the Fort Leavenworth, Kan., public affairs 

director of logistics Benny Doyal, a 
retired Army captain and advocate of 
historical preservation. 

Doyal' s proposal was adopted in 
1996, and a planning committee was 
activated to select sites and develop 
visual concepts and narratives to tell 
the Fort Leavenworth story. 

But the work soon became much 
more than a local Army initiative when 
community volunteers joined soldiers 
and civilian employees in researching 
historical material and lending their 
artistic and speaking talents. 

The pedestals are made of Kansas 
sandstone with porcelain enamel 
paintings affixed to the top and 
internal "reactive" devices that play 
recorded messages at the touch of a 




Oldest Army Post in Continuous Existence West of the Missou.. . 

Long before white men settled Kansas, traffic over the 
banta Fe trail was. so heavy that troops were detailed 
to protect it from the Indians. Fort Leavenworth was 
established in 1827 by Col. Henry Leavenworth. For 
thirty years it was the chief base of operations for 
the Indian frontier !n 1839, Col. S. W. Kearny marched 
aqainst the CheroKees with the largest U. S. mounted 
force yet assembled: ten companies of dragoons. In 1846. 
Col. A. W. Doniphan set out on his Mexican expedition: 
throughout the war with Mexico the Fort was the 
outfitting post for the Army of the West. During the 
1850s. wago:t teams hauled supplies over the Santa Fe. 
Oregon and other trails to all forts, posts and military 
camps of the West, some as far as the Pac I f Ic 

When Kansas territory was organized I In l«54 Gov 

Ce^nwo^rTn .III 2L3&L?2S&g* 

»^u^%«rh b Sft hl'norsTn ZtJZT* 
Mai. Dwinht D. Elsenhower. Hiohwty C:m „ l „ kin _ 

Maps available at the information 
center direct visitors through a lei- 
surely two-hour drive with time to 
linger at each stop. And the waysides 
themselves reveal the story of a post 
that once was the site of the first 
capitol of Kansas and home of the 
buffalo soldiers and the "arsenal of the 
West." Today Fort Leavenworth 
includes the Army's Command and 
General Staff College and the 
military's oldest prison. 

The waysides are open year-round, 
and the fort's Frontier Army Museum 
is open from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Monday 
through Saturday and noon to 4 p.m. 
Sunday. The museum is closed Easter, 
Thanksgiving, Christmas and New 
Year's Day. □ 

The "Queen of the Frontier Posts" was 
founded in 1827. 


SO High 

a The park surrounding the Buffalo Sol- 
dier monument also contains other 
statues and tributes to the achievements of 
black soldiers. 

Maps direct 

visitors through 

a leisurely two-hour 

drive with time 

to linger at 

each stop. 

Site 4 is a park containing the 
Buffalo Soldier Monument. 

Roadway signs pointing the way to Site 5 lead visitors to the 
Command and General Staff College. 

June 1999 


Fort Leavenworth Waysides 

j I "First Kansas Territoria 
—J Capital and Military Pri- 
son." Across from the U.S. Dis- 
ciplinary Barracks once stood 
the first territorial capital of 


Sites 9 and 1 mark the 
original location of the 
main parade field of Canton- 
ment Leavenworth and the 
spot where the Army met 
with various Indian councils. 

b "Battle Training — Yes- 
terday, Today, Tomor- 
row." Early officer students' 
quarters now make up the 
National Simulation Center. 


b "Native American Pris- 
oners of War." Site 
where Nez Perce Indians 
were confined after their cap- 
ture by COL Nelson A. Miles. 


'■* : " :*„ 

-cork wm^i 

"Arsenal of the 
West." The Ord- 
nance storehouses and 
arsenal are now the Com- 
bined Arms Center head- 


j "Highway to the West. 
* ' Visitors can follow a 
path to a scenic view of the 
Missouri River. 


|^ "Horsemanship Train- 
1 ing." The Frontier Army 
Museum was once a site 
where officer students prac- 
ticed horsemanship. 




ml IJi 

4f Fort Polk 's Shughart-Gordon 
Military Operations in Urbanizet 
Terrain complex, soldiers I 
the lethal business of.,. 

■ - - 

j • 


Story and Photos by SSG John Valceanu 


Soldiers from the 101st 
Airborne Division pre- 
pare to move forward 
during training at the 
Shughart-Gordon MOUT 

Concrete Combat 





k. 9 


if * 






**»!■ •^ra^> 


A storage building. "explodes" as the result .of ^an ai. 
strike called in by attacking soldiers. Pyrotechnics add 
-> to the realism of urban warfare training. 

nd chaos o 
"battle, "'a squad from the 101st Abn. Div 
Rights, back against an entrenched and*de 

termined "enemy.' 




"Jf" M&Z 

<' m 

HE squad leader was screaming. 

"Is there anybody alive? Is 
there anybody alive back there? I 
need somebody to come up here 
and get on this gun!" 

Twenty or 30 "'dead" soldiers were 
spread out behind the sergeant, their 
bodies littering the ground around a 
small red building. Sweat from the 
exertions of their final moments was 
drying quickly on their faces in the 
cool air. 

"I'm alive, sergeant," a shaking 
voice yelled from 10 yards away. 

'"Get up here," the sergeant yelled 
back. "Get up here and man this gun." 
The soldier low-crawled toward the 
sergeant, making his way through the 

bodies, sticking close to the side of the 
building. Reaching the NCO, he took 
over the M-240B machine gun and 
prepared to fire across the alley into the 
cavernous windows of a gray brick 

Suddenly, three shots rang out in 
rapid succession from a cubbyhole in 
the gray bricks. The soldier behind the 
machine gun was hit. His body 
slumped next to his weapon. The squad 
leader was screaming again, his voice 
hoarse and tired. 

"Is there anybody alive back there? 
I need somebody to get up here and get 
on this gun!" 

These soldiers were engaged in the 
nasty, brutal and lethal business of 

Armor and light infantry join forces to take 
on the OPFOR in Shughart-Gordon. Success 
often depends on how well the two types of 
units work together. 

urban combat. Inch by inch, foot by 
foot, they fought doorway to doorway 
against an entrenched and vicious 
enemy who was determined to keep 
them out of the city. 

Fortunately, the dead soldiers were 
not bleeding. They were beeping, their 
MILES gear announcing the fact that 
they had been "hit." Casualty cards in 
their top right BDU shirt pockets 
marked them as KIA — killed in 

Much as it may have looked like a 
killing ground, this battlefield was 
more of a learning ground where 
soldiers master the lessons that may 
keep them alive if they ever have to 
face a real enemy and real bullets. 

The city is known as Shughart- 
Gordon. Composed of 29 buildings on 
a 7-square-kilometer area at Fort Polk, 
La., The site is a state-of-the-art 
military operations on urbanized terrain 
complex where units rotating through 
the Joint Readiness Training Center 
practice their urban-warfare skills. 

The MOUT city is named after 
MSG Gary I. Gordon and SFC Randall 
D. Shughart, both of whom received 
posthumous Medals of Honor for 
heroic actions during fighting in 
Mogadishu, Somalia. Shughart-Gordon 
is designed to bring maximum realism 
to training, so that soldiers will be 
better equipped to fight on urban 
battlefields, said MAJ George Glaze, 
officer in charge of the site. 

Glaze said the $70 million complex, 
which also includes a seven-building 

June 1999 

airfield and a five-building military 
compound, allows soldiers training at 
JRTC to experience urban warfare on a 
"three-dimensional battlefield." 

"We've got buildings with two or 
three stories, and some of the buildings 
are connected by underground tun- 
nels." Glaze said. "This means that the 
enemy in the city can be coming at you 
from above, below or behind you." 

Realism in the city is further 
enhanced by details not normally found 
in mock cities. Glaze said. For ex- 
ample, all buildings contain appropri- 
ate furniture. The "clinic" is equipped 
with medical equipment. The "cantina" 
contains a working kitchen and dining 
area. The "city hall" has office spaces 
complete with desks and filing cabi- 
nets, along with more fancy furniture 
for higher-ranking officials. 

Most rooms in the buildings are 
equipped with infrared surveillance 
cameras and microphones that allow 
observer-controllers to monitor what is 
happening, even in total darkness. For 
safety's sake, a "panic button" has 
been installed in most buildings. 
Pushing this button during a real-life 
medical emergency halts the exercise 
and initiates immediate medical care or 
evacuation procedures. 

Some of Shughart-Gordon's 
buildings can accommodate live-fire 
exercises, and units rotating through 
JRTC routinely conduct platoon-level 

OPFOR soldiers fire at attacking troops from the windows and doorways of a Shughart- 
Gordon building. The OPFOR is composed of paratroopers from the 1st Bn., 509th Inf. 

MOUT training with short-range 
training ammunition. This ammo is 
made from a rigid plastic and disinte- 
grates upon impact with plywood or 
concrete. Glaze said. 

During live-fire training the 
"enemy" is represented by moving 
targets that can either pop up or swing 
out. depending on their location in the 
building. Not all dummy targets are 
hostile, however, and soldiers must 
make split-second decisions as to 

whether or not to fire on civilian 

Soldiers also conduct force-on- 
force exercises at the MOUT site. 
These usually involve battalion- or 
brigade-sized units going up against 
the paratroopers of the Fort Polk-based 
1st Battalion. 509th Infantry. These 
OPFOR soldiers' skills are honed by a 
steady stream of "battles" against the 
Army's top light-infantry units. 

The OPFOR soldiers are intimately 


- ■ 

A JRTC observer-controller peers through the smoke that precedes an attack. OCs are an integral part of the learning process at 
the Fort Polk training complex. 


Concrete Combat 

familiar with the buildings and the 
surrounding woods, and a company 
from the 509th can often repulse the 
attack of more than a battalion of 
soldiers, said SSG Audie Hairgrove. a 
squad leader in Company A, 1st Bn., 
509th Inf. 

"Fighting for this city isn't the 
Super Bowl; it isn't about winning or 
losing." Hairgrove said. "We're here to 
train the units rotating through, and we 
do that by fighting them as hard as we 
can. If we do that, we can show them 
which of their techniques work, and 
which don't." 

In addition to soldiers 
like Hairgrove, units 
training in the city have 
to contend with "civil- 
ians" on the urban 
battlefield. These civil- t 

ians assume roles ranging m ifam 
from mayor of the city, to 
head of the local Interna- 
tional Red Cross office, 
to regular citizens. Units 
being trained must 
attempt to minimize 

civilian casualties while 

countering intelligence 
efforts and even hostile actions by 
some of the population, said role- 
player Stephen Humphries. 

Humphries, a retired Army master 
sergeant, has been a role player in 
Shughart-Gordon since the facility 
opened in 1996. He often assumes the 
role of the senior International Red 
Cross representative in the city. 

"Each rotation is different. One unit 
came through and shelled the town. 
When they do that, they obviously kill 
civilians, and that makes enemies out 
of the survivors," Humphries said. 
"Every action has a reaction. How the 
civilians react to the soldiers depends a 
lot on how they're treated." 

The civilians, the city and the 
enemy are provided by JRTC. The 
center also provides another crucial 
ingredient of the training: observer- 
controllers. These soldiers monitor all 
the activities of both the OPFOR and 
the units rotating through the training 

OCs ensure that exercises are 
conducted fairly and that participants 
don't cheat by doing something they 
wouldn't be able to do on a real 
battlefield. More importantly, OCs play 
a direct role in a unit's learning 
process, said SFC Tony Husen, an OC 

June 1999 

assigned to JRTC's live-fire division. 
"We're not here to grade people. 
We're here to help units improve their 
fighting skills." Husen said. "We 

by the facility's sophisticated audiovi- 
sual equipment, soldiers have a chance 
to watch and hear themselves. Discuss- 
ing the action with OCs, they can see 

realize that the soldiers coming here to which tactics and techniques worked, 

train are professionals. We don't want 
to force-feed them, but we try to get 
them to think about how different 
factors — such as smoke, rain or mud 
— may impact their mission." 
The final piece of the training 

and what they need to modify or 
improve. Glaze said. 

"During our comprehensive AAR 
process, the squad leader who sent his 
'A ' team around a corner and got them 
all 'killed' can see what happened. He 

package provided by Shughart-Gordon can see why they 'died,' and the whole 
and JRTC is the after-action review. team can talk about what they can do to 
Using footage and sound bites captured keep it from happening in real life," 

Glaze said. "Learning from your 
mistakes here is a good way to keep 
soldiers from dying in combat." □ 

Team Captures 
Lessons Learned 

OLDIERS training at JRTC learn many 
lessons during a typical rotation. It is MAJ 

I Joe Gregg's job to make sure that those 
lessons are captured and put on paper so 
MAJ Joe Gregg, JRTC's liaison of- that soldiers can benefit from them. 
ficer to the Center for Army Lessons Assigned to the training center s obser- 

Learned, speaks with a 101st soldier vation division, Gregg works as JRTC liaison 
during a recent rotation. officer to the Center for Army Lessons 

Learned. As part of his duties, he coordinates 
CALL team visits to JRTC and ensures that the teams can observe and record the 

A recent CALL team visit focused on lessons learned by the 101st Airborne 
Division during training at the Shughart-Gordon MOUT site. 

"Members of the team came from different backgrounds, and they each looked at 
different pieces of the MOUT operation. We had officers from the various combat-arms 
branches, as well as logistics, intelligence, aviation and medical services," Gregg said. 
"We also had civilians and even some marines taking part in this visit." 

The team spent approximately 10 days observing the MOUT operation from 
beginning to finish. It was headed by LTC John F. D'Agostino, chief of doctrine at the 
Infantry School at Fort Benning, Ga. D'Agostino and the 17 other team members 
looked closely at every step of the process. 

"We've read all the manuals, and we know the doctrine, but we need to see how 
well the doctrine works and if there are ways to improve it," D'Agostino said. 
"We don't evaluate individual units, but we do look to see if something a unit 
does is unique or different. If it is, and it works, we can incorporate it into our ' 
larger body of knowledge." 

The lessons captured by the CALL team will be col- ^ 
lected and eventually published in a newsletter. The 
newsletter will be used to help update the curricu- ^ 
lum at various branch schools, and to provide 
valuable information for soldiers who may 
have to fight in urban terrain in the 
future, Gregg said. 

CALL publications are avail- 
able at the CALL website at http:// — SSG John Valceanu 

A Hythe worker finishes installing a new heavy-duty winch 
on one of the 1 00-foot tugs being converted into specialized 
firefighting vessels. 

UCKED away off a small side 
road in Hythe, England, is one of 
the smallest but most capable 
support installations in the U.S. 

Though it covers just 1 1 harborside 
acres near the sprawling port of 
Southampton, the U.S. Army Combat 
Equipment Base, North Atlantic, in 
Hythe offers facilities and a workforce 
tailored to the maintenance, storage 
and support of forward-deployed Army 
watercraft. As the only U.S. govern- 
ment-owned and -operated facility 
dedicated to that increasingly impor- 
tant mission, Hythe plays an essential 

role in maintaining a variety of Army 

MAJ Linwood B. Clark, Hythe's 
commander, is the first to admit that 
the phrase "Army vessels" often 
confuses those who tend to think of the 
Army as solely a dry-land force. 

"When you think 'boats,' you tend 
to think 'Navy,'" Clark said. "But 
watercraft are an increasingly impor- 
tant part of the Army's force-projection 
capability. The Army is responsible for 
logistics-over-the-shore operations, 
port opening and humanitarian-service 
missions in undeveloped areas. Water- 
craft are vital in all those situations." 

The Army vessels most frequently 
seen at Hythe include tugboats, landing 
craft of varying sizes, barges and 
amphibious cargo vehicles. All are part 
of the Army Prepositioned Stocks-3 
program, which prepositions vital 
equipment and supplies close to areas 
of possible contingency operations. 
Hythe plays a vital role in APS-3 by 
supporting the regular changeover of 
Army watercraft, vehicles, supplies and 
materiel-handling equipment carried 
aboard the forward-deployed pre- 
positioning ships American Cormorant, 
Strong Virginian and Gopher State. 

"The idea is that among them the 



three ships carry a complete Army 
port-opening package," Clark said. 
'This includes everything necessary to 
go into a 'bare beach' and turn it into a 
running port. Gopher State is forward- 
deployed at Guam, while American 
Cormorant and Strong Virginian are 
deployed to Diego Garcia in the Indian 
Ocean. During a contingency, all three 
would rendezvous at the appointed 

Hythe's mission is not just a 
planning exercise. The facility was a 
vital player in the buildup for Opera- 
tion Desert Storm, and played equally 

ortant roles in Somalia, Rwanda, 


and recent buildups of U.S. forces in 
Southwest Asia. 

Part of the U.S. Army War Reserve 
Support Command, headquartered at 
Rock Island Arsenal, 111., Hythe 
originated as a World War II base for 
Royal Air Force seaplanes. In 1967 the 
facility became home to Army water- 
craft intended for wartime port opera- 
tions in Europe, and over the years has 
developed the specialized structures 
and facilities needed to maintain, store 
and support a range of vessels. That the 
facility is immediately adjacent to the 
British Army's watercraft facility at 
Marchwood is an added bonu 

Hythe's heavy slipway uses rail-mounted 
cradles to bring vessels out of the water 
and into either the main storage area or one 
of four maintenance bays. Here a 100-foot 
tug undergoes conversion work. 

Ensuring that forward-deployed 
Army watercraft are ready to go 
wherever they are needed is a team 
effort. Hythe's workforce consists of 
three Americans — Clark, his civilian 
deputy, Ivan Hampton, and supply 
technician CW2 Roberto Figueroa — 
and between 80 and 200 British 

"We're fortunate in terms of our 
"The South- 

June 1999 


ampton area is a center of the maritime 
industry, and we can bring in people 
from a variety of trades — shipwrights, 
electricians, and so on. Many of the 
people who work for us have worked 
here for years. The average age of our 
workers is 46, and that means we have 
a mature workforce able to handle all 
the work that comes our way. They are 
energetic, highly skilled and extremely 

Hythe's civilian workers are 
divided among several specialist 

The ship surveyors and inspectors 
of Hythe's Quality Control Division 
examine the vessels to determine what 
repairs or modifications are needed, 
and then write the specifications for the 
work. The job is then done by local 
contractors or by the electricians, 
shipfitters, shipwrights, mechanics, 
electronics technicians, packaging 
specialists and painters of Hythe's 
Maintenance Division. 

The watercraft structural work done 
at Hythe can range from minor repairs 
to the sort of comprehensive conver- 
sion work now being done on the first 
of an eventual three specialized 
firefighting tugboats under a Military 
Traffic Management Command 
initiative. Based on the standard 100- 
foot Army tug, the boats will be fitted 
with powerful water cannons (known 
as monitors) and other task-specific 
equipment, and will be equipped with 

The S&S Division's Preservation Section 
packages and places aboard the vessels 
all the items they'll need when deployed. 

The watercraft carried aboard American 
Cormorant (above) are floated on and off 
the ship, while those aboard Strong Vir- 
ginian (right) are loaded and unloaded 
using the ship's huge heavy-lift crane. 

bow thrusters to aid maneuverability. 

Hythe has also undertaken the 
conversion of five standard LCM-8 
landing craft into command-and- 
control vessels for use by harbor- 
masters in austere environments. This 
entails the construction of an enclosed 
work space in the after end of the 
formerly open well deck, a newer and 
larger pilot house, new engines and a 
new suite of communications equip- 
ment. The vessels retain the character- 
istic bow ramp, and there is enough 
remaining open space in the forward 
part of the well deck to accommodate 
an ambulance-configured Humvee. 

Hythe's other main task — ensur- 
ing that the Army watercraft and 
vehicles it handles have a complete set 
of Basic Issue Items — is undertaken 
by the depot's Supply and Storage 
Division. It can be a challenging task. 

"A Humvee might require four 
Basic Issue Items," said Ian Sinclair, 
Hythe's information systems officer 
and a 29-year employee, "while on an 
LCU-2000 landing craft it's about 
1 ,700." The BII list for a watercraft 
includes such things as navigation 

equipment, crew survival gear, spare 
parts, tools, bedding, galley items and 
cleaning agents. 

"We package together all the items 
that will be used in one particular area 
of the vessel," said Christopher Bell of 
the S&S Division's Preservation 
Section, "then put them aboard in those 
locations. Engine room items, for 
example, will be boxed together and 
those boxes will be put into the 
vessel's engine room. All items have 
'use by' dates on them, and when that 
date passes the items are reinspected, 
repaired or replaced." 

"The idea," Sinclair said, "is that 





•a . 

• i iii, i iii w 

I- ... 

the crews coming to man the water- 
craft will have everything they need to 
operate the vessel. They only have to 
load fuel, weapons, food and fresh 
v% atcr. and off they go." 

The S&S Division's other function 
— supply — requires the procurement 
and tracking of everything from basic- 
soldier items to repair parts for the 
watercraft. Some 1,500 line items 
worth about SI .5 million are on hand 
in Hythe's warehouse at any given 
time. Ordering of many items is done 
via a computer link with Letterkenny 
Army Depot. Pa. Other items are 
procured locally. 

"It's a big job," said Figueroa, the 
activity's supply technician, "but I 
have a lot of great help from the 17 
civilians I supervise. They are probably 
the most conscientious group of people 
I've ever worked with. They know 
their jobs, and they do them very well." 

That expertise also extends to the 
depot's Administration and Services 
section, which keeps track of all the 
personnel, planning and policy issues 
involved in running the mini-shipyard. 
One of the section's primary tasks is 
supervising the dispatch of small, 
customized teams of specialists to 
forward areas to support watercraft 
operations. The teams can be en route 
to wherever they're needed with just 24 
hours' notice. 

The end result of much of the 
highly skilled and specialized work 
done at Hythe is on view during the 
periodic loading and unloading of the 
three prepositioning ships. Each vessel 
returns to England from its forward- 
deployment location every two years, 
at which time its embarked watercraft 
are off-loaded, evaluated, and repaired 
or replaced. 

In the case of the 730-foot Ameri- 
can Cormorant, the biennial event 
requires the downloading of two LCM- 
8 landing craft, three larger LCU-2000 
utility landing craft, three 100-foot 
tugboats, a gasoline barge and a 100- 
ton floating crane. The semi-submers- 
ible American Cormorant takes on 
water until her main deck is sub- 
merged, allowing her cargo of water- 
craft to be loaded or unloaded by 
tugboats. Once thoroughly repaired and 
upgraded, the Army vessels are 
restocked with refurbished equipment 
and supplies before being reloaded 
aboard American Cormorant. 

The ship's embarked watercraft 
also carry forklifts, rough-terrain 
cargo-container handlers and similar 
devices. These allow soldiers to 
immediately begin unloading and 
moving the supplies and materials 
carried in the ship's 40 commercial 
cargo containers, as well as material 
arriving aboard any of the Army's 13 
other APS-3 ships. 

The loading and unloading process 
is very different with the 512-foot-long 
Strong Virginian. The conventional, 
non-submersible ship uses several huge 
heavy-lift cranes to move her cargo of 
four LCU-2000s and a modified LCM- 
8. Lifting an 800-ton LCU-2000 is a 

complicated and challenging task, and 
the November 1 998 upload of Strong 
Virginian marked the first time it had 
been done. 

The loading operation required that 
each LCU-2000 be brought along 
Strong Virginian 's port side, from 
where it was carefully lifted aboard 
and set down on the larger ship's deck. 
The LCU was then winched along 
Teflon-coated tracks to its assigned 
deck storage area, and the process of 
loading the next one began. Unlike 
American Cormorant, Strong Virginian 
has large below-deck storage areas and 
is able to load 168 vehicles — prima- 
rily Humvees and trucks — via a 
retractable, drive-on ramp. 

Though the periodic loading and 
unloading of the prepositioning ships is 
perhaps the most visible part of 
Hythe's job, it is only the end product 
of the less obvious work done every 
day in the facility's workshops and 
along its piers. 

"You could drive by the front gate 
and not have a clue what we do here," 
Clark said. "But once you get inside, 
you realize there is a whole lot more 
here than meets the eye. And every- 
thing we do here is focused on one 

Squeezing into confined spaces is part of 
the job for workers converting landing 
craft into command-and-control vessels. 

thing — ensuring that the vessels, 
vehicles and equipment we turn over to 
soldiers are ready, capable and reliable. 
It's a challenging job, but we have the 
people, the facilities and the experience 
to do it right." D 

une 1999 


United States Army 

A Heritage of Honor 

Normandy, June 6, 1944 

PERATION Overlord, the largest amphibious assault in 
history, began the liberation of Nazi-occupied Europe. 

Tens of thousands of U.S. and Allied soldiers stormed a 50- 

mile-wide strip of France's Normandy coast. 

"Omaha" was the code name given to the 6-mile-wide 
section of the Normandy landing area assigned to U.S. 
troops. The 1st Infantry Division and a regiment of the 29th 

:h through withering 
.J German division. With help from 
naval gunfire and tactical aircraft, they eliminated German 
resistance and secured a toehold for follow-on forces. 


LTG Clarence Huebner 

Private to General 

Rising through the ranks from private to lieuten- 
ant general, Huebner distinguished himself 
during some of the most bitter fighting of World 
War I, while serving with the 1st Div. He went 
on to command the division in World War II, 
leading his men onto Omaha Beach. 

PVT Carlton Barrett 

18th Inf. Regiment, 1st Inf. Div. 

Barrett received the Medal of Honor for his 
actions during the D-Day landings in 
Normandy. Under an intense barrage of 
small-arms and mortar fire, he saved many 
lives by returning to the surf again and again 
to save floundering comrades and carry 
casualties to an evacuation boat lying off- 
shore. Barrett also delivered dispatches to 
units dug in along the length of the fire- 
swept beach, assisted the wounded, calmed 
the shocked and distinguished himself as a 



The Official U.S. Army Magazine 

Medical Training 


SEP 1 6 1999 






\ 4 

/ ■< 


July 1999 Volume 54, No. 7 

The Official 

U.S. Army Magazine 

Secretary of the Army: Louis Caldera 

Chief of Staff: GEN Dennis J. Reimer 

Chief of Public Affairs: MG John G. Meyer Jr. 

Chief, Information Strategy: William R. Drobnick 

Soldiers Staff 

Editor in Chief: LTC Ray Whitehead 
Managing Editor: Lou Walker 
Production Editor: Steve Harding 
Art Director: Helen Hall VanHoose 
Senior Editor: Gil High 
Associate Editor: SFC John Brenci 
Photo Editor: SSG John Valceanu 
Photojournalism Heike Hasenauer 
Associate Art Director: Randolph Thomas 
Associate Art Director: Paul Henry Crank 
Executive Secretary: Joseph T. Marsden 

Soldiers (ISSN 0093-8440) is published monthly under super- 
vision of the Army Chief of Public Affairs to provide the Total 
Army with information on people, policies, operations, technical 
developments, trends and ideas of and about the Department of 
the Army. The views and opinions expressed are not necessarily 
those of the Department of the Army. ■ Manuscripts of interest 
to Army personnel are invited. Direct communication is autho- 
rized to Editor, Soldiers, 9325 Gunston Road, Suite S108, 
Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-5581. Phone: DSN 656-4486 or com- 
mercial (703) 806-4486. Or send e-mail to soldiers® ■ Unless otherwise indicated (and except for 
"by permission" and copyright items), material may be reprinted 
provided credit is given to Soldiers and the author. ■ All 
photographs by U.S. Army except as otherwise credited. 
■ Military distribution: From the U.S. Army Distribution Opera- 
tions Facility, 1655 Woodson Road, St. Louis, MO 631 14-6181, 
in accordance with Initial Distribution Number (IDN) 050007 
subscription requirements submitted by commanders. ■ The 
Secretary of the Army has determined that the publication of this 
periodical is necessary in the transaction of the public business 
as required by law of the department. ■ Use of funds for printing 
this publication was approved by the Secretary of the Army on 
Sept. 2, 1986, in accordance with the provisions of Army Regu- 
lation 25-30. Library of Congress call number: U1.A827 ■ 
Periodicals postage paid at Fort Belvoir, VA, and additional 
mailing offices. ■ Individual domestic subscriptions are available 
at $24 per year through the Superintendent of Documents, P.O. 
Box 371 954, Pittsburgh, PA 1 5250-7954. For credit card orders 
call (202) 512-1800 or FAX (202) 512-2250. ■ To change 
addresses for individual subscriptions, send your mailing label 
with changes to: Superintendent of Documents. Mail Stop SSOM, 
Washington, DC 20402. ■ POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to the Fori Belvoir address above. 

§ Special 
yS, Insert 


L Tropic Lightning 

Our series on active Army divi- 
sions continues with a look at the 
famed 25th Infantry Division. 

8 A TRICARE Update 

The Army's surgeon general 
talks about the issues most 
important to Army families. 

16 Response 2000 

The Army Corps of Engineers is 
poised to bring a new response 
plan to bear on future disasters. 

I Power With a Punch 

"Have power, will travel" could 
be the unit motto for the special- 
ized 249th Engineer Battalion. 

f - 

A 24 

L\ High-Tech Medical Training 

New technologies are allowing 
the Army's Academy of Health 
Sciences to maximize training 
while minimizing the use of 
valuable resources. 

24 Avoiding the "Killer" Tan 

Willing to die for a great 
tan? If not, here are 
some tips on being safe 
in the sun. 

CO Adoption Option 

Thinking of adopting? Here's 
our extensive look at the 
information and resources of 
particular interest to military 

1 31 

■■■M Ij • »" 

Be part o\ 
2000 10 


31 f-Stop Cop 

When Madison Avenue needed 
an MP for a new ad series, SPC 
Luis A. Camacho got the call. 

1 In the Tornadoes' Wake 

Active-duty. Guard and Reserve 
soldiers joined the massive effort 
to rescue the injured, clear debris 
and support survivors following 
May's devastating twisters in 
Kansas and Oklahoma. 


3 The Canal — 
A Historic Shortcut 

America's completion of the 
Panama Canal opened the long- 
sought "path between the seas." 

A 38 

4U A Timeline of the 
Panama Canal 

The Isthmus of Panama went 
from ancient overland trade route 
to the site of a continent-spanning 
— and awe-inspiring — canal. 

41 Adios, Panama 

Change is the order of the day for 
soldiers and civilians alike as the 
Army's century-long presence in 
Panama comes to an end. 

44 USARSO: A Status Report 

U.S. Army, South, commander 
MG Philip R. Kensinger Jr. 
talks about the future of his 
command after its departure 
from Panama. 


10 Feedback 

12 What's New 

23 Around the Services 

26 Postmarks 

32 Focus on People 

36 Sharp Shooters 

The Land and the Units 

Big changes are in the air for 
Army units formerly stationed in 
Panama, and for the facilities 
they once called home. 

Front cover: 

SGT James Henson 
of the 25th Inf. 
Div.'s Co. A, 2nd 
Bn., 35th Inf., 
guards a supply 
route during an 
exercise. — Photo 
by SGT Lori L. 


DIM lights threw shadows over tired faces as 
tactical phones chirped, radios crackled and 
dozens of voices echoed above the din. Map 
boards covered the tent walls, and helmets 
and load-bearing equipment cluttered the 
tight quarters. 
Tactical operations centers, and the intensive 
wargames played within them, have become very 
familiar to 25th Infantry Division soldiers, who've 
gone from one exercise or deployment to the next 
almost without break in recent years. This time the 
exercise was titled "Lightning Thrust Bronco," an 11- 
day peace-enforcement operation testing the 3rd 
Brigade Combat Team. 

"We're one of the most-deployed divisions in the 
Army," said 25th Inf. Div. and U.S. Army, Hawaii, 
CSM Mark S. Ripka. "We deploy all over the Pacific, 
for missions such as assisting Kurdish refugees in 

SSG Doraine McNutt, now an instructor at the Defense Information School 
at Fort Meade, Md., was NCOIC of the 17th Public Affairs Detachment at 
Schofield Barracks when she wrote this article. 

uly 1999 



Guam or Chinese migrants on 
Wake Island, and sometimes to 
other parts of the world, as when 
we undertook peacekeeping 
operations in Haiti." 

All these operations have 
taken place within the last five 
years, intermingled with local 
training on Oahu and at the 
Pohakuloa Training Area on the 
island of Hawaii. The division 
also routinely deploys troops for 
exercises in Australia, Thailand 
and Japan, and to the Joint 
Readiness Training Center at 
Fort Polk, La., and National 
Training Center at Fort Irwin, 

"Chief of Staff of the Army 
GEN Dennis J. Reimer talked 
about the fact that the Army has 
lots of things to do short of war, 
not the least of which is shaping 
the global environment," said 
LTC Kenneth Crowe, the 
division operations officer. "Out 
here in the Pacific, we do a lot of 
peacetime engagements — or 
shaping operations — that are 
very different from operations in 
other places, because we're 

Examples of such missions 
are recent deployments to 
American Samoa and New 
Guinea, where 25th Inf. Div. 
soldiers built schools and roads, 

Members of Co. A, 2nd Bn., 5th Inf. Regt., prepare Humvees for slingload 
during company air-assault training. 

and helped search out and 
destroy unexploded ordnance. 

Crowe described some 
shaping operations as a way "to 
stop wars from happening." 


Soldiers of the 3rd Bde. Combat Team aid a "casualty" during training at 
East Range prior to a rotation at the Joint Readiness Training Center. 

Included in these operations are 
deployments to such places as 
Haiti. Bosnia and the former 
Yugoslav republic of Macedonia J 
"Clearly, we must train for war. 
because it's the one thing we 
can't afford to lose. But by 
conducting shaping operations, 
we make war less likely." 

Lightning Thrust Bronco 
helped prepare division soldiers 
for both. The scenario called for 
a peace-enforcement operation 
that took the division staff and 
brigade combat team to the 
mythical island of Aragon. 

"Our mission was to separate 
belligerents of two countries and 
establish a zone of separation so 
both countries would stop 
fighting and eventually come to 
peace," said LTC Michael T. 
Harrison, commander of the 2nd 
Bn., 35th Inf. Regt. "Soldiers 


PFC Garrett Johns of HHC, 2nd Bn., 
27th Inf., prepares to beef up his 
position during unit training at the 
division MOUT site. 

were put in positions where they 
had to make some very hard 
choices in terms of whether to 
engage a potential adversary or 
exercise considerable restraint. 

"These exercises train 
soldiers to make decisions that 
have significant political implica- 
tions, from my level down to the 
private with an M-16," Harrison 
said. "As the world changes and 
some of the requirements for our 
armed forces change, we have to 
be flexible and adapt to all 
situations we're faced with." 

"Gearing up for peacekeep- 
ing missions like this is a sign of 
the times." said SSG David 
O'Neill, a squad leader from the 
2nd Bn. "Normally we're pointed 
toward armed conflicts and 
conventional warfare. This is 
more peacekeeping operations. 
Initially the soldiers had a hard 
time making the adjustment 
between the two, but as we've 
continued training, they've come 

With such training and 
deployments all over the Pacific 
Rim, quality-of-life issues back 

July 1999 

home take on greater impor- 

In recent years, money has 
poured into Schofield Barracks 
in the form of new barracks and 
housing. The $750 million 
Whole Barracks Renewal 
project provides soldiers with 
improved living conditions. The 
entire project should be com- 
pleted by 20 10, and junior 
enlisted soldiers will each have 
almost 30 square feet more 
living space. In addition, the 
two-person living units will 
have a service area with a 
refrigerator, microwave space, a 
sink and countertop to prepare 
food, a closet area and a bath- 
room — a far cry from the 
World War II-era barracks the 
units replace. 

Not only single soldiers are 
benefiting from new construc- 
tion. In 1994 and 1995, approxi- 
mately 226 family housing units 
were demolished and 524 units 
were built at Schofield Barracks 
and Helemano Military Reserva- 
tion, four miles up the road from 
Schofield. The units have larger 
rooms, ceiling fans, dishwashers 
and heat pumps. Oahu now has 
almost 9,000 homes for Army 
families, and construction 

continues. For every unit that is 
torn down, some dating as far 
back as 1950. a new one is built. 

"Right now we have more 
housing here than any other 
installation in the Army." said 
COL James T. Hirai. commander 
of U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii. 
"If you're a junior-enlisted 
soldier and are authorized 
quarters, you have a one-in-three 
chance of moving into a set of 
quarters built since 1990." 

The good news keeps com 
ing. The 1999 spending bills, 
approved last September, provide 
$62.2 million more for barracks 
renovations and family housing. 

Education is another priority 
quality-of-life issue within the 
division, and the SGT Yano 
Library is one facility that has 
benefited from this emphasis. 
Built in 1993, the library has 
88,000 volumes and 250 sub- 
scriptions to professional journals 
and magazines plus nearly 50 
subscriptions to military maga- 
zines and newspapers. In addi- 
tion, public Internet access is 
available on 13 computer termi- 

"We provide to the soldier the 
maximum we can by law in 
terms of educational assistance," 


Division troops (above) prepare to leave for duty in the Sinai. PFC Al Joe 
Garibay (right) climbs a rope ladder at the division's Air Assault School. 



i' ■ 

i - 


said Dr. Bill Thompson, the 
library's chief of education 
services. "We put together our 
own soldier-leader development 
program. No one in the Army 
does SLDP like we do." 

The SLDP, formed in 1994, 
costs soldiers only the price of 
textbooks. The program allows 
soldiers who aren't on training 
rotations to take classes both on- 
and off-duty. Units can even 
request specific classes, dates 
and times during on-duty hours, 
as long as a course requirement 
of 45 hours is met. 

Forty-three percent of 
division soldiers with less than 
two years of college participate 
in college programs, and the 
education office reported that 
division soldiers recently earned 
306 degrees — 194 associates, 
86 bachelors and 26 masters — 
during a single year. The 
education office also adminis- 
tered 8,598 exams, including 
Army aptitude and college-credit 
tests. The numbers of degrees 
earned and tests administered 
are among the highest of any 
education center in the Army, 
Thompson said. 

Quality-of-life issues will 
continue to be addressed, said 
Ripka, which is especially 
important in this time of contin- 
ued downsizing, when soldiers 
and families are feeling the 
pinch of training, deployments 
and a high operational tempo. 

Balancing the high 
OPTEMPO while taking care of 
families and personal lives is a 
continuing challenge. "I tell 
soldiers that we will try to instill 
some predictability in their lives 
by giving them as much advance 
notice as possible about deploy- 
ing and by maintaining credible 
training schedules," Ripka said. 
"We ensure that there are at least 
monthly three-day weekends. 
And soldiers, married or single, 
have to keep their personal lives 
in order so that they can deploy. 

because we will deploy. The 
good news is that we get to go to 
some fun places, and soldiers 
have opportunities to experience 
different cultures." 

"We are part of a great Army 
team, and if we went to war the 
rest of the Army could be proud 
to have 25th Div. soldiers on 

their Hank, fighting alongside 
them," said MG James T. Hill, 
commander of the 25th Inf. Div. 
and U.S. Army, Hawaii. 

Or enforcing peace with them 
in a hostile, faraway country. 

As Lightning Thrust Bronco 
came to an end. 3rd Bde. soldiers; 
- tired but invigorated by the 

Hie 25th Infantry 
Division in Histor 

BORN at the outset of World War 
II, the 25th Infantry Division 
landed on Guadalcanal island just 
1 3 months after the Japanese at- 
tack on Pearl Harbor. By February 
1943, barely a month after setting 
foot on the tiny Pacific island, the 
Hawaii-based soldiers had pushed 
back the Japanese. 

Next, the division moved into 
the Philippines and in swift succes- 
sion captured several towns, de- 
stroying a formidable Japanese 
tank force in Luzon on the way. 
After the war the division took 

part in the occupation of Japan, th« 
in 1950 was ordered into combat 

The situation was desperate upt 
arrival and the division was quickly 
the thick of the fighting, first fallii 
back against overwhelming ode 
then alternately taking or defendii 
strategic objectives as the w 
dragged on through bitter winters ai 
oppressively hot summers. 

Division troops took part in 
Korean War campaigns and we 
awarded 13 Medals of Honor — t 
most awarded to any division. 






> ~^^~ 




y ± .- ^ Ml 

' Z2~&2f^^F~' * 

r-JXi ^hMt™ '*-^1fr>jb^l -ml* 





Tropic Lightning soldiers move a jeep across a jungle stream during Wo i 
War II operations on the island of New Caledonia. 


thought of warm showers and 
hot food — began packing 
equipment for the trip back to 
Schofield Barracks, while the 
leaders began evaluating the 
successes and lessons learned 
during the past 1 1 days. The 
mission was over ... until next 
time. □ 

(Far left) SGT Kelly Jennings attacks an obstacle at the Air Assault School 
(Above) Troops from the 65th Engr. Bn. conduct a ruck march. 

*'«**->, -* 

- ; '* 

Soldiers of the division's 35th Inf. unload supplies during the landings at Lingayen Gulf in the Philippines. 

The 1960s marked the third 
straight decade in which 25th Inf. Div. 
soldiers deployed to a foreign battle- 
field, this time in Vietnam. During Op- 
eration Blue Light, the division de- 
ployed as part of the largest single 
troop movement up to that time, when 
more than 4,000 troops and 9,000 
tons of equipment were moved to the 
northwest sector of South Vietnam in 
25 days. 

The division hasn't seen a "con- 
ventional" battlefield since its return 
from Vietnam in late 1970 and early 
1971, but units deploying from 

July 1999 

Schofield Barracks have been active 
throughout the Pacific Rim and in 
other parts of the world, focusing on 
whattoday's division commandercalls 
"shaping the environment." 

One example is the 1995 peace- 
enforcement operation in Haiti, Op- 
eration Uphold Democracy. During 
that deployment, units from the divi- 
sion worked with Haitian leaders and 
government agencies to re-establish 
law and order, develop the country's 
infrastructure and set the conditions 
necessary for promoting democracy. 
— SSG Doraine McNutt 

The 25th Inf. Div. also served in Viet- 
nam, regularly engaging both Viet 
Cong and North Vietnamese units. 

t\ 1 IV1 vfrlYC 

Update E 

£ LTG Ronald R. Blanck 

FIVE years after the first 
TRICARE region opened for 
business, reviews on the 
program's success are mixed. 
Department of Defense surveys 
show increasing acceptance and 
satisfaction from soldiers and their 
families, especially in areas where 
TRICARE has been around longest, 
but we in Army medicine know there's 
still room for improvement. 

Issue Areas 

When I look at TRICARE, I see 

LTG Ronald R. Blanck Is surgeon general of the Army and 
commander of U.S. Army Medical Command at Fort Sam 
Houston, Texas. 

four broad areas that cause concern 
for soldiers and their families, and 
therefore for me. 

• Change. TRICARE is a new 
and different way of getting health 
care and, as with all new systems, it 
takes time to get accustomed to the 

• Complexity. TRICARE offers a 
broad choice of benefits, which in 
turn require personal decisions and 
an understanding of new rules. All of 
that can sometimes seem overwhelm- 

• Coverage for geographically 
separated units. Some active duty 
service members and their families 
live too far from military treatment 

Nationwide Defense Department surveys indicate beneficiaries are more satisfied 
with TRICARE, and a 1998 DOD report to Congress cited improved access to care. 

facilities and their supporting civilian 
provider networks to get coverage. 
Right now, their only option is 
TRICARE Standard, which requires 
certain co-payments and fees. 

• Disenfranchisement of the 
retiree population. Our retirees have 
been forced to rely on a shrinking 
military health care system. The 
result is that many cannot get care 
through the military system. 

Addressing the Issues 

Because of these concerns, our 
efforts to educate all our beneficiaries 
must be aggressive, comprehensive and 

A new, simply written publica- 
tion, "The Provider," explains aspects 
of the TRICARE program. The first 
copy of 'The Provider" is included in 
this issue of Soldiers. Subsequent 
copies will be available through 
Army medical-treatment facilities 
and through the Army Medical 
Department website. 

Leave and Earnings Statements 
for April sent to approximately 
480,000 active duty Army personnel 
carried an announcement about the 
newly created TRICARE Help e-mail 
mailbox. The mailbox address is 

The e-mail option provides an 
additional avenue for you to get 
information. It does not replace the 
primary TRICARE information 
sources: military treatment facilities' 
health benefits advisors and 


TRICARE service centers. 

Both DOD and the Army Medical 
Department make TRICARE informa- 
tion available on the World Wide Web. 
The website for DOD is The Army 
Medical Department site is 

To help geographically remote 
units. TRICARE Prime Remote is a 
"must.'" Prime Remote will allow 
active-duty members to receive health 
care from local providers without co- 
payment or deductible when they are 
assigned and reside 50 or more miles 
from the nearest military treatment 
facility. Enrollment for TRICARE 
Prime Remote begins Sept. 1, with 
implementation effective Oct. 1. Active 
duty family members who are not in 
TRICARE Prime service areas will 
continue to receive care under 
Management Activity is evaluating 
options for expanding TRICARE 
Prime Remote to family members, with 
a projected implementation date in 

DOD has several instituted test 
programs for retirees and their family 
members age 65 and over. MEDI- 
CARE subvention allows enrollment 
in TRICARE Senior Prime in desig- 
nated test areas. Another program 
allows participation in Federal 
Employees Health Benefits Program 
in designated test areas. While these 
and other test programs represent a 
start, more needs to be done for these 

Claims Payment 

Timely claims payments is also an 
important issue. We are working with 
TRICARE contractors to resolve late 
payments so that soldiers do not get 
into credit difficulties not of their own 
making. Although it's not a certainty, 
we're looking at up-front payment of 
claims, with adjudication afterwards to 
relieve active-duty members of this 
financial burden. 

Good News 

In spite of anecdotal reports of 
problems, nationwide DOD beneficiary 
surveys show that TRICARE has 
improved beneficiary satisfaction. 
The "Evaluation of the TRICARE 
Program," a fiscal 1998 DOD report 
to Congress, indicates that TRICARE 

Soldiers will still get free health care in their medical treatment facilities and will be 
automatically enrolled in TRICARE Prime at no charge. 

is meeting its initial goal of improv- 
ing access to care while controlling 
overall costs. 

Your suggestions and complaints 
led to a number of new initiatives, 

• Portability of benefit while 
traveling or during transfer. 

• National Mail Order Pharmacy. 

• Automatic enrollment in 
TRICARE Prime at military treatment 
facilities for family members of grades 
below E-4 living in catchment areas 
(projected start: Oct. 1). 

• Expansion of pharmacy benefit 
for Medicare-eligible beneficiaries 
(projected start: 2000). 

• Automatic TRICARE Prime 
enrollment renewal, unless the enrollee 
declines (projected start: Oct. 1 ). □ 

Options for expanding TRICARE Prime Re- 
mote to family members are now being 
carefully evaluated. 

Why Stay With TRICARE? 

TRICARE is an umbrella program that brings together the capabilities of the 
individual military services, CHAMPUS and civilian-preferred provider net- 
works. TRICARE provides a comprehensive health care benefit in spite of downsizing 
of the direct care system. It provides a foundation for military medicine's readiness 
mission, allowing us to control costs and make fundamental changes in our system 
while participating in numerous deployments. 

A full 70 percent of the care we provide is in military medical-treatment facilities. 
TRICARE, if done right, is the basis to preserve that system — not only to provide 
health care benefits, but to keep health care professionals in uniform ready to 
deploy. TRICARE takes care of soldiers (and other beneficiaries) in peace so we 
can take care of soldiers in war. — LTG Ronald R. Blanck 

July 1999 


From the Editor 

OUR profile of the 25th Infan- 
try Division is the second in 
our series of features on the 
Army's active divisions. 
"Tropic Lightning" soldiers 
do it all, and we hope you 
enjoy their story. 

We are pleased to bring 
you this month a TRICARE in- 
sert and article provided by 
the surgeon general of the 
Army, Dr. (LTG) Ronald R. 
Blanck. Also in this issue is a 
series of articles on the 
Army's departure from Pan- 
ama. And don't forget to post 
on a bulletin board the center 
spread on "The Killer Tan." 

On a personal note, the 
Army lost a great soldier just 
before Memorial Day, when 
SGM Dawn Kilpatrick lost her 
battle against cancer. As the 
public affairs advisor to Sec- 
retary of the Army Togo D. 
West Jr., she was instrumen- 
tal in guiding the Army 
through the turmoil of the 
sexual misconduct scandal. 
Her integrity and dedication 
to duty during that stressful 
time made a huge difference 
in how the Army was portrayed 
to the American people. She 
was a heroine to those of us 
who knew her well. She was a 
soldier. The Army is dimin- 
ished by her loss. 

inq Soldiers 

I HAVE been unable to order 
Soldiers magazine and wonder 
if the IDN number, 050007, is 
valid. I seem to be able only to 
order with the PIN number. Can 
you help? 

Richard A. Mackrella 
via e-mail 

Rosita Effingerofthe U.S. Army 
Publishing Agency replies: 
"Soldiers magazine is only 
available through the Initial Dis- 
tribution System. In order to 
receive this publication, you will 
need to subscribe to it using the 
IDN 050007. When the maga- 
zine is printed, you should au- 
tomatically receive it based on 
your subscription quantity re- 
quirement. The PIN is used only 
for requisitioning other stock 
through the resupply system. " 

No Warrant Officers? 

YOUR call for uniform poster 
models asked for soldiers up to 
the rank of staff sergeant and 
officers to the rank of captain. 
Are you ignoring the fact that 
we have warrant officers in our 

CI/1/4 Richard F. Balwanz 
Fort Bragg, N.C. 

I'M curious to know why only 
enlisted soldiers up through the 
rank of staff sergeant and offic- 
ers through the rank of captain 
were invited to apply as uniform 

W01 Chris Holston 
Fort Stewart, Ga. 


York's Regiment 

IN the May issue of Soldiers you have 
CPL Alvin York, a Medal of Honor re- 
cipientfrom the 82nd Infantry Division, 
listed as belonging to Company G, 
325th Infantry Regiment. According 
the U.S. Army Center of Military 
History and the division museum, 
York was in Co. G, 328th Inf. Regt. 
And that, incidentally, is a common trick ques- 
tion on promotion boards within the 82nd. 

Otherwise the article by SGT Blake Waltman was an 
outstanding piece on how life really is for those of us on the 
two-hour recall roster. 

PFC James A. Karr 
Fort Bragg, N.C. 

YOU'RE correct, and Soldiers apologizes for the error. 

Caring for Kids 

WITH regard to your May article on military child-care facili- 
ties, there is no doubt that the facilities on post are far better 
than those off post, and the rates range from about $30 to 
$40 less. However, to cap a soldier's income at $55,000 to 
continue his qualification for those rates is hard to under- 
stand. It's a struggle for lower enlisted soldiers with two kids 
to pay $920 a month in child-care fees, especially in areas 
such as Fort Belvoir, Va., that are considered high-cost ar- 
eas but don't qualify for COLA. One fee chart should not be 
used for all military posts, because the cost of living varies 
from place to place. 

SSG T.K. Dillard 
via e-mail 

A LACK of adequate space in 
the magazine drove our deci- 
sion to limit the uniform models 
to commissioned officers and 
enlisted soldiers. Since the 
uniforms of commissioned and 
warrant officers are identical 
except for the branch insignia, Qpttjnn Qllt 
we felt the broadest represen- " 

tation was to use newly com- 
missioned officers. We plan to 

devote a future issue of Sol- 
diers to the Army's warrant of- 
ficer corps, with special fea- 
tures on history, training, mis- 
sions and contributions. Look 
for it in the fall. 

DETAILS on submitting photos for the January 2000 edition 
of The Soldiers Almanac are spelled out in the May 1999 
issue of Soldiers magazine on pages 24-25. Remember, 
the deadline for sending your photos to "This Is Our Army" 
is Aug. 15. 

REQUEST vacancy information 
about the 6th Material Manage- 
ment Center be published to 
help our recruiting efforts. 

The center has a real-world 

mission of deploying soldiers to 

Tague, Korea, throughout year. 

LTC Howard W. Helser 

Arden Hills, Mn. 



SOLDIERS no longer accepts 
vacancy notices direct from 
units; they must come through 
OCAR or ARNG channels. 
Please see the March Feed- 
back for background on how 
Soldiers is handling these no- 
tices. The Army Reserve has a 
website at 
usar/vacancies.htm that lists 
vacancies. The new Army Na- 
tional Guard recruiting vacancy 
point of contact is SFC Thomas 
A. Holley. He can be reached 
at (703) 607-7191 orDSN 327- 
7191 or by e-mail to holleyt 
@ngb-arng.ngb. Top 
Army Guard vacancies for this 
month are the 3rd Bn., 160th 
Inf.. Inglewood, Calif., at (310) 
677-1 200 and the 1 st Bn., 149th 
Armor, Salinas, Calif., at (831) 

Service Bar 

YOUR April Feedback response 
about the overseas service bar 
being awarded for six months in 
a specific location is not entirely 
correct. Periods of service less 
than six months duration may 
be combined to determine how 
many service bars, if any, may 
be worn. 

SGT Thomas Simmons 
via e-mail 

Reserve Roots 

ALTHOUGH I enjoyed your May 
article on the 82nd Airborne 
Division, I was disappointed that 
you didn't mention the division's 
reserve-component roots. The 
82nd was formed in 1 91 7 as an 
Army Reserve division, and the 
majority of its units transferred 
from the Army Reserve and the 
Army National Guard, with only 
a core of active Army soldiers. 
This process was repeated 
when the division stood up in 
1942 for World War II service. 
Note, too, that of the five U.S. 
airborne divisions in WW II, only 

July 1999 

the two with reserve-component 

roots — the 82nd and the 1 01 st 

— were retained on active duty. 

CPT Chuck Crosby 

via e-mail 

Counterdrug Programs 

YOUR May item about counter- 
drug efforts failed to provide 
readers complete information. 
This facility is but one of at least 
four in the United States. The 
Advanced Law Enforcement 
Training Division (ALETD), U.S. 
Army Military Police School, was 
identified as the premier mecha- 
nism and provided the initial 
counterdrug training courses to 
civilian law enforcement. The 
current program at Fort McClel- 
lan, Ala. , has existed since 1 990 
and provided not only training 
to instructors starting the Penn- 
sylvania Guard program but also 
lesson plans and supporting 
materials. ALETD currently pro- 
vides several free courses — 
including meals, lodging and 
tuition — to civilian agencies 
needing the training. 

In addition, ALETD also pro- 
vides counterdrug training in a 
mobile environmentto agencies 
throughout the United States, 
Canada, Germany and Korea. 

Foradditional, more specific 

information on the counterdrug 
courses provided by ALETD, 
visit our website at http:// 
members, aol. com/cdigroup/ 
index.html or call us at (256) 
848-6334 or (DSN) 865-6657. 
SFC Peter A. Deming 
via e-mail 

Ware's Division 

YOUR May back cover has an 
interesting item about MG Keith 
L. Ware, but I call one small error 
to your attention. He earned the 
Medal of Honor while serving 
with the 3rd Division in WW II. 
He went on to command the 1 st 
Inf. Div. in later life. I served as 
his ADC and succeeded him to 
its command. 

LTG O.C. Talbott (Ret.) 
Annapolis, Md. 

Missing Online 

WHY isn't the online version of 
Soldiers updated when the 
printed edition hits the street? 
The Soldiers website still has 
December's edition on it. 

Dave Connelly 
via e-mail 

Soldiers Online generally gets 
posted to the website on or 
about the first of the month for 

any given issue's date of publi- 
cation. Perhaps the problem 
lies with the browser or URL you 
are using. Try 
soldiers for fast results. 

Body Piercing 

WHAT is the reference for the 
change in what soldiers are al- 
lowed to wear as far as jewelry 
and body piercing go? I know 
those things are prohibited but I 
don't have the reference. 

John Brehmer 
via e-mail 

CHECK out the new link titled 
"Hot Topics" on the Army's pub- 
lic affairs website, "Army Link." 
The URL is 
army I ink/. This site has all sorts 
of new information important to 
Army leaders, including the 
policies on body piercing. 

Soldiers is for soldiers and DA 
civilians. We invite readers' views. 
Stay under 150 words — a post 
card will do — and include your 
name, rank and address. We'll 
withhold your name if you desire 
and may condense your views be- 
cause of space. We can't publish 
or answer every one, but we'll use 
representative views. Write to: 
Feedback, Soldiers, 9325 Gun- 
ston Road, Ste. S108, Fort Bel- 
voir, VA 22060-5581, or e-mail: 

United States Government 

Order Processing Code 


YES, please send - 

The total cost of my order is $ _ 

Price includes regular shipping & handle 

subscriptions to: 


or Me 


se type of punt) 




*"" — 

Street addrett 

/ / 



ip e* 


ie phone me 

udmg 3 , 


Credit card orders are welcome! 

Fax your orders (202) S12-2250 
Phone your orders (202) 512-1800 

Soldiers (SOL) at $24 each ($30.00 foreign) per year. 

For privacy protection, check the box below: 

Do not make my name available to other mailers 
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Mail to; Superintendent of Documents. PO Box 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250-7954 
Important: Please include this completed order form with your remittance. 


Thank you for your order! 

What's New 


"Hot Topics" is available on the Internet 

Washington, D.C. 

"Hot Topics" 
Hot Off the Press 

THE premiere issue of the new 
"Hot Topics: Current Issues for 
Army Leaders," is now being 
distributed Armywide. 

"Hot Topics" is a quarterly 
command-information tool in- 
tended as a decision-making 
and training resource for Army 
junior leaders and trainers. The 
concept of the newsletter is to 
get timely information out to the 
field on new policies or contro- 
versial topics in an attractive, 
clearly written publication lead- 
ers can retain and use when 
implementing new policies and 
making decisions. 

The hot topic of the first 
issue is the Army tattoo policy. 
The newsletter features an in- 
depth interview with BG Clayton 

E. Melton, who re- 
cently retired as direc- 
tor of the Human Re- 
sources Directorate 
in the Office of the 
Deputy Chief of Staff 
for Personnel. The 
issue also contains 
information on new 
Army policies on 
body piercing and 
the wearing of 
Army uniforms, 
including a pull- 
out poster. 

The news- 
letter is also 
available on 
the ArmyLINK 
website, at www. 
Just click on the "Hot 
Topics" icon. 
"Hot Topics" is being dis- 
tributed in accordance with DA 
12-series subscription require- 
ments through publications 
channels. To update your sub- 
scription service, cite the initial 
distribution number (IDN) 
040147 and the quantity re- 
quired. — Army News Service 

Washington, D.C. 

Hybrid Vehicle Saves 
Fuel, Pollutes Less 

ARMY automotive engineers, 
in partnership with the private- 
sector, are developing fuel-effi- 
cient, low-emissions vehicles to 
meet 21st-century transporta- 
tion needs. 

Technicians at the National 
Automotive Center, part of the 
U.S. Army Tank-Automotive 
and Armaments Command in 
Warren, Mich., are testing a 

modified, Family of Medium 
Tactical Vehicles-based, five- 
ton truck that uses both a diesel 
engine/electric generator and 
batteries to provide power for 

Dual-power-source, or hy- 
brid, vehicles most likely will 
provide the bulk of land trans- 
port needs for the Army After 
Next, the force envisioned for 
the year 2020 and beyond, ac- 
cording to Robert Crow III, the 
Army program manager for the 
hybrid-vehicle project. 

"The goals of Army After 
Next require a 75-percent re- 
duction of fuel usage by 2020," 
Crow said. "Using hybrid-elec- 
tric propulsion can reduce ve- 
hicle fuel consumption by 25 to 
30 percent." 

The prototype hybrid ve- 
hicle will undergo some limited 
testing at Aberdeen Proving 
Ground, Md.,thisfall, Crow said. 
First fielding of the system, he 
said, may occur "in five or six 

The hybrid truck uses a 
commercial diesel truckengine, 
which is connected to a 120- 
kilowatt generator, Crow said. 

Two computerized power-con- 
trol units channel the gen- 
erator's electrical energy to the 
hybrid's two alternating current 
electric motors, with each mo- 
tor connected to a driveshaft — 
one front, one rear — thereby 
maintaining the six-wheel-drive 
capability of the original truck. 

"The hybrid vehicle propels 
itself with its diesel engine/gen- 
erator, the on-board battery 
pack, or both — depending on 
how much acceleration is re- 
quired," Crow said. "When op- 
erating on batteries alone, it is 
very quiet ... think about the 
new and novel tactical capabili- 
ties of such a system. Since this 
truck has a massive amount of 
surplus electrical energy on 
board, you can power on-board 
weapon systems, ground- 
based radar, or even missile 
systems with the vehicle itself. 
You won't have to tow genera- 
tors for such applications any- 
more," Crow added. 

The power 

The hybrid vehicle uses 
both a diesel engine and 
a I20kw generator. 

Upcoming Events 

July 1: Fort McClellan be- 
gins transition to National 
Guard Bureau. 

- July 4: Independence 

July History 

July 1: Mililary Intelligence Branch 
established in 1962. 

• July 5: U.S. Forces, Korea, commemorates 49th 
anniversary of Task Force Smith, first U.S. unit to 
engage North Korean forces in 1950. 



L July 10: Allies invade Sicily in 1943. "The fin 
page In the liberation of the European Cont 
nent." — GEN Owight D. Eisenhower 



units "constantly monitor the 
batteries to assess their state of 
charge," Crow said. When the 
batteries are discharged to a 
certain level, the generator re- 
charges them. 

Hybrid systems also pro- 
vide benefits for the environ- 
ment, Crow said. The diesel 
engine in the hybrid is tuned to 
run at near constant speed, he 
said, saving fuel and reducing 

Even the Army hybrid 
vehicle's regenerative braking 
system is energy efficient, Crow 

"When decelerating, the 
electric motors that are normally 
used to accelerate the vehicle 
become generators . . . that then 
produce electric energy that is 
sent back to the batteries — 
thereby recovering otherwise 
lost energy normally dispersed 
as heat in a normal brake sys- 
tem," he said. 

"The normal air brake sys- 
tem is still retained for sudden- 
stop conditions, but brake wear 
will be dramatically reduced be- 
cause of regenerative braking," 
he added. 

Most future commercial 

Army Leadership News 

truck designs will be hybrids "as 
truck and bus manufacturers 
are starting to realize that the 
dramaticfuel economy improve- 
ments and low emissions of 
hybrid propulsion are too at- 
tractive to ignore," Crow said. 
"When commercial indus- 
try goes hybrid so will the Army 
— there won't be anything else 
to buy," he said. "It is our intent 
to get involved and influence 
these commercial designs up 
front to make sure that what- 
ever is produced is a true dual- 
use product that can meet the 
military need." — ARNEWS 

Shinseki Tapped to be Army Chief of Staff 

GEN Eric K. Shinseki was 
to have assumed his du- 
ties as the Army's 34th 
chief of staff as this issue 
went to press, pending 
confirmation by the Sen- 

In his new position 
Shinseki will perform the 
diverse duties of chief of 
staff as set forth in Title 1 
of the U.S. Code, includ- 
ing ensuring the Army pro- 
vides trained and ready 
forces to the nine U.S. 
combatant commands, 
presiding over the Army 
staff, and serving as a 
member of the joint chiefs of staff. 

Shinseki was born in Lihue on the island 
of Kauai, Hawaii, on Nov. 28, 1 942. He gradu- 
ated from the United States Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, N.Y., in 1965 with a 
bachelor of science degree in engineering. 
He also holds a master of arts degree in 
English literature from Duke University. Shin- 

GEN Eric K. Shinseki is set to be- 
come the 34th chief of staff. 

seki's military education 
includes the Armor Officer 
Advanced Course, the 
United States Army Com- 
mand and General Staff 
College, and the National 
War College. 

Since his commis- 
sioning more than 33 
years ago, Shinseki has 
served in command and 
staff assignments of in- 
creasing responsibility in 
both the continental 
United States and over- 
seas, including Vietnam 
combat tours with the 9th 
and 25th Infantry divi- 
sions. Since Nov. 24, 1998, Shinseki has 
served as the Army's vice chief of staff. 

Shinseki was to replace GEN Dennis J. 
Reimer, who served as Army chief of staff 
since June 20, 1995, and retired from the 
Army after 37 years on active duty. The 
normal tour length for a service chief is four 
years. — ARNEWS 



Aug. 1999 

Y2K Compliance by 

IF all goes well, the Army's 
Y2K problems should be solved 
by November of this year. 

The Army relies heavily on 
automation as a combat multi- 
plier. The Army is attempting to 
ensure that Y2K doesn't ad- 
versely effect mission-critical 
and non-mission-critical sys- 
tems, as well as the quality of 
life for soldiers and their family 

According to the Army Y2K 
Program Office, the schedule 
for Army systems to be Y2K 
compliant is as follows: 

• The Army's mission-criti- 
cal systems are scheduled to 
be 98 percent Y2K compliant 
by next month and 1 00 percent 
by October. 

• The Army's non-mission- 
critical systems are scheduled 
to be 99 percent Y2K compli- 
ant by next month and 100 
percent by November. 

• The Army's installation 
key facilities infrastructure de- 
vices affecting safety, security 
and core mission are sched- 
uled to be 100 percent Y2K 
compliant before next month. 
— Army Y2K Program Office 

I — July 15: 1st Armored Division's Unit Day. ("Old 
Ironsides" was formed March 1, 1932; reorganized 
as an armored div. July 15, 1940.) >.- 

July 16: Application date for the 1999 Army 
Women's Soccer Team. 

p July 19: 75th Ranger Regiment 
Rendezvous at Fort Benning, Ga. 

July 1999 

-July 15: Battle of the Marne in 1918. American 
forces play a key role in Allied defense and counter- 
offensive that stopped the German army 


L July 19: Attack on Fort Wagner, Charleston. 
S.C, in 1863 marks first use of black troops to 
assault Southern forces during the Civil War. 


What's New 

Fort Bliss, Texas 

New Patriot Tests 

THE Army's Patriot Advanced 
Capability-3 missile success- 
fully intercepted and de- 
stroyed a tactical ballistic mis- 
sile in a recent test over New 

The PAC-3, a hit-to-kill ver- 
sion of missiles used during the 
Gulf War, is being developed 
by contractors in cooperation 
with the 35th Air Defense Artil- 
lery Brigade at Fort Bliss. 

During the test, the PAC- 
3 intercepted a warhead from 
a Hera missile in the upper 
atmosphere over White 
Sands, N.M. 

Preliminary data indicated 
that all test objectives were 
achieved, according to Lock- 
heed Martin Vought Systems, 
which conducted the seeker 
characterization flight. 

"This test was a great 
achievementforthe PAC-3 mis- 
sile team, and our Ballistic Mis- 
sile Defense Organization and 
Army partners," said Mike 
Trotsky, vice president of air 
defense programs for Vought 
Systems. "We have overcome 
significant challenges prepar- 
ing for the flight-test program, 
and I couldn't be more pleased 
with the PAC-3 missile team. 
We are all looking forward to 
fielding the PAC-3 system ... in 
the very near future." 

Testing of the PAC-3 is be- 
ing conducted in two stages — 
developmental tests and opera- 
tional tests. The first two devel- 
opmental missions were con- 
ducted using special instrumen- 

tation instead of the full PAC-3 

The tests were intended to 
verify critical system and mis- 
sile performance before con- 
ducting target-intercept flights. 
The remaining missions will pit 
1 6 PAC-3 missiles against sev- 
eral classes of targets. 

The older missiles, cur- 
rently deployed worldwide, 
use proximity warheads to 
destroy targets. The new PAC- 
3 is designed to destroy a 
warhead by direct, high-ve- 
locity impact. 

"The successful test is great 
forthe morale of troops at Bliss," 
said MAJ Michael S. Maloney, 
executive officer of the 2nd Bat- 
talion, 1st ADA. "Our soldiers 
have been working hard on the 
PAC-3 mission." — 35th ADA 
Brigade PAO 

The PAC-3 missile is a hit-to-kill version of older Patriot missiles. 

Quality-of-Life News 

Housing Privatization Under Review 

THE Army's Residential Communities Initiative (see "What's New," June) to privatize a portion 
of military family housing is currently under review. 

During recent congressional testimony questions arose regarding the aggressiveness and 
scope of the services' programs. The Army's goal was to privatize all family housing in the 
United States, where feasible, by 2005. Soldiers' June story on housing privatization reflected 
this approach, which has been significantly modified. 

Congress indicated that the Military Housing Privatization Initiative legislation was in- 
tended as a tool to establish pilot programs, test the legislative authorities and use them to 
supplement, not replace, existing housing programs. 

In response, the Army privatization effort is now limited to a pilot program at no more than 
four sites: Fort Carson, Colo.; Fort Hood, Texas; Fort Lewis, Wash.; and Fort Meade, Md. 

The initiation of the pilot program is awaiting congressional approval. Once approved, the 
pilot program will begin and be used to gather information, document lessons learned, 
establish procedures and policies, and identify areas needing improvement. The Army 
continues to support this important public-private initiative and expects it to remain a key 
component in providing adequate housing for soldiers and their families in the future. — RCI 
Integrated Process Team, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, 
Logistics and Environment 

imeline (cont.) 

: Allies break 

July 25 

out of 
beachhead in 1944 

r~ July: 27 Trials for the Army Men's Softball Team. 

H i -n- 

L July 26: US Army orders desegrega- 
tion of its training facilities and begins 
steps to integrate combat units in 1 944. 

^ July 28: World War I begins in 1914 
following assassination of Archduke 
Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, Bosnia. 


July 31 :T 

Corps established 



Pvf . Murphy's Lau> 


pvt MiJiipni 


(i.eftj "PVT Murphy's Law" 
is available at local military 
clothing sales and post ex- 
change stores. (Above) SFC 
Mark Baker works on his 
comic strips during his free 
time at home. 

/M NEW comic strip about the misadventures of a soldier will 
/M be made available for print in Army installation newspapers 
JTmL worldwide starting Aug. 1 . 

"Pvt. Murphy's Law" is a comic strip created for soldiers, about 
a soldier and by a soldier. SFC Mark Baker, a signal intelligence 
analyst in the Military District of Washington, created the cartoon 
in the early 1 990s after making his first jump after airborne school 
at Fort Bragg, N.C. 

"I hit the ground — feet, knees, face — but I felt no pain 
because of all the adrenaline," said Baker. "I woke up hurting all 
over the next day and said to myself, 'You know, there's got to be 
a cartoon in here somewhere.'" That was the birth of PVT Murphy. 

In 1993 Fort Bragg's newspaper began printing Baker's com- 
ics. "Pvt. Murphy's Law" ran weekly at Fort Bragg for two years. 

"Murphy's whole purpose for existence is to make soldiers 
laugh," said Baker. "It's not an editorial cartoon — it's just for fun." 

Baker is a self-taught artist and began drawing cartoons in 
high school. His talent was evident to Arizona State University, 
which offered him a full scholarship in 1986 — he turned it down. 

"I just wanted to join the service," said Baker. "Besides, I wasn't 
quite ready for college." 

Turning down the scholarship didn't stop him from succeed- 
ing, though. He published his first paperback Pvt. Murphy collec- 
tion in 1997, and it's still available in military clothing sales stores 
and post exchanges. 

The Army News Service will provide "Pvt. Murphy's Law" to 
editors of Army publications monthly. If you don't see the comic in 
your installation newspaper in August, contact your local public 
affairs office. Editors who want more information about "Pvt. 
Murphy's Law" comic strips should contact ARNEWS at (703) 695- 
3952 or (DSN) 224-3952. — SFC John Brenci 


NEMit's Time we 

OOX Off OOP. *?®* 
THAT*?<S>* HM ' 


fA&N IT'S Time vo£ 
6 T OFF OOP. *?<§>* 

This comic 
won Baker a 
of the Army 
award for il- 
lustrative art 
in 1997. 

July 1999 


When future disasters strike, the Army Corps of 
Engineers will be ready with... 

URRICANE Georges swept 
through Puerto Rico in late 
September 1998, then struck 
the Florida Keys and Gulf 
Coast of Mississippi. It dam- 
aged several hundred thousand struc- 
tures and left about five million tons of 
debris. A million people lost electric 
power, and 700,000 lost water. 

By all accounts it was a major 
disaster. But Georges also gave 
planners an opportunity to test the new 
"Readiness 2000" response plan and 
determine whether the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers is ready for the 
coming hurricane season and other 
future disasters. 

During the Georges relief effort 
more than 800 military and civilian 
USACE members provided vital 
services in Puerto Rico and the South- 
eastern United States. 

The Federal Emergency Manage- 
ment Agency, which directs the federal 
response to disasters, assigned USACE 
more than $840 million in missions, 
and the Corps joined a total Army 
effort involving active duty soldiers, 
Reservists and National Guard soldiers. 

USACE installed temporary roofs 
on 60,000 homes, distributed 18 
million pounds of ice and 7.7 million 
gallons of water, removed millions of 
cubic yards of debris, and installed 
generators at more than 200 critical 
facilities including hospitals, airports 
and water treatment plants. 

William Irwin is a USACE civil emergency management 

Pat Taylor, a quality-assurance inspector for USACE's Savannah, Ga., District, checks 
a shipment of ice being unloaded in San Juan, Puerto Rico. 

The rising sun illuminates the night shift 
at the Selenas, Puerto Rico, debris-reduc- 
tion site. 

Readiness 2000, known within 
USACE as R2K, recognizes that a 
single Corps district or division can't 
adequately respond to all the missions 
a large disaster could bring to an area. 
So the foundation of R2K is the 
Planning and Response Team. 

Before R2K, each district planned 
for all disaster missions. Under R2K, 
divisions give each district just one or 
two missions, and the district organizes 
a PRT to plan and train for those. PRT 
make-up and size depends on the 


Volume 1 

!K Features 

Ketone of R2K, other features contribute to its 

^ER — The USACE RSC in San Francisco 

lation and corrective action program and is 

1998's storms, so USACE can build on 

NATION SYSTEM — DTOSs are trailers and 
mergency-response team to provide initial 

3 0NSE TEAMS — USACE logistics person- 
irform critical functions during emergencies, 
e mobilization and staging areas and man- 
3, water and roofing materials. 
nI — The 249th is the Army's only electric- 
soldier unit assigned to USACE. During 
leployed soldiers to the Territorial Logistics 
; government generators and maintenance 
)f five platoons, about 70 soldiers, in Puerto 
ower to critical services, undertook damage 
1 generators and provided power to three 

IGNMENTS — FEMA and USACE drafted 
hurricane season to cover many missions 
assignments ready was critical to having 

e before Georges' landfall, said BG Richard 

i Atlantic Division. 
RTs are working to improve response time 

trict contracting offices to write advance 
be taken to the point of award so that, when 
ssued immediately and relief will be on the 

air transport just hours after Georges 
struck. Water and ice were delivered to 
Puerto Rico for distribution by local 
agencies. □ 




see how PATiewT 













My seReeAMT 


si.eepi.ess wights. 
you HAve thbm 


THe Buessei? evewT! 


Introduction to the Provider 
and Communicators 1 

What is TRICARE? 2 

TRICARE Today 3 

Enrollment 5 

Benefits 12 

Prescription Plan 18 

Other Options 22 

TRICARE Extra/Standard... 23 

Cost Comparison 24 

Service Region Map 25 

Letters from Soldiers 26 

Questionnaire 28 

This magazine is designed to 
assist and provide answers to 
your questions. We ask for your 
response. Your letter may be 
selected to be printed in The 

Here is our address: 

US Army Medical Command 

Marketing Office 
ATTN: The Provider 
2050 Worth Road 
Ft. Sam Houston, TX 78234-6000 
Phone: (210) 221-8725 
Fax: (210) 221-7146 




The PROVIDER is pleased to introduce you to Hilda and 
Master Sergeant Mentor. They are here to help you to 
understand and use TRICARE throughout this magazine. 










questions you MAy 


US Army Medical Command 

Marketing Office 
ATTN: The Provider 
2050 Worth Road 
Ft. Sam Houston, TX 78234-6000 



So you ask. . ."What is TRICARE, and 
what can it do for me?" 







U ' 

T A Te've all heard a lot about 
V V healthcare programs and their 
problems. Rest assured, Military 
Medicine is not a new program, here 
today and gone tomorrow, it has been 
around for many years. TRICARE is 
the name of the new healthcare 
program for all branches of the 
military. Let's check out how Military 
Medicine has served U.S. military 
forces and become stronger over time. 

19 40 S -Military Medicine took I 
[ health depa rtments^ 

healthcare needs led lo ih, 
«eai,o„ of CHAMP (i, „ 

"ere extended from J£ 
th0 p^en^ a J X & 

f ' 97 0s- 90 

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ffective mid 1995— TRICARE be- 
gan offering military personnel 
and their families a Health 
Maintenance Organization (HMO)- 
type program — a source of health- 
care which has very low costs and 
which can meet most needs of all 
military personnel and their 
families. TRICARE plans available 
are Prime, Extra and Standard. 

Active duty soldiers must 
complete local administrative 
procedures to (automatically) enroll 
themselves and their family 
members free. When you enroll in 
Prime, there are: 

• No enrollment fees 
v No military medical fees 

• No deductibles 
Virtually no claims to file 

• Low hospital costs 
In addition to receiving care 

within the Military Treatment 

Facility (MTF) (which includes 
military hospitals and clinics), active 
duty families and retirees can also 
select from a network of TRICARE 
Prime civilian healthcare providers. 
However, with this option there will be 
a modest fee, (or co-pay), for non-active 
duty members for each visit. TRICARE 
Healthcare programs are provided to 
active duty members with no cost. 
With TRICARE Prime, you will be 
assigned a Primary Care Manager 
(PCM), to help you and your family 
when you need medical treatment. 
The bottom line is that you will be 
assured of high-quality care on a 
continuous basis into the 21st 
century... provided you follow the 
local administrative enrollment 
application procedures and for now, 
renew your coverage annually. A 
continual enrollment process will be 
A es tablished in the near future. 



excuse Me, mastcr 
sbrgbawt MewTOR, we weRe 









Tea. them you want to verify 




ake sure you have all of the following information with you when 
you go to the military personnel office; 

dates of birth for all being 

enrolled, including children 

• marriage certificate 

• divorce decree information 

• adoption information 

• current mailing address of 
all eligible family members. 

Remember that DEERS must be advised 
of any additions or changes during or 
after the initial processing, like a new 
baby, an adoption, a parent becoming a 
dependent, or even the death of a 
dependent. This ensures full coverage 
for all eligible family members. 



















While every effort is made to assign you to a PCM from your local 
Military Treatment Facility, patient capacity may result in a 
family member being assigned to a PCM from a Preferred Provider 
Network (PPN), a supplemental group of civilian doctors. Because this 
Network extends outside the MTF, there will be a minimal co-pay fee. 






1. Read info in package given at basic 

2. Go to DEERS with all paperwork needed. 

3. Go to MTF to enroll yourself. 

f. Then, if your married, enroll your family at 
the TSC. (call ahead for info to bring) 

5. Keep a copy of all enrollment forms. 















>^/ > PROVIDER... Z' 
S5 \ MAYBE / 
JrT/t \yOURS!/ 


u/ o voY 











OK, Let's Talk Benefits . . . 

BENEFITS cont'd 











BENEFITS cont'd 



BENEFITS cont'd 


BENEFITS cont'd 

yes, you can! yowu be given 


PLEASE NOTE: Enrolled beneficiaries 
who seek non-emergency care 
without prior approval will auto- 
matically be using what is called 

This option requires payment of 
an annual deductible of $300. for 
an individual enrollee or $600. per 
family, plus 50 percent or more of 
visit or treatment fees. 


















BENEFITS cont'd 


' Wpn emiVe Medici ^e and 
Wellness Visits 

-Eye Exams - Pap Smears 

- Hearing - Prostate Exams 
Screenings - Other Cancer 

- Immunizations Early Diagnosis 

- Mammograms Exams 

• Guaranteed Access Standards 


Out-of-Area Care (see note 
page 16) 
Emergency Care 

, L „wes. cos. treatment among 
three options 

I Retail New"* 







£/nes ar e#oVCv9^(rj 



































MOW "trs? 
















What do TRICARE Extra and 
TRICARE Standard have to offer? 


Standard is a new name for 
traditional CHAMPUS. To use 
this option, all you need to do is 
authorized provider in the civilian 
community and pay an annual 
deductible and cost-share. Your 
cost share will be at least 5% 
higher than TRICARE Extra. 
However, you will have a greater 
selection of doctors to choose from. 

^) Advantages 

> Broadest choice of providers 

> Widely available 

> No enrollment fee 

> May use TRICARE Extra 

£,r Disadvantages 

> No Primary Care Manager 

> Patient pays: 

• Deductible 

• Copayment 

• Balance if bill exceeds 
allowable charge and 
provider is non-participating 
(up to 15% additional) 

> Nonavailability statement 
may be required for civilian 
inpatient care for areas 
surrounding MTFs 

> Beneficiaries may have to do 
their own paperwork and file 
their own claims 


T nder this option, all you 
\J need to do is use a doctor, 
hospital, or other medical 
provider listed in the TRICARE 
Provider Directory. If you need 
assistance, call the Health Care 
Finder at your nearest TRICARE 
Service Center for help in 
finding a convenient TRICARE 
Extra provider. 



> Copayment 5% less than 

> No balance billing 

> No enrollment fee 

> No deductible when using 
retail pharmacy network 

> No forms to file 

> May use TRICARE Standard 

L? Disadvantages 

> No Primary Care Manager 

> Provider choice is limited 
>• Patient pays: 

• Deductible 

• Copayment 

>• Nonavailability statement 
may be required for civilian 
inpatient care for areas 
surrounding MTFs 

> Not universally available 



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TRICARE Health Service Regions 

Region 9 



Region 12 




Puerto Rico Virgin Islands 
1 — — ' ' ->•/- 






Latin America 



□ REGIONS 7 & 8 




■ REGION 10 



■ REGION 1 1 









Dear Hilda, 

I have a Primary Care 
Manager that I just don't care 
for. Am I stuck with him 

Julie Harris (spouse) 


Dear Hilda, 

I'm on active duty and 
stationed away from a 
military installation. What do 
I do for medical care, and do I) 
have to pay? 

SGT M. Pierce 

Dear Julie, 

No, not at all. Go to your TRICARE Service 
Center and fill out a Change Request Form. 
Then ask for a Provider Directory, it's a listing 
of network providers in your area. That should 
get things moving for you. 


Dear Sergeant Pierce, 

As an active duty member, your healthcare 
needs are covered through supplemental care 
funds; so you won't pay for any healthcare you 
may need. Policy changes are being worked on 
to provide TRICARE Prime from civilian PCM in 
the local area for Geographically Separated 
Units (GSU). 


Dear Hilda, 

How can I get a listing of 
PCMs and other network 

PFC G. Brown 

Dear Private Brown, 

A listing of network providers in your areas 
Provider Directory is available at your local 
TRICARE Service Center. The TSC is located near 
or within the Military Treatment Facility. 

Hope this helps. 


Dear Master Sergeant Mentor, 

What should I do if I'm a 
Prime enrollee and get sick 
outside my region? What if 
the 800 number is busy and 
I can't make contact? 

SGT C. Manners 

I'm not good at letter 
writing, but I'd like to 
personally talk to some- 
body about TRICAEE. 
Where should I go? 
PFC D. Reagon 

Dear Sergeant Manners, 

for non-emergency care you must first 
contact your PCM or HCF for instructions 
and authorization. If you see a physician 
without authorization, you will still be covered 
for some of the costs incurred under the 
Point-of -Service option. That option pays 50 
percent of the cost after a separate, higher 
deductible is met ($300 for single and $600 
for family enrollment). 

M5G Mentor 

Dear Private Jamison, 

There aren't any restrictions for family 
members in poor health when enrolling in TRICARE 
Prime. Go for it — and I wish your wife well. 
M5G Mentor 

Dear Private Reagon, 

Here's what to do. Call or visit your local 
TRICARE Service Center (T5C), which is usually 
located near or within your Military Treatment 
Facility. Explain your needs and they should 
help. Or, you can also talk to the Health 
Benefits Advisor in your MTF. 

M5G Mentor 



How Are We Doing?! 

T t's important that our enlisted soldiers have all the facts about the 
1 TRICARE Healthcare Plan. After all, the health of the U.S. Army de- 
pends to a great extent on the health and welfare of our troops! 

So, we need to know from you whether we've scored a 10 in explain- 
ing the TRICARE story or whether we need to do better. Please help us to 
know our success score by answering these few questions. 

1. Did you find this magazine easy to read? 
If no, please explain what was difficult 

LJ Yes □ No 

2. Now that you have read this magazine, do you feel that you understand the 
TRICARE plan, or know how and where to get the answers? 

□ Yes QNo 

If no, please explain what was confusing or not fully explained 

3. What issues would you like to see covered in the next Provider? 

4. Do you have any suggestions for additional material that we might include 
in this magazine? □ Yes □ No 
If yes, please give us your ideas 

5. What information did you find most helpful or especially useful? 

6. Will you keep this booklet for future reference? □ Yes □ No 

If no, please tell us why not 

7. Please rate this booklet on a scale of 1-10 (1 = very poor 10 = outstanding) 

Your Name (optional) . 

Your Rank 

Your Age 

□ Male □ Female 

Your Installation/Location 

Are you □ Single □ Married □ Divorced 

Do you have any dependents? □ Yes How many? 

May we print your name in The Provider? □ Yes □ No 

□ No 

Mail this to the address on the next page or 
copy it and fax it to (210) 221-7146. 


lies and arranging tor 
air transport just hours after Georges 
struck. Water and ice were delivered to 
Puerto Rico for distribution by local 
agencies. □ 

July 1999 


With truck-si 

generators that can light a city block, prime power production specialists provide 

Poweri Punc 

Story hySFC John Brenci 

Photos courtesy 249th Engineer Battalion 

SGT Cullen Mumley of 2nd Pit., Co. B, 249th Engr. Bn., installs lightning-arrestor 
protection and grounding on one of the more than 800 buildings at Blue Grass 
Army Depot, Ky., where ammunition and explosive items are stored. 

THEY'VE been involved in every 
major Army operation since 
Operation Just Cause in Panama. 
If you've been part of any recent 
deployment, chances are you've 
been the recipient of what the soldiers 
in this one-of-a-kind unit produce — 
power, and lots of it. 

The 249th Engineer Battalion's 
prime power production specialists are 
the unsung heroes who keep the 
electricity flowing and the lights on. 

They don't play with lawnmower- 
sized generators. They pack enough 
juice in their "monster" power plants to 
provide electricity to a small city. 

They might go unnoticed by other 
soldiers, who expect power to be 
available like they expect the sun to 
shine. But rest assured that when 
soldiers move, some element of the 
249th will be right there with them. 

In September 1994 a 249th platoon 
deployed for Operation Uphold 
Democracy to "turn the lights back on" 
in Haiti. "There was a serious lack of 
electrical power," said LTC Kurt 
Ubbelohde, the 249th' s commander. 
Within weeks the platoon fixed three of 
five power plants on the island by 
cannibalizing parts from other genera- 
tors. "In remote areas where there were 
no power plants, we had soldiers 
repairing small generators for the local 
population," Ubbelohde said. 

A large portion of the unit's 
mission is devoted to deploying to 
generate and distribute prime electrical 
power in support of combat, stability- 
and-support operations, and disaster- 
relief-operations, said Ubbelohde. 

That's an enormous mission when 
you consider the 249th is the only 


Army unit of its kind and has an auth- 
orized strength of just 178 personnel. 

To put th'ngs in perspective, think 
about the fact that the 249th' s soldiers 
have been involved in hundreds of 
operations worldwide in the last five 
years. "There's an extreme operational 
tempo in the organization," said 
Ubbelohde. "The platoons and ele- 
ments of the platoons are doing 
something just about every month." 

Deployed units have their own 
tactical generators that provide a 
limited amount of electricity. But 
wherever there is a large concentration 
of troops, or power requirements 
exceed capabilities, the 249th is 
available to provide commercial-grade 
electricity with its mobile generators. 
For instance, the 249th is responsible 
for providing power to 50 percent of 
the Force Provider modules — or 1 8 
modules. Each module is a mobile 550- 

man camp. 

The 249th also 
provides electricity for disaster- 
relief operations like the mission to 
Puerto Rico after Hurricane Georges. 
"We had a significant responsibility to 
help restore emergency power," said 
Ubbelohde. Sometimes that includes 
the need for emergency backup 
generators, such as for hospitals. 

"Hospitals require redundant 
power," said Ubbelohde. "They have 
emergency generators to back up 
commercial grids, but to continue the 
redundancy when the power goes out 
requires more power." Just imagine 
what would happen to a patient in the 
middle of an operation if a hospital's 
emergency generator failed and there 
was no redundant power backup. 

Because of its small size and vast 
mission, the battalion's elements are 
based all over the world. Headquarters 

(Above, left) At Fort 
Belvoir, Va., SSG Maurice' 
Thomas checks setup and con- 
nections of a recently rebuilt engine on the 
dynometer test stand. 

(Above, center) SGT Cullen Mumley works 
on a streetlight project at Fort Bragg. 

(Above) SSG Shawn Curtis performs annual 
inspection and maintenance of a 750kw gen- 
erator in Panama. 

Company and the Prime Power Pro- 
duction Specialist School are based at 
Fort Belvoir, Va. Co. A is at Fort 
Lewis, Wash., with platoons in Hawaii 
and Korea. Co. B is at Fort Bragg, 
N.C., with a platoon in Germany. 
There are also two reserve component 
prime power detachments affiliated 

PRIME power production specialists go 
through an intense 52-week school at 
Fort Belvoir, Va., to learn their craft — but 
it's money in the bank. 

One might think that, with such a mar- 
ketable skill, soldiers in the 249th would be 
leaving in droves. But they're not. Battalion 
commander LTC Kurt Ubbelohde said the 
unit's retention rates are about the same as 
those for the rest of the Army. 

"I think the soldiers love their jobs and 
the experience they gain in the Army," he 
said. "They know the good civilian jobs will 
still be there when they get out." 

The first phase of the school is 17 

Money in the Bank 

weeks of college-level math and physics, 
electrical engineering and mechanical 
engineering. "There are lots of homework 
assignments and plenty of stress," said 
SFC Jeffrey Hall, the Prime Power Pro- 
duction Specialist School's NCOIC. 

Operator's training makes up the 14- 
week second phase of the course. Stu- 
dents do hands-on work with generators. 
They learn how to install, operate and 
maintain the generators. They also learn 
electrical theory and troubleshooting. 

The final phase of the course is the 
specialty phase. Hall said this is when 
students learn welding, engine rebuilding, 

all phases of electrical distribution, and 
instrumentation. "We actually troubleshoot 
down to the bare bones — down to the 
diode level," he said. 

The school is difficult, but the job is 
personally rewarding, Hall said. "It's not a 
plug-and-chug MOS. We teach from the 
ground level up, and we are always looking 
for top-notch soldiers," said Hall. 

Hall said soldiers in any career field 
may apply for the 52E MOS, and they don't 
have to be in the re-enlistment window. 

Another added benefit to the school is 
that graduates earn approximately one year 
of college credit. — SFC John Brenci 

July 1999 

SGT Albert Casas-Lozano monitors the 
gauges inside a central control van dur- 
ing plant operations in Tuzla, Bosnia. 

with the 249th. Ubbelohde said this 
configuration gives the unit the rapid 
response and visibility needed to 
accomplish its mission. 

"These soldiers are more than 
capable. They are very, very skilled," 
Ubbelohde said. "They can work on 
virtually any piece of electrical power- 
production equipment in the world. 
That's what makes them so special. 
They have the ability to determine 
what the problem is and fix it by 
understanding the theory behind a 
piece of equipment, even though 
they may never have seen the 
i equipment before." 
!• For example, in a recent 
If deployment to Ghana an element 
I of the 249th was sent to repair a 
^ hospital generator and hook up a 
k backup generator. "They were 
P working on a generator they'd 
never even seen before, and they 
didn't stumble for a second," 
Ubbelohde said. 

That level of skill is important 
for prime power production 
, specialists, who are often de- 
ployed in very small groups. "We 

typically deploy at the section level for 
the bulk of our missions," Ubbelohde 
said. A power section in the 249th 
includes only seven people. 

A prime power platoon includes 
one warrant officer, one master 
sergeant, two sergeants first class, six 
staff sergeants and six sergeants. Split 
that in half, minus the warrant officer 
and master sergeant, and you have a 
power section. 

That noncommissioned officer- 
heavy structure is probably an advan- 
tage considering the amount of respon- 
sibility each power section has. 

The team is responsible for install- 
ing, operating and maintaining two 
750-kilowatt mobile generators, said 
Ubbelohde. An average house uses two 
to three kilowatts of power. Two 
generators produce enough power for 
about 500 homes. 

A deploying platoon takes along 
four truck-sized generators. Using a 
central control van, the platoon collects 
the power and distributes it using 
transformers to step down the voltage. 

Producing power barely scratches 
the surface of what these soldiers do. 
"We do all the repairs, as well as doing 
direct support and general support for 
the generators," said MSG Jose Ortiz, 
the 249th' s Heavy Maintenance 
Platoon supervisor. "We have the 
capability to do everything." 

That's no empty boast. Graduates 
of the grueling 52-week Prime Power 
Production Specialist School are 
prepared to work on virtually any piece 
of electrical equipment, said SFC 
Jeffrey Hall, NCO in charge of the 
school. "Our graduates are fully 
qualified to do everything they need to 
without any supervision or additional 
training," he said. 

"We're a combination of power- 
plant engineers and industrial electri- 
cians," explained SFC Phyllis Stange, 

the battalion training NCO. 

When not deployed to some 
operation or emergency, the unit takes 
on such additional tasks as installation 
support. "We go around to various 
installations and repair electrical 
substations," said Ubbelohde. "We 
look for a lot of training challenges." 

The unit also deploys its generators 
to support various installations and 
agencies, which keeps them constantly 
ready for deployment, said Ubbelohde. 
"It keeps them in peak condition," he 

He explained that Fort Bliss. Texas, 
recently saved $2.5 million by using 
generators supplied by the 249th to 
defray electricity costs during the peak 
air-conditioning months. 

It seems that regardless of whether 
the battalion's soldiers are needed 
during combat, peacekeeping opera- 
tions or exercises, the 249th is ready to 
provide power with a punch. □ 

SGT Robert Burns of the 249th's Co. A 
performs maintenance on a back-up gen- 
erator and switch-gear facilities in Camp 
Boniface, Korea. 

Ready For a New Job? 

SOLDIERS interested in becoming prime power production specialists must meet the following requirements: 

• Be a sergeant or specialist promotable (or E-1 through E-5 in Army Reserve). 

• Have an ASVAB score of 1 10 or higher in the areas EL, ST and GT. 

• Score 70 percent or higher on the Basic Mathematics and Science Proficiency Test. 

• Have completed high school or college algebra (verified by official transcript). 

• Submit an application packet. 

To receive an application packet, contact the Prime Power Production Specialist School at 
(DSN) 655-2510 or (703) 805-2508. — SFC John Brenci 

Source: Extracted from the U.S. Total Army Personnel Command website, 

LTC Kurt Ubbelohde demonstrates his pole-climbing technique at a Fort Lewis, Wash., training site. 




Rtnnw hi/ SSH .Inhn Ualrpami -> 

Story by SSG John Valceanu 

THE U.S. Army Medical Depart- 
ment Center and School at Fort 
Sam Houston, Texas, is putting 
technology to use in the school- 
house. New and emerging 
technologies are allowing AMEDD's 
Academy of Health Sciences to 
maximize training while minimizing 
the use of valuable resources. 

Taking Classes to the Students 

Distance learning is one of several 
initiatives made possible by advances 
in technology. Computer equipment 
and the Internet have made a "virtual 
classroom" available to academy 

students, allowing them to 

complete coursework 

leaving their home stations. 

"Distance learning is a 
proven product, and it's 
very cost-effective. Not 
only that, but students are 
now able get the latest and 
best information," said 
SGM Oscar Ramos-Rivera, 
chief instructor at the 

AMEDD was one of the 
first military schools to 
incorporate distance 
learning into its noncommissioned 
officer educational system, according 
to Ramos-Rivera. 

Students in the basic and advanced 
noncommissioned officers' courses can 
now complete part of their required 
work via CD-ROM-based instruction 
plans, e-mail correspondence and 
computer conferencing. 

"Everybody comes out a winner 
with this program," said SFC Daniel 
Dedman, distance-learning instructor at 
the AMEDD Noncommissioned 
Officer Academy. "The unit benefits 
because its soldiers do not spend as 

much time away while they are 

training, the soldiers get to spend 

more time with the family and the 

Army saves money." 

Dedman said distance learning 
has shaved a week or more off the 
resident time required to complete 

July 1999 

MAJ Joel Schretenthaler, an instructor in the Army's 
graduate program in anesthesia nursing, demonstrates 
the Simulated Anesthesia Manikin, or SAM. 

professional-development courses 
offered by the NCO Academy. 

The courses consist of interactive 
lessons, complete with sound, text and 
graphics. Students can complete the 
lessons and keep in touch with their 
instructors and classmates via e-mail, 
an Internet discussion board and 
synchronous chat programs. 

"The neat thing about this is that a 
soldier in Germany can ask a question, 
and an instructor in Texas can answer 
him almost instantly," said SFC Gary 
Call, AMEDD NCO Academy infor- 
mation-management NCOIC. "The 
wealth of information and experience 
shared among students is also impor- 

SSG David Major, stationed at 
Madigan Army Medical Center at Fort 
Lewis, Wash., said distance learning 
worked well for him during ANCOC. 



"I had some appre- 
hension at first, because 
I'm not the most 
computer-literate person 
around," Major said. 
"But, thanks to assis- 
tance from the staff at 
the NCO Academy, I've 
had very few problems 
completing the required 

Tommie Jackson, 
instructional systems 
specialist and training 
developer at the acad- 
emy, said input from 
students is critical to 
making each course 
better than the last. 

"We're very inter- 
ested in feedback from 
our students. Based on 
what they tell us 
worked, and what 
didn't, we'll be able to 
improve distance 
instruction in the 
future," Jackson said. 

Distance learning is an important 
part of modern medical training. It is 
designed to supplement classroom 
training, but it can never replace it, said 
COL Richard D. Shipley, Academy of 
Health Sciences dean. 

"Much of our training has to be 
hands-on. There is no substitute for 
looking through a microscope or 
reading a map and finding terrain 
features," Shipley said. "But for 
passing along current, relevant knowl- 
edge and computer-based instruction, 
distance learning is very effective." 

Technology in the Classroom 

Advanced technology has made 
distance education possible and 
improved instruction within AMEDD's 
classrooms. Take SAM, for example. 
SAM, or Simulated Anesthesia Mani- 
kin, is a technological marvel that 
replicates a wide variety of symptoms 
that might be exhibited by real patients, 
said MAJ Joel Schretenthaler, an 
instructor in the Army's graduate 
program in anesthesia nursing. 

SAM breathes in and out. It has a 
pulse, heart rate and blood pressure. It 
bleeds. Most importantly, it reacts to 
the students' actions. 

"SAM allows students to do all the 
things they would normally have to do 
in an animal laboratory, but we can do 

it without having to 
maintain the lab," 
Schretenthaler said. 

Though SAM 
costs approxi- 
mately $250,000, 
it's much cheaper 
to maintain in the 
long run than an 
animal laboratory, 
Schretenthaler said. 

The Academy 
of Health Sciences 
owns one of only 
20 SAMs in 
existence. It was 
the first U.S. 
military training 
facility to acquire 
one. The Air Force 
and Navy each 
purchased one 
when they saw how 
effective it proved 
to be for the Army, 
Schretenthaler said. 
SAM has 20 
patient profiles. These profiles allow 
the machine to simulate the characteris- 
tics and reactions of patients of differ- 
ent ages and physical types. The 
scenarios include various types of 
injuries and, combined with the 
profiles, can provide students with 
thousands of different "patients" to be 
treated, Schretenthaler said. 

"When students press that first 
syringe of anesthesia or put in the first 
laryngoscopes in human patients, 
they've done it so many times with 

SAM breathes 
in and out. It has 
a pulse, heart rate 
and blood pres- 
sure. It bleeds. 
Most importantly, 

it reacts to the 

students ' actions. 

SAM has 20 

patient profiles, 

which allow the 

machine to 

simulate the 


and reactions of 

patients of 

different ages and 

physical types. 

SAM that they're confident, they know 
what to expect, and they know how to 
react," Schretenthaler said. "That's our 

Knowledge Network 

In addition to equipment like SAM. 
students benefit from other advances in 
technology. Computers and the Internet 
have made it possible for the Academy 
of Health Sciences to establish a 
"knowledge-management network." 

Websites belonging to this network 
allow students to train on EKG or 
cardiology tutorials. These tutorials 
add an entire new dimension of 
understanding for the students, allow- 
ing them to see things such as an actual 
heart reacting to various levels of 
anesthesia. Other institutions and 
organizations provide the sites, and 
they can be used at virtually no cost, 
Schretenthaler said. 

"This technology was not available 
until a few years ago," he said. "When 
I first saw this, I realized that this is 
what I was missing when I was in 

The Academy of Health Sciences 
will continue to employ the best 
technology available to produce the 
best possible medical personnel, 
Shipley said. 

"Our goal and our vision are to be a 
schoolhouse without walls," Shipley 
said. "Our students will receive top 
training in our classrooms, and they 
can continue to learn wherever they 
might be stationed or deployed." □ 

Students in the medical advanced NCO course can now complete part of their studies 
via computer-assisted distance education. 



Around the Services 

Fort Bragg -based paratroopers board a C-17 transport at Pope 
AFB for onward movement to Albania. 

Army Adds to 
Allied Effort 

Tirana, Albania — Army units 
joined Operation Allied Force 
in April to provide force protec- 
tion for personnel assigned to 
Task Force Hawk in Albania. 

Soldiers from the 82nd Air- 
borne Division's Headquarters 
and HQs. Company and two 
light-infantry companies of the 
2nd Battalion, 505th Infantry 
Regiment, deployed. Joining 
them were 1 1 additional AH-64 
Apache attack helicoptercrews 
from 229th Aviation Regt., and 
logistics support personnel from 
XVIII Airborne Corps. 

These additional forces fur- 
ther enhanced NATO's ability 
to conduct tactical strikes 
against specific Yugoslav units 
in Kosovo. This deployment 
brought the approximate num- 
ber of U.S. personnel in Task 
Force Hawk to 3,300. 

In March, United States 
military forces, acting with 
NATO allies, began air strikes 
against Serbian military targets. 
About 22,200 Army, Air Force, 
Navy and Marine Corps ser- 

vice members are assigned to 
the U.S. European Command 
in support of the operation. 

The multinational force has 
been tasked by NATO to bring 
a swift end to hostilities under- 
taken by Yugoslavia against its 
ethnic Albanian citizens in the 
southern province of Kosovo. 
— From Office of the Assistant 
Secretary of Defense and Eu- 
ropean Command releases. 

U.S. Troops Join 
Tandem thrust 

Aboard USS Blue Ridge — 

Almost 1 ,000 soldiers from the 
1st Bn., 17th Inf., based in An- 
chorage, Alaska, and the 45th 
Corps Support Group from 

Hawaii deployed to Guam and 
the Mariana Islands in March 
for Exercise Tandem Thrust '99. 

The largest joint-combined 
military exercise yet in the West- 
ern Pacific, Tandem Thrust '99 
is intended to enhance the fleet 
commander's ability to act as 
joint task force commander 
under the U.S. Pacific 
Command's two-tier concept. 
The exercise involved more 
than 12,000 personnel, 18 ships 
and 1 1 aircraft from the United 
States, Australia and Canada. 

The first of Tandem Thrust 
'99's two phases was a com- 
mand post exercise, which 
trained operational planners to 
quickly react to a developing 
situation and determine appro- 
priate courses of action, said 
Seventh Fleet exercise coordi- 
nator Navy Capt. Wayne 

The second phase was a 
field training exercise, which 
required the movement of air, 
ground and naval forces from 
the United States and Australia 
in a joint and combined envi- 
ronment. — Tandem Thrust '99 
Joint Information Bureau 

Air Force Reserve Trains 
With Army 

Hickham Air Force Base, Ha- 
waii — More than 1 20 Air Force 
Reserve personnel from Texas 
and Washington traveled to 
Oahu in April to participate in 
Pacific Rim Fire, an exercise to 
test tactical medical-evacuation 

procedures between Army and 
Air Force units. The exercise 
was held at locations including 
Hickam, Dillingham Airfield and 
Wheeler Army Airfield. 

Rim Fire kicked off with a 
simulated mass-casualty sce- 
nario, courtesy of Co. C, 725th 
Main Support Bn. The simu- 
lated casualties were initially 
treated by members of the 68th 
Medical Co.; then with the help 
of an Air Force Reserve aero- 
medical evacuation liaison 

A Navy air-cushion landing craft hits the beach during the sec- 
ond phase of Exercise Tandem Thrust '99. 

Members of the 433rd Aero- 
medical Staging Squadron 
move a "patient" at Hickham 
AFB during Exercise Pacific 
Rim Fire. 

team, the casualties were 
evacuated to the Mobile Air 
Staging Facility at Wheeler 

"We learned a lot from each 
other, and from the other units, 
including the Army," said Tech. 
Sgt. Theron Smith, an Air Force 
medical materiel specialist. 
"And, I think if we can get more 
involvement and input from the 
other military services on Oahu, 
Rim Fire will offer an even bet- 
ter training opportunity in the 
future. There's always room for 
improvement." — Staff Sgt. 
Mark Diamond, 15th Air Base 
Wing Public Affairs Office 

July 1999 


SKIN cancer is the most 
common type of cancer in the 
United States. 
It accounts for 30 to 40 
percent of all newly diagnosed 
cancers, and the rate of 
malignant melanoma, the 
most deadly type of skin cancer, is 
growing rapidly. 

Soldiers should have a heightened 
concern about skin cancer because 
they're in a high-risk occupation for 
the disease — especially soldiers in the 
combat arms, since they spend long 
periods of time outdoors throughout 
the year. 

Increased leisure time also has 
given Americans more recreational 
exposure to sunlight than previous 
generations experienced. Shifts in 

LTC Michael C. Chisick is assigned to the U.S. Army Cen- 
ter for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine at Aber- 
deen Proving Ground, Md. 



Sunscreens labeled "water resistant" will 
last only 30 to 40 minutes during strenu- 
ous activity. Be sure to reapply it often to 
receive the best protection. 

cultural attitudes toward tanning have 
changed many into sun worshipers who 
eagerly seek a "killer" tan at every 
opportunity. Some people even prolong 
the tanning season into the non- 
summer months by visiting tanning 

Finally, depletion of the earth's 
ozone layer may be allowing more 
harmful ultraviolet light from the sun 
to pass through to the earth's surface. 

People with fair complexions, light 
hair and a tendency to burn instead of 
tan face the greatest risk of developing 
skin cancer. Nonetheless, regardless of 
skin complexion, everyone is suscep- 

Ninety-five percent of the sunlight 
reaching the earth's surface is ultravio- 
let A radiation. The remainder is 
ultraviolet B radiation. Both types are 
harmful, but UVB is far more serious 
because less of it is required to cause 
harm. UVB can induce DNA damage 
in skin cells, which can in turn lead to 
skin cancer. In fact, UVB-induced 
DNA damage triggers the skin to tan or 
burn. Because tanning is the skin's 
response to injury, the American 
Medical Association cautions that 
tanning in any form, even in tanning 
salons, is a health hazard. Even slow 
tanning without burning can increase 
the risk. 

Once believed to be harmless, UVA 
enhances UVB-induced DNA damage 
and is the key cause of photoaging 



Avoid outdoor activities between 
10 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

Wear protective clothing and wear 
sunscreen on exposed skin. 

Seek shade if you must be out- 
doors between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

Have your skin examined by a 
health professional every three years 
if you are between 20 and 39 years of 
age and every year if you are over 40. 

premature aging of the skin caused by 
excess exposure to sunlight. 

Cumulative excess sun exposure 
weakens the skin's elasticity, leading to 
sagging cheeks, deeper facial wrinkles, 
leathery skin and skin discoloration 
later in life. 

More than 90 percent of all skin 
cancers result from overexposure to 
the sun. Thus, skin cancer is one 
of the most preventable of all 
types of cancer and, if 
diagnosed early, it is highly 
curable. □ 


The Official U.S. Army Magazine 

Story by LTC Michael C. Chisick 

Selecting Sunscreen 

OLDIERS have a high risk for skin cancer because they 
spend so much time outdoors. One of the most important 
; available to protect against skin cancer is sunscreen. 
Experts recommend that sunscreen be used year- I 
id, following these guidelines. ™ 


Know your degree of risk for exposure based 
/our skin type, history of skin cancer and 
jcted occupational or recreational exposure. 

Sunscreen is one of the best 
ways to protect against 
harmful ultraviolet radiation. 


Reapply sunscreen every 1 to 2 hours, and after 
swimming or heavy perspiring. A sunscreen labeled 
"waterproof" will only last 80 minutes in water. 
Similarly, sunscreens labeled "water resistant" 
and "sweat resistant" will only last 30 to 40 minutes 
once you get wet or begin to perspire. 



f your skin begins to burn after 30 minutes of 
exposure, an SPF 4 sunscreen would allow you to spend 2 
s in the sun without burning. An SPF 30 sunscreen will allow 
to stay in the sun for 15 hours, but only if it is reapplied often. 


f you've ever had skin cancer, you should always use a 
screen of SPF 30 or higher. SPF 30 or higher protection is also 
mmended for high-sun exposure activities such as farming, 
ing exercises, golfing, jogging, bicycling, tennis, hiking and 
v or water skiing. 


SPF describes a sunscreen's ability to protect you from 
UVB radiation, but sunlight also consists of harmful UVA 
radiation. To protect yourself against both, choose a 
sunscreen that offers "broad-spectrum protection." 


Reapplying your sunscreen does not extend 
your period of protection. It merely renews your 
existing protection. 


Once opened, sunscreen degrades and loses its effectiveness 
over a year. Unopened bottles last about two years. 

Sunscreen is your best weapon against skin cancer, but like any 
weapon it works best when you know how to 
use it. — LTC Michael C. Chisick 


Compiled by Gil Hi 

tf% From Army Posts Around the World 

Cadet Barry L. Mott II (left) aligns his platoon during rehearsal for 
the fifth annual ChalleNGe drill-and-ceremony competition. 

Aberdeen Prvg. Grnd., Md. 

Marching to 

MORE than 400 young people 
assembled here recently to par- 
ticipate in "Thunderama," a five- 
day drill-and-ceremony compe- 
tition among teenaged cadets 
from 1 1 states. The event was 
part of ChalleNGe, a program 
aimed at high school dropouts 
and other "at-risk" young men 
and women. 

COL Richard E. Young, 
deputy director of Maryland's 
Freestate ChalleNGe Academy, 
said that ChalleNGe is an initia- 
tive to give kids a second chance 
at success by introducing them 
to a military environment and 
preparing them to take their 
GED and AFVAB tests. It also 
provides opportunities, like this 
tournament, forthe members to 
meet and compete with their 
peers from other states. 

Young explained that the 
"NG" in the program's name 
signifies the National Guard's 
role in funding, organizing and 
administering activities. 

"There has been a lot of 
growth from the original four 
states and the first tournament," 
Young said of the event he 
started. "I never imagined it 

would get as large and have as 
much participation as it does." 

But developing a national 
competition was Young's goal 
from the beginning, he said. 
That's because the size and 
level of the competition gives 
participants greater exposure 
to the world and people in their 
own peer group, Young said. 

"A kid from Maryland is just 
as proud of his experiences as 
a kid from Oklahoma or Illinois," 
Young said. "The tournament 
allows them to get together and 
share those experiences. It may 
be for only a short time, but they 
get to know each other and in- 
teract at a level that they might 
not have been able to do on 
their own." 

Young said shared experi- 
ence and learning from others 
are key parts of ChalleNGe. 

And, he said, that is why 
being affiliated with the military 
and being located at Aberdeen, 
an active-duty base, is impor- 
tant to the program. The mili- 
tary environment creates op- 
portunities for cadets to work 
with or see soldiers who are 
only one or two years older than 
themselves, yet have achieved 
difficult goals and are on their 
way to success in the military 
and in life. 

"We get kids who are so 

beaten down by life that they 
feel like they can't get up again," 
Young said. "If we don't help 
bring them back up to where 
they can survive and succeed, 
who will?" 

Cadet Barry L. Mott II, 
whose drill team competed in 
the tournament, said ChalleNGe 
"taught me discipline, right from 
wrong, self-control and decision- 
making. Before, I didn't have 
any idea what I was going to do, 
but now I'm thinking more about 
my future." 

Which, of course, was grati- 
fying for Young to hear. 

"The proudest moments of 
my experience with ChalleNGe 
are when I meet kids who have 
graduated from the program 
and gone on to the military, 
college, and gotten a job. At 
that moment, I can look back at 
the problems they had and all of 
the bad things that had been in 
store for them if they didn't have 
ChalleNGe." — SPC Christo- 
pher Lew, 29th Mobile Public 
Affairs Detachment 

Vicksburg, Miss. 

412th Engineers Are 
ACOE 4-Time Winners 

THE 412th Engineer Com- 
mand, here, has won its fourth 
consecutive Army Communities 

of Excellence award, which is 
presented annually to top units 
from the active and reserve 

The ACOE awards recog- 
nize Army communities and 
units for excellence in customer 
service, leadership, quality of 
workmanship and overall per- 
formance. The prize for the top 
Army Reserve unit is $350,000, 
and is used for quality-of-life 
and workplace enhancement. 

The 412th ENCOM has 
been a winner in the Army Re- 
serve category since 1996 and 
the overall Reserve winner in 
1997 and 1999. There are 36 
competitors in the category. 

The 412th has used most 
of its $1 .2 million in winnings to 
make improvements to the Mor- 
ris Army Reserve Center. The 
unit has built an indoor weap- 
ons range and outdoor athletic 
center, purchased computer 
and automation equipment, in- 
stalled a new irrigation and land- 
scaping system, and even pur- 
chased an ice cream maker. 

MG William B. Hobgood, 
the 412th's commander, said 
the improvements have become 
a drawing card for recruiting 
and retaining soldiers and that 
the unit strength has been at 
1 00 percent or greater through- 
out the winning years. 

"People like to belong to 


SGT Gregory Cornelius of the 412th ENCOM aims at an indoor 
target using a simulator purchased using ACOE winnings. 


winning organizations." Hob- 
good said. "And the ACOE com- 
petition has made us stronger 
and better — we have focused 
on our customers to a degree 
that we may not have without 
the competition." — 412th 
ENCOM Public Affairs Office 

Fort Gillem, Ga. 

Staffex '99: 
Ready For Trouble 

NEARLY 200 military and civil- 
ian disaster planners and coor- 
dinators honed their skills in the 
largest joint military support to 
civil authorities exercise con- 
ducted here in recent years. 

Staffex '99 had a fictional 
earthquake occurring north of 
Memphis, Tenn., along the Mis- 
sissippi River. Planners de- 
signed the training to simulate a 
disaster four times the magni- 
tude of Hurricane Andrew. 

As the training unfolded the 
"president" declared six earth- 
quake disaster areas: four east 
of the Mississippi in First Army's 
area and two in Fifth Army, west 
of the Mississippi. The "decla- 
ration" paved the way for the 
Federal Emergency Manage- 
ment Agency to start coordinat- 
ing the federal response. 

First and Fifth Armies are 
the Department of Defense's 
lead regional planning and ex- 
ecution agents for the MSCA 

First Army deployed four of 
its defense coordinating offic- 
ers and their staffs to set up 
headquarters within their areas 
of responsibility. Fifth Army de- 
ployed its two DCOs and their 
staffs in their two devastated 
states. DCOs work with FEMA 
and other federal agencies to 
meet state emergency needs. 
"Very often the first re- 
quests we receive are for heli- 
copters for use in damage as- 
sessment," said LTC Eric 

Steele, emergency operations 
chief for First Army. 

As the exercise unfolded, it 
became apparent that the for- 
mation of a disaster relief task 
force was critical. Leading the 
DRTF was First Army's com- 
mander, LTG George A. Fisher. 

"Our first job was to support 
FEMA requirements to meet 
citizens' emergency needs for 
food, water, shelter, medical 
care and medical evacuation," 
Fisher said. 

First and Fifth Army plan 
and train continually for their 
DOD roles in disaster relief. By 
working together, the two orga- 
nizations are able to share 
knowledge and experience. 

First Army provides emer- 
gency assistance to FEMA Re- 
gions I through V, which include 
states east of the Mississippi 
River. West of the Mississippi, 
Fifth Army has five FEMA re- 
gions to support. 

Nearly 30 evaluators, con- 
trollers and players added real- 
ism, as they provided telephonic 
role-play for the DCOs and 
DRTF staff, often adding new 
elements to the problem. 

Participants represented 
FEMA Regions IV, V, VI and 
VII; state emergency manage- 
ment agencies and National 
Guard units; and five other fed- 
eral supporting agencies. 

"We expect the exercise to 
increase everyone's ability to 
identify, coordinate, prioritize 
and quickly provide resources 
when a disaster occurs," said 
COL Richard L. Durden, First 
Army's deputy chief of staff for 
operations. — Karen Bradshaw, 
First U.S. Army PAO 

Kaiserslautern, Germany 

gan a new humanitarian mis- 
sion April 4 to deliver much- 
needed aid to refugees fleeing 
Kosovo. The first shipments 
delivered to Ramstein Air Base, 
Germany, included MREs, wa- 
ter, tents, prefabricated build- 
ings and heaters. 

SPC Clarence Clark, a 
driver, knew the importance of 
the mission from previous ex- 
perience. "I've been 'down- 
range' before and have seen 
what those people have to go 
through," he said. "All the sol- 
diers here are here to provide 

reaction time, of course, is a lot 
quicker due to the mission," said 
transportation supervisor SGT 
Gregg Waterman. 

"Our drivers pull over 300 
missions a day throughout the 
week," Steinholtz said. "In addi- 
tion to current and humanitar- 
ian-aid operations, they pull 
weekend missions that include 
delivering mail, refrigeration 
vans, general and high-priority 
cargo supporting Task Force 
Eagle in Bosnia and missions in 
Central Region. So receiving a 
call over Easter weekend to 

SPC Clarence Clark (left) and other 66th Trans. Co. soldiers in 
Kaiserslautern tie down cargo destined for the Balkans. 

to Refugees 

DRIVERS from the 66th Trans- 
portation Company, here, be- 

peace and serve NATO." 

"In the first five days of the 
operation the 37th Trans. Com- 
mand, which includes 6966th 
Trans. Truck Terminal and the 
28th Trans. Battalion, accumu- 
lated more than 1 3,000 miles to 
support the Kosovo refugees," 
said CPT Linda Steinholtz, the 
command's chief of highway 

When the operation kicked 
off, 37th TRANSCOM person- 
nel began working around the 
clock to ensure cargo was de- 
livered as quickly as possible. 
"Our OPTEMPO is really 
not a whole lot different, but our 

support humanitarian-relief op- 
erations made our mission even 
more worthwhile." 

Operations NCO SGT Jeff 
Miller said the drivers are the 
ones who make it happen. 

"Nothing happens until 
something moves. Computers 
can only do so much," he said. 
"These guys are the ships of 
the road. They're out there deal- 
ing with the traffic, the weather, 
and working all hours of the day 
and night. Nothing's going to 
get to the aircraft if they don't 
have somebody to move it." — 
SGT Tami Lambert, 21st 


July 1999 


Story by CPT Gena Ellis 

WHEN SFC James Camic 
displays four-year-old 
Alexis' baby books and 
photographs and speaks 
about the first time he saw 
her, you can see the pride in his face 
and hear it in his voice. And you'd 
think he was just another proud father. 

But then you notice the hesitation in 
his voice as he expresses concern over 
finally becoming her legal father. 

Camic, a career counselor with the 
Intelligence and Security Command at 
Fort Belvoir, Va., is in the last stages of 
adopting a foreign-born child. He 

CPT Gena Ellis is an Individual Mobilization Augmentee 
with Soldiers. 

obtained legal guardianship of Alexis, 
who he's been trying to adopt through 
a private process, while he was sta- 
tioned in Panama. Camic has been 
stateside for two years. Alexis came 
from the Kuna Indian tribe to the 
Camics' household three and a half 
years ago. 

Just as there are numerous reasons 
for adopting, there are many families 
who want to adopt. And there is more 
than one way to go about the some- 
times-lengthy process. 

Two common procedures are the 
open adoption, where prospective 
parents meet the biological mother and 
enter into an agreement, and the closed 

adoption, where the adopting parents 
don't meet the biological mother. 

These adoptions are often arranged 
through a state agency — which can be 
contacted through the department of 
social services — or through a private 
adoption agency. 

A private agency is usually a 
nonprofit, licensed organization that 
actually handles the adoption process. 
Some people also choose to work with 
adoption facilitators, who provide 
advice and assistance but do not 
actually place children with a family 
and are unlicensed. 

Camic chose yet another route: 
independent adoption. He is working 
through a lawyer in Panama. "I got his 
name from a referral list at the JAG 
office," he explained. 

Even when you're working with a 
licensed agency, there is no guarantee 
the process will go smoothly or that the 
adoption process will even be com- 

Air Force Capt. Lisa McCoy did all 
the right things by going through a 
reputable agency that specialized in 
international adoptions, yet she still ran 
into a problem. 

"In January 1995 the agency was 
processing our paperwork. Then in 
February Russia put a moratorium on 
foreign adoption," said McCoy, an 
information strategic planner at Scott 
Air Force Base, 111. Her son Tony was 
finally adopted on May 26, 1996, and 
went home with the McCoys at the age 
of four. 

People wanting to adopt also have a 
choice between a U.S. adoption or an 
intercountry adoption. For various 



.-a_^_ - / (_-^p-«_~e_ ~«ss— -cf~ -'t— <e»-~<K. 

An Adoption 

HAVING gone through the adop- 
tion process themselves, SFC 
James Camic and Air Force Capt. 
Lisa McCoy have some advice to of- 

• Adoption is an expensive pro- 
cess. Determine what you can afford, 
or are willing to spend, before you 

• Contact several agencies to 
verify their credentials, and talk to 
some of their former clients. 

• Ask if travel expenses are in- 
cluded in an agency's fees or if these 
costs are separate. 

• Check the Internet, but beware 
of scams. Send no money until you 
thoroughly check out the agency. 

• Speak with others who have 
adopted, but realize each case is dif- 

• Check into state and interna- 
tional laws. Each state and country 
has different requirements. 

• Join an adoption support group. 

• Be prepared for medical prob- 
lems when you pick up your child. 
Many times these problems will be 
unknown to the agency. 

• If it is an international adoption, 
contactthe U.S. Immigration and Natu- 
ralization Service to learn the policies 
about taking the child out of the coun- 

• Look for organized support in 
the community, such as the local chap- 
lain, Army community services, the 
legal center, etc. 

• Be flexible. No matter how care- 
fully you plan, problems may arise. — 
CPT Gena Ellis 

reasons, both Camic and McCoy chose 
intercountry adoptions. 

McCoy had doubts about the 
finalization of adoptions in the United 
States and also had heard about long 
waiting periods for U.S. children. "We 
didn't know each state had different 
rules for final adoption. And we also 

found out later that the waiting period 
varies," said McCoy. Also, the 
McCoys were being reassigned to 
Italy, and some agencies don't handle 
adoptions overseas. 

The Camics chose a foreign 
adoption because the U.S. agencies 
they contacted would only consider 

them for severely handicapped children 
or children with behavioral problems. 
No matter which route you take to 
adopt a child, the court will order a 
homestudy to formalize the adoption. 
This is to ensure that a child will be 
placed in a loving and stable home, and 
to give the family an opportunity to 

luly 1999 




I- 1 

explore various issues of adoption. 

During the homestudy, the prospec- 
tive parents provide a written, compre- 
hensive life story. A homestudy 
involves personal contact between a 
licensed caseworker and the prospec- 
tive family, and written evaluations as 
imposed by the court. 

The Camics' homestudy in Panama 
consisted of attending family court 
hearings, interviews with a judge and 
three interviews each with a special 
team of a social worker, physician and 
psychologist. The McCoys did their 
homestudy through one agency and the 
adoption through another. 

The key to a successful adoption 
for military families is finding an 
agency that will work with military 
members. Some agencies hesitate to 
work with the military because of 
frequent moves, but that is changing as 
agencies recognize the advantages of 
placing children with military families. 

Those include the military's 
emphasis on community and family 
support, as well as its ethnic and racial 
diversity, good medical care and 
programs to help special-needs 
children. □ 

Legal Help 

THE most common adoption by 
military families is the stepparent 
adoption, says Steven Chucala, chief 
of legal assistance at Fort Belvoir, Va. 

In those adoptions, the post legal 
center can assist with the procedures 
if it has the staffing and the skills to 
perform the necessary paperwork. 
The soldier then carries the paper- 
work to the court and files it. The only 
cost incurred is the court-filing fee. 

Chucala said JAG officers can 
advise soldiers on what he refers to 
as third-party adoptions, where the 
biological parents are not involved. 
One of the common adoption circum- 
stances in this area is grandparents 
wanting to adopt grandchildren. 

Remember, however, that JAG 
offices are no exception to cutbacks. 
So it's best to check with your local 
legal center first, to see if they have 
the resources. But the post's legal 
center can provide local bar referrals, 
which may include lawyers specializ- 
ing in adoption. — CPTGena Ellis 


Information and 


UWOU Can Adopt! — A Guide 

T for Military Families" is an ex- 
cellent guide written by Army vet- 
eran Steve Hummerickhouse. It is 
available from the Adoption Ex- 
change Association, 820 S. Monaco 
Parkway, Ste. 263, Denver, CO 
80224. You may call the publisherat 
(303) 322-9592. 

The booklet places an empha- 
sis on special-needs children, but 
also has information appropriate for 
all adoptions. And it has contacts for 
international, national and regional 
adoption organizations and ex- 
changes, military family support ser- 
vices and specific resources forspe- 
cial-needs children. 

Another important component 
in the booklet is information on the 
regulations and laws concerning 
military family adoption benefits, 
which family service centers and 
commanders may not be aware of. 

The Internal Revenue Service 
can also explain your rights and 
benefits under current tax laws. 
When requesting information, ask 
for PUB 968, 'Tax Benefits for Adop- 
tive Parents." 

For information on international 
adoptions, contact the U.S. Depart- 
ment of State, Consular Affairs on 
Children's Affairs, (202) 647-2688. 

To find agencies especially help- 
ful to military families, contact the 
National Information Adoption Clear- 
inghouse, 330 C St. SW, Washing- 
ton, DC 20447, or call (888) 251- 
0075. — CPTGena Ellis 



Models rehearse before a Fort Hood 
photo shoot depicting MPs aiding a 
family of "refugees." 




needed a 

model MP 

for a new 

series of 


ads, SPCLuis 

A Camacho 

got the call 

Story by 
Kathleen Welker 


I WAS just looking for a little 
more excitement," said SPC 
Luis A. Camacho. That's 
why, after seven years in the 
Navy and almost the same amount of 
time in the Army Reserve, the Puerto 
Rico native went on active duty. 

Having spent his Navy time with an 
additional skill identifier for correc- 
tions and as a Reserve military police- 
man and civilian corrections officer for 
the state of Florida, Camacho wanted 
to be an MP. But this day, he was 
excited to be a model instead of a 95B. 

Camacho had been selected as the 
"hero" in a series of print ads being 
shot at Fort Hood, Texas, for U.S. 
Army Recruiting Command. 

"This series fits right in with 
Secretary of the Army Louis Caldera's 
recent emphasis on Hispanic recruit- 
ing," said USAREC project officer 
MAJ Vic Harris. "The ads will appear 
in both English and Spanish in print 
media across the country." 

Camacho is a member of the 89th 
MP Brigade, which has four battalions. 
One is in Bosnia and a second is 
preparing to deploy to Bosnia to 
replace the first. But the brigade 
operations officer, MAJ Wayne 
Shanks, was confident he could find 
enough Hispanic MPs in the 
two remaining stateside 
battalions to answer the 
casting call. He found nine 
soldiers, and Camacho was 
selected for the role just the 
day before the crew started 

On the first day of shoot- 
ing Camacho was photo- 
graphed making a routine 
traffic stop. That afternoon he 
and another MP, SPC 
Madeline R. Robins, were 
partnered for a few shots as an 
MP bicycle patrol. 

The second day called for 
a more complicated setting. 

Miles out on the Fort Hood ranges, 
a production team erected tents, moved 
vehicles into place and fired off yellow 
smoke to provide a background. 
Finally, a medevac helicopter landed to 
complete the scene as Camacho guided 
a woman and her children through a 
"refugee relief center," simulating a 
humanitarian mission. 

Harris credits Shanks for making 
the advertising project as successful as 
it was. Months of coordination go into 
advertising efforts, Harris explained, 
and having a knowledgeable and 
supportive point of contact makes the 
whole process go smoothly. 

Coordination involves more than 
finding the right soldier-actors, Harris 
said. All equipment, vehicles, uni- 
forms, weapons and locations must be 
laid on as well. 

Members of Bravo Group, part of 
the Army's advertising agency, Young 
& Rubicam, were responsible for the 
ad concept and photography. They 
worked with the soldiers to make each 
scene realistic and true to an MP's 

Fort Hood has the largest MP 
population of all stateside posts. The 
89th MP Bde. supports 3rd Corps in its 
missions. □ 

Kathleen Welker is USAREC's command Infor- 
mation officer. 

SPC Luis A. Camacho "directs traffic" during the Fort 
Hood photo shoot. The resulting ads will appear in 
both English and Spanish. 

July 1999 


I Focus on People 


Wachholz-Yee (right): Club organizer. 



isn 't the 

club's goal, 



joined the 

DEP before 

the end of 

the recent 

school year. 

WHEN he realized most of his fellow high school 
students knew little about the Army, K.C. 
Wachholz-Yee, then a senior at Everett Alvarez High 
School in Salinas, Calif., organized the Army Club at his 

Wachholz-Yee, a Delayed Entry Program candi- 
date, graduated in June and is currently in basic training 
at Fort Leonard Wood, Mo. 

"A lot of people have inaccurate views about the 
Army," said Wachholz-Yee. "They think if you join the 
Army you're going to die, and that the only thing soldiers 
are involved in is combat." 

Because several club members had Army experi- 
ence — having completed basic training between their 
junior and senior years of high school through what's 
called the "split option" under DEP — they were a great 
source of information for students who considered enlist- 
ing, said the club's advisor, SSG David Flenner, of the 
Salinas Recruiting Station. 

Split option pertains to eligible Army Reserve re- 
cruits. Following completion of basic training, they be- 
come drilling Reservists during their senior year. 

Although recruiting isn't the club's goal, three mem- 
bers joined the DEP before the end of the recent school 

year. One student, a Marine Corps DEP candidate, said 
he joined the club to be around other students who had 
an interest in the military services. 

In order to form the club, Flenner needed 15 inter- 
ested students to join. The club now includes some 50 

The idea of the Army Club has spread to other area 
schools, Flenner said. Three other high schools will start 
the 1999-2000 school year with Army clubs. — U.S. 
Army Recruiting Battalion, Sacramento 


EMBERS of the Massachusetts Army National 
Guard have access to one of the most comprehen- 
sive education websites in the country, said Guard 
officials, thanks largely to education services officer CPT 
Troy M. Gipps. 

Gipps wrote more than 125 pages of information 
contained at the site — 
guard/education. The site was designed by students at 
Shawsheen Regional Vocational Technical High School 
in Billerica, Mass. 

"The goal was to create a tool that everyone could 
easily use to find detailed information about the educa- 
tion system and what's available to soldiers," said Gipps. 

Shortly after becoming education services officer in 
1 997, Gipps learned that many soldiers were not aware 
of the educational opportunities available to them. 

"I was able to get information to about 25 soldiers per 
week, by phone and through briefings," Gipps said. It 
didn't come close to the number he wanted to reach. 

CW2 Thomas O'Sullivan, who works in the Educa- 
tion Services Office and is the director of support ser- 
vices at Shawsheen, suggested that Gipps contact the 
vocational-technical school's Internet Technology De- 
partment about establishing a website for the Guard. 

"Now, for the first time, soldiers can find out about 
educational opportunities without having to make phone 
calls or appointments with their units' Education Ser- 
vices Offices. Everything 
they need to know is avail- 
able on the Internet," Gipps 

At least eight other 
states have education 
websites on their Army Na- 
tional Guard home pages, 
although the Massachu- 
setts site is believed to be 
the largest. 

Soldiers outside Mas- 
sachusetts are encouraged 
tocontacttheirchain of com- 
mand and education office 

Gipps (pointing): Site in- 
formation provider. 



for education information specific to 
their state. — SGT J. P. St. John, 
MassARNG Public Affairs Office 

2LT ALISON Jones, a recent 
graduate of the U.S. Military Acad- 
emy at West Point, N.Y.. has been 
awarded the Soldier's Medal for her 
actions in Kenya, following a terrorist 
attack there last August. 

Jones, who majored in social 
sciences, was in Kenya as part of the 
academy's individual academic-de- 
velopment program. She was as- 
signed to the U.S. Embassy in Nairobi 
for 30 days. During that time she 
conducted research for a disserta- 
tion on HIV and AIDS in Kenya. 

On her last day there, Aug. 8, 
1998, she left the embassy only 30 minutes before a 
terrorist bomb ripped through the building. 

"The shock wave almost knocked us down," said 
Jones. CNN had reported the blast shattered windows 
and rocked buildings for 10 blocks. 

"In seconds, the streets turned to chaos," Jones 
said. "I heard women and children screaming. And I just 
ran, instinctively, toward the embassy." 

As she approached, Jones could see the front of the 
building was mostly intact. However, "black smoke poured 
out of the back. People were in shock," she said. 

"I went into the building with a four-person rescue 
team," Jones continued. "We started our search for 
survivors from the top floor, the fourth floor, while another 
team searched from the ground up. 

"We didn't find anyone alive on the fourth or third 
floors, but could hear someone screaming on the second 
floor," Jones recalled. The man's leg was crushed, he'd 
lost a lot of blood and was semiconscious. Jones found 

a piece of ceiling beam to 
splint the leg. Then two 
teammates evacuated the 
victim while Jones contin- 
ued searchingforsurvivors. 
"After that, everyone I 
found was dead," Jones 
said, including SGT Ken- 
neth R. Hobson II, a mem- 
ber of the Defense Attache 
Office. He and his wife had 
befriended Jones during her 
short stay in Africa. 

Jones was overcomewith 
emotion, but quickly shifted 
back to "mission mode," she 
said. "I remember thinking, 
'What can I do now?'" 

uly 1999 

Jones: Kept her cool after Nairobi 
terrorist attack. 

Engineers had told her the 
building was unstable. So Jones 
roped off the front entrance and 
created a central medical and 
supply-collection point. 

"It was my West Point train- 
ing that helped me keep a cool 
head while all this was happen- 
ing," said Jones, who's now en 
route to Germany. "The most im- 
portant thing was to create order 
from chaos." — USMA PAO 

ULIE Marcy, an environmen- 
tal specialist with the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers' Vicks- 
burg, Miss., District, is looking for 
clues to explain Coot/Eagle Brain 
Lesion Syndrome. 

CEBLS has killed 58 bald eagles on Arkansas lakes 
over the past four years. 

Though the disease wasn't named until last year, 
Marcy was made aware of it after it appeared in 1 994 at 
DeGray Lake, a COE project. Twenty-nine eagles were 
its first victims. Later, eagles also died at another Corps 
project, Lake Ouachita, and at the private Lake Hamilton. 

To date, more than 100 federal, state and private 
agencies have been involved in determining the cause of 
CEBLS. Researchers know it's not caused by a bacteria, 
virus or parasite. Neither are cyanide, mercury or other 
compounds the culprits. 

"CEBLS results from a neurotoxin," 
Marcy said. But studies of rainfall, water 
levels and the birds' movements and food 
habits — even the first MRI ever performed 
on a sick eagle — have not revealed the 
cause of the deadly illness. 

So far limited to eagles, coots and at 
least one duck, CEBLS causes lesions in 
the brain and spinal cord. Its clinical signs 
include erratic flight and a stumbling walk. 

The lesions are visible only through a 
microscope, said Marcy, who earned a 
bachelor's degree in wildlife ecology and a 
master's in natural resources, recreation 
management and development. 

She's been at the Vicksburg District for 
1 6 years. "I wanted to manage wildlife and 
natural resources on a large scale and the 
Vicksburg District allows me to do that," 
Marcy said. It covers three states and in- 
cludes a half-million acres of federal land 
and water. 

The work of the CEBLS Task Force was featured in 
a 1 998 video, "Saving a Symbol," produced by Arkansas 
Educational Television. — Vicksburg District PAO 

had told her 
the building 
was unstable. 
So Jones 
roped off 
the front 
and created 
a central 
and supply- 

Marcy: Disease detective. 






Story by MSG Bob Haskell 

OKLAHOMA National 
Guard soldiers talked in 
hushed wonder about the 
half-mile-wide, F-5 
tornado and dozens of other 
twisters that terrorized their state in 
early May. 

"A lot of people don't realize how 
much destruction there really is. News 
coverage can't show the level of 
damage," said PFC David Gibbs, who 
stood watch over ravaged Del City, 
eight nights after the tornadoes struck. 

Nearly 1 ,000 Oklahoma Army and 
Air Guard members had been activated 
to help the state deal with the tornado 
outbreaks that resulted in 43 dead, 800 
injured and $1 billion in damage along 
a 140-mile path that hooked through 
suburbs and communities around 
Oklahoma City. 

Another 314 Kansas Guard mem- 
bers rolled out to help victims in 
Wichita and the demolished suburb of 
Haysville, where still more tornadoes 
killed five during the same night. 

It will take years to rebuild, but 
National Guard soldiers quickly joined 
forces with police, fire and medical 
personnel and with Red Cross and 

MSG Bob Haskell works for the National Guard Bureau Pub- 
lic Affairs Office in Alexandria. Va. SPC Darren Huesel In 
Oklahoma and Stephen Larson and SPC Brian Jopek In Kan- 
sas contributed to this report. 


Salvation Army volunteers to give the 
victims a sense of security and hope. 

The mission included tough duty. 

Gibbs, a construction worker by 
trade, helped move the dead during a 
four-hour shift at the same Oklahoma 
City morgue that handled many of the 
people killed in the Murrah Federal 
Building bombing four years earlier. 

Other Guardsmen probed for bodies 
at Bridge Creek. And most members of 
the 45th Infantry Brigade and the 90th 
Troop Command pulled 12-hour day 

and night security watches, helping 
keep looters and sightseers out of the 
stricken communities. 

In Kansas, Guard members deliv- 
ered water to thirsty livestock and 
hauled donated goods to distribution 
centers. The troops also cleared the 
area of uprooted trees and other debris. 

"The biggest challenge was taking 
on a task where we didn't know what 
we had to deal with," said Air Guard 
2nd Lt. Jason Fountain in Wichita. "It 
was still dark when we got here." 



A\ m 


Oklahoma National Guard soldiers help in 
the Bridge Creek search-and-recovery ef- 
fort that followed the May 3 tornado. 

USAGE on the Job 

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers disaster-relief missions to Oklahoma and Kansas 
began within days after tornadoes hit the Oklahoma City and Wichita areas. 

Nine USACE quality-assurance teams and nine contractor debris teams orga- 
nized and deployed to assigned areas in the affected region immediately after the 
storms subsided, and approximately 70 USACE employees under jurisdiction of the 
Tulsa, Okla., Engineer District were engaged in cleanup operations. 

Under the Federal Emergency Management Administration's Federal Re- 
sponse Plan, USACE is the primary agency for public works and engineering 
planning, preparedness and response. Assistance includes emergency clearance 
of debris; restoration of critical public services and facilities; temporary supply of 
potable water and ice; temporary restoration of water-supply systems; structural 
evaluation of buildings; damage assessment; technical assistance; temporary 
housing and temporary roofing. 

In Oklahoma City, Mullhall and Choctaw, Okla., the USACE contractor hauled 
3,354 cubic yards of debris the first day. Work under the contract includes loading 
and hauling debris to the disposal site, disposal site management and debris 

Cleanup for Oklahoma City, Del City and Midwest City will take approximately 
three weeks per area, plus an additional four to nine weeks for removal of debris 
moved to roadsides for pickup. — USACE Public Affairs Office 

Chief of the National Guard 
Bureau LTG Russell Davis lauded all 
of the Guard workers while visiting 
disaster sites in both states. 

"I think when people join the 
Guard, they know what they're getting 
into," Davis said. "They know the 
neighborhoods they're working in 
today could be theirs tomorrow." 

Many American flags flying from 
the rubble supported Davis's conten- 
tion that "the spirit of the American 
people is really incredible. 

"I think the statement from the 
people of Oklahoma City is one of 
resilience," said Davis, following the 
May tornado tragedy, which was 
immediately compared to the Oklahoma 
City bombing on April 19, 1995. 

The tornadoes killed far fewer 
people. But the destruction of 3,098 
Oklahoma houses and apartments and 
damage to 7,844 others afflicted many 
more residents and reminded everyone 
that Mother Nature still packs a terrible 
punch. □ 

Clera Kee of Moore, Okla., recovers a fam- 
ily picture from the rubble of her tornado- 
destroyed home. 

July 1999 


I Sharp Shooters 

Photos From the Field 

Patrick Bantine and his father, Charlie, learn the history of a Ford M-8 armored car from Anna 
Marie Bancale, wife of the vehicle's owner, during the national meeting of the Military Vehicle 
Preservation Association at Tobyhanna Army Depot, Pa. — Photo by Tony Medici 

(Top right) Members of the Heidelberg Sea Lions swim team prepare 
to enter the water during the European Forces Swim Championships 
at the Olympic Pool in Munich, Germany. — Photo by Art McQueen 

(Right) A leisurely wagon ride through Fort Leavenworth, Kan., was one of the 
events during that installation's Frontier Day celebration. — Photo by SSG Ed 



U.S. Military Academy MPs PFC Nick Prince and SGT Ron 
DeSouza pedal through Highland Falls, N.Y., during the town's 
Independence Day parade. — Photo by SPC Christopher Land 

July 1999 


(Main photo) The SS Ancon made the first 
official ocean-to-ocean transit of the 
Panama Canal on Aug. 15, 1914. (Inset) Dr. 
(COL, later MG) William Crawford Gorgas is 
credited with all but eliminating yellow fe- 
ver and malaria from Panama during the 
canal's construction. 






I * 

• )j 

f« • 


.' 1 



: , 

The Canal — 

A Historic Shortcut 

Story by Heike Hasenauer 

Photos courtesy National Archives 




' '- • • 

f — 

THE dream to cut a canal across 
the Isthmus of Panama — a strip 
of land only 50 miles across in 
some places — to connect the 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans began 
more than 350 years ago. 

"Since 1904 we've had U.S. Army 
officers here involved in sanitation 
efforts and construction of the Panama 
Canal," said U.S. Army South histo- 
rian Dolores De Mena. Her father, an 
Army officer involved in early work 
on the canal, chose to stay in Panama. 
"I'm a bona fide 'Zonian,' born and 
raised in the Canal Zone, as are many 
in the civilian workforce," she said. 

In 1 903. the year Panama pro- 
July 1999 

The United States' completion of the Panama 

Canal fulfilled the long-standing dream of a 

"path between the seas. " 

claimed its independence from Colom- 
bia, the United States and Panama 
signed the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty 
that allowed the United States to 
"build, maintain and defend a water- 
way across the isthmus, and exercise 
authority as if it were sovereign of the 
territory," De Mena said. 

The United States officially occu- 
pied the isthmus on May 19, 1904. 
Among the first Army officers in 
Panama was Dr. (COL) William 
Crawford Gorgas, chief sanitary officer 
for the then-Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion, who arrived to fight yellow fever 
and malaria — the deadly diseases that 
claimed the lives of an estimated 
22,000 Panama Canal laborers between 
1881 and 1898, when the project was 
led by France's Suez Canal builder 
Ferdinand de Lessups. 

Following completion of the canal 
by the United States in 1914, Gorgas 
became the Army's surgeon general 
and was promoted to major general in 
1915 for virtually eliminating yellow 
fever from the isthmus by 1906, and 
within the next few years controlling 

COL George Washington Goethals, 
of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 
arrived in Panama in March 1907 and 
stayed with the project through 
completion. He served as governor of 
the Panama Canal Zone until 1916. 

The first group of U.S. soldiers 
(marines guarded the 
canal during the early 
construction phase) 
arrived in Panama in 
October 1911 to assume 
a continued presence — 
812 enlisted men and 33 
officers of the 10th 
Infantry, De Mena said. 

"Since then, an 
Army officer has 
always been the senior 
commander of U.S. 
forces in the Canal 
Zone," De Mena said. 
Other infantry, cavalry, 

engineer, signal and field artillery units 
followed, making up what was then the 
Mobile Force. Operating under the 
ICC, they were known as the Panama 
Canal Guard. 

By 1939 military strength in the 
Canal Zone had reached 1 4,000. By 
early 1940, 28,000 troops were sta- 
tioned in Panama, De Mena said. 

The number soared to 65,000 
during World War II, a time when 
coastal guns and anti-aircraft batteries 
watched over the canal. And there were 
searchlight positions, minefields and 
submarine nets, De Mena said. The 
Army Air Corps patrolled the Carib- 
bean Sea frontier. Aircraft warning 
stations and emergency landing fields 
were established. "But the neutrality of 
the canal was never contested by the 
Axis powers." 

De Mena knows of only three times 
the canal has closed, each time due to 
landslides, she said. "Even during 
Operation Just Cause, the canal was 
closed for only 24 hours. Three ships 
were in canal waters during the 
operation, and they just stayed put." 

The Army began training soldiers 
for jungle warfare at Fort Sherman in 

Following several redesignations, 
the original Panama Canal Guard 
became U.S. Army, South, a major 
Army command, in 1986. It became 
Joint Task Force-South' s headquarters 

In 1909 laborers used hand tools to widen a section of the 
work area as a supervisor looked on. 



for Operation Just 
. Cause between 
A / I Dec. 29, 1989, and 

1 Jan. 31, 1990. 
troops helped 
depose Panamanian 
dictator Manuel 
Antonio Noriega, reconstruct 
the Panamanian Public Forces follow- 
ing his ouster and assist Panama in 
establishing a democratic government, 
De Mena said. 

Additionally, USARSO has sup- 
ported U.S. Southern Command's 
humanitarian and peacekeeping 
missions in Latin America. 

In 1994 and 1995, the command 
conducted Operation Safe Haven to 

relieve overcrowded condi- 
tions at Guantanamo Naval 
Base by establishing camps in 
Panama for nearly 9,000 
Cuban migrants, De Mena 
said. Soon after, USARSO 
aviation and support personnel 
assisted SOUTHCOM's 
multinational observer contin- 
gent along the disputed Peru- 
Ecuador border. 

In 1997 USARSO's area of 
responsibility expanded into 
the Caribbean Basin and the 
Gulf of Mexico. The area now 
includes 32 nations and 12 
protectorates throughout Latin 
America and the Caribbean, 
except Mexico. □ 

K •£ 

American troops deposed dictator Manuel Antonio 
Noriega during Operation Just Cause. 

I I 

^^nama ^ 

4 T* 


IN 1 879 France bought from Colombia the 
right to construct a canal in its territory, in 
Panama. In 1881, Suez Canal builder 
Ferdinand de Lesseps arrived in Panama to 
start the job, said USARSO historian Dolores 
De Mena. 

The French, under de Lesseps' direc- 
tion, cleared jungles and leveled moun- 
tains. But in 1898 economic corruption and 
the death of 22,000 laborers — many from 
yellow fever and malaria — led to the dis- 
continuation of the project. 

Long before then, indigenous tribes had 
established trails across the isthmus and 
Spain had established Panama City on the 
Pacific coast. From there, goods from Cen- 
tral and South America were transported by 
ship and then along the 1 8-mile Las Cruces 
Trail to present-day Gamboa and down the 
Chagres River. 

England watched 
as the Spanish empire 
grew rich with treasures 
from the New World. In 
response, English pi- 
rates such as Sir 
Francis Drake 
raided the Span- 
ish galleons as 
they set sail for Spain. 
Spain reacted to the raids 
by building fortifications, like Fort San 
Lorenzo, at the mouth of the Chagres River. 
Continued raids forced Spanish ships to 
travel around the tip of South America, De 
Mena explained. 

Panama gained its independence from 
Spain in 1 821 and became a province of the 
Republic of Colombia. Then, in 1847, with 
the discovery of gold in California, three 
New York entrepreneurs began construc- 
tion of a second transportation system link- 
ing the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. 

The Western Hemisphere's first trans- 
continental railroad was completed in 1 855. 
Hundreds of would-be gold miners voyaged 
from the East Coast to the Atlantic port of 
Colon, Panama, where they rode the train to 
the Pacific port of Panama City. A second 
sea voyage then took them to California. 

This route proved 
faster than over- 
land passage from 
the East Coast to 
West Coast. A 

The success of 
the Panama Railroad 
sparked international in- 
terest in the canal. The 
rest is history. 

Opened in 1914, the 
Panama Canal has provided pas- 
sage to some 700,000 vessels, according to 
a report published by the Panama Canal 
Commission. The average toll paid is roughly 
$36,000 per vessel. — Heike Hasenauer 

The Miraflores Locks — seen here under 
construction — are on the Pacific side. 




The 1977 treaty requires that the Panama 
Canal and all property occupied and oper- 
ated by the U.S. military be returned to 
Panama's government. All U.S. forces must 
leave the country by noon on Dec. 31. 

Adios, Panama 

FOR almost a century the U.S. 
Army has had a presence in 
Panama, the tiny Central 
American nation where two mighty 
continents and two vast oceans come 

That presence will soon come to an 

As the 1977 Torrijos-Carter Treaty 
that became effective in 1979 is fully 
implemented, the Panama Canal and all 
property occupied and operated by the 
U.S. military there must be returned to 

the government of Panama, and all 
U.S. military forces must be out of the 
country by noon on Dec. 31, 1999. 

There are really two treaties, said 
LTC Kevin Saderup, deputy director 
for U.S. Southern Command's Center 
for Treaty Implementation. SOUTH- 
COM, a joint command, is the higher 
headquarters for U.S. Army, South. 

"One guarantees that the canal and 
other property will be transferred to 
Panama — which will assume full 
responsibility for its administration, 
operation and maintenance — and that 
all U.S. forces depart. The other 
guarantees that the canal will remain 
open, safe, neutral and accessible to 
vessels of all nations," he said. 

"There is a lot of concern about 
what's going to happen to the canal 
when it comes under Panama's con- 
trol," Saderup said. "But there's been a 
tremendous effort by the U.S. 
government's Panama Canal Commis- 
sion to train and educate the Panamani- 
ans." In March they handled 90 percent 
of the canal's operation. 

Since 1979, when U.S. troop 
strength in Panama decreased from 
some 10,200 to roughly 4,300, the two 
countries have worked toward a 
smooth transition, said COL David 

Joint police patrols involving U.S. MPs like 
SSG Jose Diaz (left) and Panamanian po- 
lice officers were part of the transition pro- 
gram under the Panama Canal Treaties. 

Hunt, director of the Center for Coordi- 
nation and Implementation of the 
Torrijos-Carter Treaty. 

Joint training focused on transfer- 
ring the skills of the PCC operators and 
maintenance crews to the Panamanians. 

Likewise, U.S. military police and 
members of the Panamanian National 
Police pulled joint patrols, in a country 
that has no military forces of its own. 

The two countries have had 20 
years to plan for the transfer of prop- 
erty; however, in March the Army still 
had roughly half of its holdings - 
93,000 acres of land and 4,800 build- 
ings spread over 14 military installa- 
tions — to transfer to Panama. Saderup 

As the work force gradually 
declined, the workload increased. The 
USARSO Public Affairs Office 
experienced "a 100 percent increase in 
media attention," said LTC Byron 
Conover, USARSO' s public affairs 
officer. The media focused largely on 
the return of the firing ranges and the 
U.S. government's environmental 
cleanup efforts. 

On the Atlantic side of the isthmus, 
at Fort Sherman, the Jungle Operations 
Training Battalion graduated its last 
class in March. Activity mounted in 
April and was expected to remain 
intense through August, as other units 
inactivated and relocated. 

Transportation officials beefed up 

Fort Sherman, on the Atlantic side of the isthmus, was home to the Army's Jungle Operations Training Center. 


A U.S. military family enjoys a weekend excursion to one of Panama's many quiet beaches. 

shipments of household goods, POVs 
and pets as families prepared to leave. 
And they coordinated shipments of 
office furniture and equipment, some 
of it destined for Puerto Rico, where 
USARSO stands up its new headquar- 
ters at Fort Buchanan, in July. Some of 
the equipment would go to humanitar- 
ian aid groups or be sold through the 
Defense Reutilization Management 

Arthur W. Myke, chief of 
USARSO's Transportation Division, 
heads the office that handles shipments 
for all the services and the Department 
of Defense Dependent Schools system 
in Panama. "We've hired eight addi- 
tional inspectors so we can inspect all 
the shipments," he said. 

Inspectors check warehouses and 
the seals on containers to ensure 
shipments arrive at their destinations 
without loss or damage. 

Howard Air Force Base's airfield 
closed in May after officials had 
secured agreements with three major 
airlines to move families out of 
Tecumen Airport in Panama City. 

One airline, which doesn't typically 
transport pets, has agreed to fly them as 
far as Miami, and the Panamanian and 
U.S. governments have agreed to make 
it easier for pet owners to ship their 
animals home, Saderup said. 

In November 1998 the U.S. govern- 
ment for the first time authorized the 
shipment of foreign cars from Panama 
at government expense, provided they 
meet U.S. safety standards, Myke said. 

Officials dubbed 400 housing units 
"Set-Aside Housing," where soldiers 
and families could live for up to 60 
days before departure, the estimated 
transit time for household goods. 

Family members were expected to 
be out of the country by August. "By 
September, we'll be in a caretaker 
status with a few hundred soldiers and 
contractors," said Conover. 

"As we're packing up families and 
getting them out, we're inactivating our 
units, moving them home and moving 
others to the new home we're building 
in Puerto Rico," said USARSO com- 
mander MG Philip R. Kensinger Jr. 

At the same time, USARSO 

A young Panamanian girl is dressed in tra- 
ditional costume for a local celebration. 

maintained its theater engagement plan. 
"We've got exercises going on with 
just about every country throughout 
Central and South America and the 
Caribbean," Kensinger said. 

Those included nation-building 
exercises, military-to-military ex- 
changes, humanitarian-aid missions 
and counternarcotics operations, he 


"As we 're packing up families and 

getting them out, we're inactivating 

our units, moving them home and 

moving others to the new home 

we 're building in Puerto Rico. " 

July 1999 

Numerous ships will leave Panama's Balboa 
port with U.S. military equipment destined 
for Puerto Rico and the United States. 


Adios, Panama 

Meanwhile, the DODDS high 
school in Panama graduated its last 
class in May. And the talk within 
classrooms and U.S. government 
offices focused on who was going 
where — how many people had 
received "pink" slips, who was retiring 
early and who would move on to 
Puerto Rico. 

Those who would be leaving the 
country reflected on the beauty of the 
tropical paradise and wondered if 
they'd ever be back again. 

Soldiers and families who live on 
Fort Clayton, home of USARSO 
headquarters, said they'll miss the 
dramatic sunsets over the Panama 
Canal and the sight of cruise ships and 
cargo vessels passing through 
Miraflores Locks. 

Panamanian workers thought about 
their livelihoods. 

Some were offered early retirement, 
with full benefits. Others faced the 
grim reality of substantial financial 
loss, with little hope of finding work 
with comparable pay in their native 

"The wages they've received here 
because of the military's presence will 
probably never be the same," said 

For those who grew up as 
"Zonians" — inhabitants of the 
Panama Canal Zone, as the U.S. 
military-controlled area was known 

until 1979 — seeing the Army leave 
will be tough, Saderup said. "It is truly 
the end of an era." 

Lina Norris, an administrative 
officer for the 56th Signal Battalion 
who grew up in the Canal Zone, will 
retire before accompanying her 
husband, a logistician, to Puerto Rico. 

"My dad was stationed here in the 
1940s and '50s," Norris said. "My 
mother was Panamanian. So my dad 
retired from the Air Force here in 1974. 
This is my home. My husband has 
lived here all his life, too. And our 

daughter is a third-generation Zonian. 

Hlia Duque. a contracting officer 
for the Army, scoured the daily local 
newspaper looking for another job. 

Duque. who was born in Panama, 
lived briefly with an aunt in Patterson 
N.J.. alter her father died, and attendei 
high school there. She's worked for th 
U.S. government for 13 years and is 
looking for a job with Panama-based 
U.S. companies. Duque will be entitle 
to some severance pay, and Panama- 
nian social security payments begin- 
ning at age 57, she said. 

Panama boasts an abundance of exotic 
plants, birds and animals. 


A Status Report 

Interview by Heike Hasenauer 

IN a recent interview with Soldiers, MG 
Philip R. Kensinger Jr., the commander 
of U.S. Army, South, explained how the 
Army's departure from Panama will affect 
USARSO units and missions. And he dis- 
cussed how the United States and Panama 
might continue to interact in the future. 

Soldiers: What Army units are currently 
stationed in Panama? 

Kensinger: Our current organization in 
Panama, as of March 1 , is one brigade — a 
military intelligence detachment, the Jungle 
Operations Training Battalion, Law En- 
forcement Agency, an aviation battalion, 
support battalion, infantry battalion and sig- 
nal battalion. 

Soldiers: Will USARSO's mission 
change with its departure from Panama? 

Kensinger: Our missions are going to 
stay the same when we relocate to Puerto 
Rico, but we're going to leverage more of 
our CONUS base than we have in the past, 

with our National Guard and Reserves. 
All along, they have been our key pla 
ers in the theater. Over 15,000 Nation 
Guard and Reserve soldiers assist us eve 
yearinourtheater-engagement plan. Thai 
not going to change. 

Soldiers: How will USARSO be stru 

Kensinger: We'll lose some of our o 
erational units, and with that loss we'll hai 
to utilize more of the CONUS-based force 
The infantry here has been key. We' 
down to one battalion that has two infant 
companies. They'll go away. 

But we have the Puerto Rico Nation 
Guard headquarters in San Juan. We'll g 
those infantry units more involved than th( 
already are. Our engineers, also down to 
company, will go away, too. But the majori 
of our engineer force already comes fro 

Puerto Rico's 65th Army Command Vi 
provide our logistical support, not only 



"A lot of Panamanians come up to 
me and ask. What's going to happen 
to us when you leave?'" Kensinger 
said. "That's the sad part. There have 
been great friendships. Great bonds 
have been established here over the 
past 86 years." 

Besides the personal implications, 
"there will certainly be an impact on 
the economy when U.S. forces leave 
Panama." he said. 

U.S. officials estimate that the American 
military put some $100 million back into 
Panama's economy. 

Puerto Rico, but also in the entire theater. 
They've stood up their 166th Area Support 
Group to do that. 

Soldiers: Will there will another Jungle 
Operations Training Center? 

Kensinger: Efforts are under way to 
secure agreements with other Central and 
South American countries for U.S. soldiers 
to train at their jungle operations training 
sites in the future. 

The JOTC served a lot of roles. One, it 
was an individual school that initially pre- 
pared soldiers to go to Vietnam. More re- 
cently, it's been a collective-task, battalion- 
level training center to bring units here to 
train as small units in this environment. 

Where would you be able to replicate 
this? It's tough. Areas in Puerto Rico are 
national park areas. There are tremendous 
jungle areas in Central and South America 
— in Belize, in Ecuador — that we might 
use. The Ecuador Jungle School may be- 
come an international school. 

Units wishing to maintain jungle training 
expertise can come to us. We'll work with 
countries in our region to bring them to that 
environment in small units. The Belize gov- 
ernment is amenable to having our soldiers 
train at their jungle school; so is Ecuador. 

Soldiers: What other assets will you 

Kensinger: Obviously, in this theater, 
aviation plays a significant role. We had an 
aviation brigade. We're down to a battalion. 
We'll keep that capability, but move it to 
Soto Cano, Honduras, where the unit will be 
centrally located to support us throughout 
the entire South and Central American region. 

We're going to keep MP units at Puerto 

Rico's Fort Buchanan, too, although not of 
the same size. And we'll keep our military 
intelligence asset. The 56th Signal Battal- 
ion will relocate, as well, and its tactical 
signal company will move to Fort Gordon, 
Ga., supporting USARSO units from there. 
Additionally, we'll keep two LCU-2000s, 
our ocean-going landing craft, not from the 
former Panama-based 1097th Transporta- 
tion Company, but from another unit on 
265-day rotations. That gives us the mobil- 
ity to move heavy equipment throughout the 

Soldiers: How will the Army interface 
with Panama in the future? 

Kensinger: I think the commander in 
chief of U.S. Southern Command would tell 
you that the strategic importance of Panama 
now is really the air piece — our continuing 
work with the counterdrug mission. Army 
logistic, administrative and intelligence sup- 
port in counterdrug operations will continue. 

We'll actually be better located in Puerto 
Rico to support the counterdrug mission. 
Most of my federal agent support is really in 
the Caribbean. 

For the Army, the key is staying en- 
gaged in Puerto Rico, staying in the theater, 
and working and maintaining contacts. 

The exercise program will remain the 
same. The SOUTHCOM CINC is working 
with the embassies to shape that program. 
There'll be requests for construction projects, 
too, some of them in Panama. Panama will 
be one of the 32 nations we interface with in 
our region. We just won't be physically 
located there. 

Soldiers: What are your personal 
thoughts about the U.S. military's long- 

planned departure from Panama? 

Kensinger: Change always presents a 
lot of obstacles and a lot of friction . But once 
we get over that, USARSO will settle in 
Puerto Rico and continue to move through- 
out this region. 

I tell the Army, democracy-building has 
gone on without a lot of people knowing 
about it. Most U.S. citizens look east and 
west. They rarely look south. But there's a 
lot of commonality and reason why they 
should look south — from an economic and 
social standpoint. Central and South 
America, after all, are in our hemisphere. □ 

MG Philip R. Kensinger Jr. 

July 1999 


Adios, Panama 

'The Army has had a tremendous legacy here. 

The Corps of Engineers was at the forefront of 

the canal's construction, and we've been here 

since 1914 in defense of the canal. " 

"In January 1998, the United States 
and Panama attempted to create a new 
agreement for a post- 1999 U.S. 
presence," Hunt said. But the United 
States wanted to maintain installations 
in Panama — largely from which to 
stage engineer exercises — and 
Panama didn't want to allow that. 

Leaving Panama is, indeed, a 
bittersweet event, Kensinger said. 

"The Army has had a tremendous 
legacy here," he said. "The Corps of 
Engineers was at the forefront of the 
canal's construction, and we've been 
here since 1914 in defense of the canal. 
In the 1970s and '80s, the Army's 
mission changed. 

"When I came here in the '80s, it 
was a different world," he added. 
"There were insurgents all over, and 
we were sending large numbers of 
soldiers into Central America. 

"We had guerrilla warfare going on 
in Guatemala, the civil war in El 
Salvador, problems in Nicaragua. A lot 
of our exercises focused in on those 
countries," Kensinger said. 

"That certainly isn't the case 
today," he said. "The